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Victoria College FROM THE LIBRARY OF L. E. HORNING, B.A., Ph.D. (1858-1925) PROFESSOR 01 TEUTONIC PHILOLOGY VICTORIA COLLEGE Slang and Colloquial English BY THE SAME AUTHOR AMERICANISMS, OLD AND NEW. 1 voL SLANG AND ITS ANALOGUES. By John S. Farmer and W. E. Henley, with the revised Vol. L 7 vols. MUSA PEDESTBIS, Slang Songs and Canting Rhymes (1636-1896). 1 voL MERRY SONGS AND BALLADS. 5 vols. CHOICE OF VALENTINES, a hitherto unpublished MS. of Thomas Nash. 1 voL A SATYRICALL DIALOGUE. By William God- dard. 1 voL DICTIONARY OF THE CANTING CREW, a photo-facsimile of the oldest Slang Dictionary extant 1 vol. THE PUBLIC SCHOOL WORD-BOOK. 1 voL REGIMENTAL RECORDS OF THE BRITISH ARMY. 1 voL A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English Abridged from the seven-volume work, entitled Slang and its Analogues BY JOHN S. FARMER AND W. E. HENLEY LONDON George Routledge & Sons, Limited New York: E. P. Button & Co. 1905 <3 A LIST OF AND OTHER WORKS TO WHICH REFERENCE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT IS MADE % The figures in brackets, thus [1585], which occur in the text may be taken as indicating, in most cases, the date of the earliest illustrative quotation given in the larger work, ' Slang and its Analogues. ' 1440. GALFRIDUS GRAMMATICUS 1530. PALSGRAVE, JOHN 1552. HULOET, RICHARD 1553. WITHALS, JOHN . 1567. HARMAN, THOMAS 1570. LEVINS (or LEVENS), PETER 1575. AWDELEY, JOHN . Promptorium Parvulorum sive clericorum. The first English- Latin Dictionary. L'Esclarcissement de la Langue Francaise. Abecedarium Anglico-Latinum pro Tyrunculis A Little Dictionarie for Children (Latin and English). Caveat or Warening for Common Cursetors vulgarly called Vaga- bones. The earliest Glossary of the language of " the Canting Crew." Manipulus Vocabulorum. Vacabondes, the Fraternatye of, as well as of ruflyng Vacabones, as of beggerly, of Women as of Men, of Gyrles as of Boyes, with their proper Names and Qualities, with a Description of the Crafty Company of Cousoners and Shifters, also the XXV. Orders of Knaves; otherwyse called a Quartern of Knaves, confirmed by Cocke LorelL A List of Dictionarie and Other Work. 1686. WITHALS. JOHN . 1593. HOLLYBAND, CLAUDIUS 1595. FLORIO, JOHN 1599. MINSHEU, JOHN . 1611. COTOBAVE, HANDLE 1616. B[ULLOKAB], J[OHN] . 1617. MINSHEU, JOHN . 1656. BLOUNT, THOMAS . 1658. PHILLIPS, EDWABD 1660. HOWKLL, JAMES . 1674. HEAD, RICHABD . 1677. MIEOE, GUY . c. 1696. E. B., GENT . 1719. SMITH, CAPT. 1721. BAILEY, NATHAN . 1724. SMITH, CAPT. 1737. BAILEY, NATHAN 1754. ANON 1769. FALCONER, WILLIAM A Shorte Dictionarie in Latine and English. Dictionarie, French and English. A Worlde of Wordes ; a most copi- ous Dictionarie of the Italian and English Tongues. Dictionarie in Spanish and English (Percivale's ed.). Dictionarie de la langue franc aise. English Expositor of Hard Words. Guide into the Tongues, English, British or Welsh, Low Dutch, High Dutch, French, Italian, Spanish Portuguese, Latin,Greek, and Hebrew. Glofisographia, or Dictionary inter- preting the hard words now used in our refined English language. The New World of English Words, or a General Dictionary contain- ing the interpretations of such hard words as are derived from other languages (Florio's Dic- tionary revised). Lexicon Tetraglotton, an English- French - Italian - Spanish Dic- tionary. Canting Academy, with Compleat Canting Glossary. A New Dictionary, French and English, with another, English and French. A New Dictionary of the Terms, Ancient and Modern, of the Cant- ing Crew in its several Tribes (the earliest Slang Dictionary, per se). Lives of Highwaymen, containing Canting Glossary. An Universal, Etymological English Dictionary, comprehending the Derivation of the Generality of Words in the English Tongue, either Ancient or Modern. Thieves' Dictionary. Etymological English Dictionary. A Collection of Ancient and Modern Cant Words appears as appendix to VoL ii. The Scoundrel's Dictionary; or, An Explanation of the Cant- words used by Thieves, House- breakers, Street - robbers, and Pick-pockete about Town. A Marine Dictionary. A List of Dictionaries and Other Works. 1785. GROSE, FRANCIS . 1786. TOOKE, JOHN HORNE 1790. PORTER, JOHN 1803. 1808. JAMIESON, JOHN . 1812. VAUX, J. H. . 1812. ANON . 1822. NARES, ROBERT . 1823. BEE, GEORGE 1829. GRIMSHAW, WILLIAM . 1841. DANA, R. H., JTJN. 1846. HALLIWELL, JAMES 0. . 1848. BARTLETT, JOHN R. - 1848. ANON 1857. DUCANGE ANGLICUS 1859. A LONDON ANTIQUARY (JOHN CAMDEN HOTTEN) 1859. [Edited by JOHN CAMDEN HOTTEN] . A Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue. Diversions of Purley. Dictionary of all the Cant and Flash Languages. Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, or a Dic- tionary of the Terms Academical and Colloquial, or Cant, which are used at the University. An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language. 2vols.,with supplement, 2 vols. Flash Dictionary. Bang-up Dictionary, or the Lounger and Sportsman's Vade-mecum. A Glossary of Words and Phrases, etc., in the Works of English Authors, particularly Shake- speare and his Contemporaries. (New ed., with considerable additions by J. O. Halh'well and Thomas Wright, 1876). A Dictionary of the Turf, the Ring, The Chase, the Pit, of Bon Ton and the Varieties of Life, forming the completest Lexicon Bala- tronicum ever offered to the Sporting World. The Ladies' Lexicon and Parlour Companion. Dictionary of Sea Terms. A Dictionary of Archaic and Pro- vincial Words. 2 vols. Dictionary of American Words and Phrases (ed. of 1877). Sinks of London laid open ; a Pocket Companion for the Un- initiated, to which is added a modern Flash Dictionary, con- taining all the Cant Words, Slang Terms, and Flash Phrases now in Vogue, with a list of the Sixty Orders of Prime Coves. The Vulgar Tongue. Two Glossaries of Slang and Flash Words and Phrases. A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant, and Vulgar Words after- wards entitled The Slang Dic- tionary, Etymological, Historical, and Anecdotal (latest ed., 1885). Liber Vagatorum: Der Betler Orden, 4to. Translated into English, with Notes, by John Camden Hotten, as the Book of Vagabonds and Beggars, with a Til A List of Dictionaries and Other Worla. 1879-82. SKBAT, RBV. W. W. 1880. BREWER, REV. E. COBHAM . 1881. KWONO KI CHIIT . 1881. DAVTES, REV. T. L. O. . 1881. PASCOB, CHARLES 1884-1904. MUBBAY, JAMES A. H. (withHENBY BRADLEY and A. CRAIOIE) 1886. YULE, COL. H., & BTTBNELL, ARTHUR C. 1886. OLIPHANT, W. KINOTON 1887. BARRKRE, ALBERT 1888. FARMER, JOHN S. . 1889. BARRERE, A., and LELAND CHARLES GODFREY . 1900. FARMER, JOHN S. vocabulary of their Language (Rotwdeche Sprach) ; edited, with preface, by Martin Luther, in the year 1528. Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, arranged on an Historical Basis. Reader's Handbook of Allusions, References, Plots, and Stories. A Dictionary of English Phrases, with Illustrative Sentences. A Supplementary English Glossary. Every - day Life in our Public Schools. (Contains a Glossary of Public School Slang.) A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, Founded mainly on the Materials collected by the Philological Society. In Progress. Hobson-Jobson, being a Glossary of Anglo-Indian Colloquial Words and Phrases, Etymological, His- torical, Geographical, and Dis- cursive. The New English. Argot and Slang. Americanisms, Old and New. Slang, Jargon, and Cant. The Public School Word Book. Till Slang and Colloquial English A. A per se. The best ; first-class ; Al (q.v.) : see Tip-top. The usage became popular and was extended to other vocables. As subs., a paragon (1470). Al. (1) Prime; first-class, of the best. The character A denotes New Ships, of Ships Renewed or Re- stored. The Stores of Vessels are de- noted by the figures 1 and 2 ; 1 signi- fying that the Vessel is well and suffi- ciently found (Key, Lloyd's Register). Also First-class, letter A ; Al copper- bottomed ; and Al and no mistake : Fr. marque cl V A (money coined in Paris was formerly stamped with an A). Cf. A per se (1369). (2) Sometimes (erroneously) No. 1. Atitlefor the com- mander of 900 men in the army of the Irish Republican Brotherhood : obso- lete Fenian. Not knowing great A (ora K\ irnvn n 7)7/'.//W tr>r n hnHloJ- \ The late Mr. W. E. Henley, who died in July, i go 3, is not responsible for any errors in this volume abridged in 1904-5 from Slang and its Analogues, in seven volumes, edited by him and by Mr. J. P. Farmer jointly. Haron, a mountaineer.] (2) The leader of a gang of thieves ; always with ' the ' as a prefix. (3) A leader o the church (1607). A. B. An A [ble]-b[odied] seaman. Abba. A term of contempt : gen- eric. As subs., a non-unionist: as adj., vile, silly. Aback. To take aback, to surprise, check : suddenly and forcibly. [Orig. nautical : in which sense (0. E. D.) dating from 1754.] Abacter (or Abactor). Stealera of Cattle or Beasts, by Herds, or great numbers ; and were distinguished from Fures (Blount). Abaddon. A thief turned informer ; a snitcher (q.v.). [Obviously a Jew fence's punning reference to Abaddon, the angel of the bottomless pit ; Rev. i-r n i lannaad). ana) thief. :ewer : A ma lad.] pi., spec. tten Row. abstract ; . A bawd; 'q.v.) : cf. X5. (1770.) bbey to a o able to ak it of an xpressions jpence ; to make of a D thwite a rick ; His > a nut- -sister. A List of Dictionaries and Other Works. 1879-82. SKKAT, REV. W. W. 1880. BREWER, REV. E. COBHAM . 1881. KWONO KI Cmu . 1881. DAVIES, REV. T. L. 0. . 1881. PASCOB, CHARLES 1884-1904. MURRAY, JAMBS A. H. (with HENBY BRADLEY and A. CRAIOIE) 1886. YULE, COL. H., & BUBNELL, ARTHUR C. 1886. OLIPHANT, W. KINQTON 1887. BARRERE, ALBERT 1888. FARMER, JOHN S. . 1889. BARRERE, A., and LELAND, CHARLES GODFREY . 1900. FARMER, JOHN S. vocabulary of their Language (Rotwdsche Sprach) ; edited, with preface, by Martin Luther, in the year 1528. Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, arranged on an Historical Basis. Reader's Handbook of Allusions, References, Plots, and Stories. A Dictionary of English Phrases, with Illustrative Sentences. A Supplementary English Glossary. Every - day Life in our Public Schools. (Contains a Glossary of Public School Slang.) A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, Founded mainly on the Materials collected by the Philological Society. In Progress. Hobson-Jobson, being a Glossary of Anglo-Indian Colloquial Words and Phrases, Etymological, His- torical, Geographical, and Dis- cursive. The New English. Argot and Slang. Americanisms, Old and New. Slang, Jargon, and Cant. The Public School Word Book. Till Slang and Colloquial English A. A per se. The best ; first-class ; Al (q.v.) : see Tip- top. The usage became popular and was extended to other vocables. As subs., a paragon (1470). Al. (1) Prime; first-class, of the best. The character A denotes New Ships, of Ships Renewed or Re- stored. The Stores of Vessels are de- noted by the figures 1 and 2 ; 1 signi- fying that the Vessel is well and suffi- ciently found (Key, Lloyd's Register). Also First-class, letter A ; Al copper- bottomed ; and Al and no mistake : Fr. marque cl VA (money coined in Pariswas formerly stamped with an A). Cf. A per se (1369). (2) Sometimes (erroneously) No. 1. Atitlefor the com- mander of 900 men in the army of the Irish Republican Brotherhood : obso- lete Fenian. Not knowing great A (ora B) from a bull's-foot (or a battledore), ignorant, illiterate : see B. What with A, and what with B : see What. To get one's A (Harrow), to pass a certain standard in the gymnasium: the next step is to the Gymnasium Eight. To get A (Felsted School), to be (practically) free of all restriction as to bounds : nominally the other bounds were, B, the ordinary limit, the roads about a mile from the school ; C, punishment bounds, confinement to the cricket field and playground ; and D, confinement to the old school-house playground, one of the commonest forms of punishment till 1876, when the present school-house was opened : C and D were also known respectively as Mongrel and Quod. Aaron (1) A cadger (q.v.) ; a beggar mountain-guide. [Gesenius : prob. Heb. Aaron is a derivative of Haron, a mountaineer.] (2) The leader of a gang of thieves ; always with ' the ' as a prefix. (3) A leader o the church (1607). A. B. An A [ble]-b[odied] seaman. Abba. A term of contempt : gen- eric. As subs., a non-unionist : as adj., vile, silly. Aback. To take aback, to surprise, check : suddenly and forcibly. [Orig. nautical : in which sense (0. E. D.) dating from 1754.] Abacter (or Abactor). Stealera of Cattle or Beasts, by Herds, or great numbers ; and were distinguished from Fures (Blount). Abaddon. A thief turned informer ; a snitcher (q.v.). [Obviously a Jew fence's punning reference to Abaddon, the angel of the bottomless pit ; Rev. ix. 11.] Abandannad (or Abandannaad). ( 1) A handkerchief (or bandanna) thief. Hence (2) a petty thief. [Brewer : A contraction (sic) of a bandanna lad.] Abandoned Habit. In pi., spec. the riding demi-monde in Rotten Row. Abber (Harrow). (1) An abstract; (2) an absit (q.v.). Abbess (or Lady Abbess). A bawd; a stewardess of the stews (q.v.) : cf. Abbot; Nun; Sacristan; etc. (1770.) Abbey. To bring an abbey to a grange, to squander : also able to buy an abbey (Say : we speak it of an unthrift). Among kindred expressions are : To bring a noble to ninepence ; to make of a lance a thorn ; to make of a pair of breeches a purse ; to thwite a mill - post to a pudding - prick ; Hia wind-mill is dwindled into a nut- cracker ; from abbess to lay-sister. Abbey-laird. Abroad. Abbey-laird. An insolvent debtor : pec. one sheltered in the sanctuary of Holyrood Abbey. (1709.) Abbey - lubber (or loon). An idler, vagabond : orig. (prior to the Reformation) a lazy monk or hanger-on to a religious house. Hence abbey- lubber-like, lazy, thriftless, ne'er-do- well : see Lubber. (1509.) Abbot. A bawd's man : ponce (q.v.) : see Abbess. Whence Abbot on the cross (or croziered abbot), the bully (q.v.) of a brothel. Abbot (or Lord) of Misrule, the leader of the Christmas revels. Also (Scots) Abbot of unreason, and FT. AbbtdeLiease (Abbot of Joy). (1591.) Abbotts' Priory. The King's Bench Prison : Abbotfs Park, the rules thereof (Grose, 1823, Bee). [Sir Charles . Abbott, afterwards Lord Tenterden, was Lord C.-J. of the King's Bench, 1818.] ABC (The). 1. The A B C (Alphabetical) Railway Guide. 2. (London). An establishment of the ASrated Bread Company: orig. bakers, now refreshment caterers. Hence ABC girl, a waitress therein. 3. (Christ's), Ale, .Bread, and Cheese on going home night. 4. Generic for beginnings : thus, like (or as easy as) ABC, facile, as simple as learning the alphabet ; down to the A BC, down to first principles, or the simplest rudi- ments. (1595.) Abear. To endure, suffer. [O.E.D.: A word of honourable antiquity ; widely diffused in the dialects ; in London reckoned as a vulgarism. (885 with a gap to c. 1836)]. Aberdeen Cutlet A dried had- dock : cf. Billingsgate pheasant. Abigail. A waiting-woman, lady's maid. [Abigail, a waiting gentlewoman in The Scornful Lady (1616) by Beau- mont and Fletcher : also see 1 Sam. xxv. 24-31.] Hence Abigailthip (Grose). Cf. Andrew, Acre, etc. (1663.) Abingdon-law. Summary punish- ment : cf. Stafford-law ; Lydford-law ; Scarborough- warning, etc. [In 1645, lord Essex and Waller held Abingdon, in Berks, against Charles I. The town was unsuccessfully attacked by Sir Stephen Hawkins in 1644, and by prince Rupert in 1645. On theae occa- sions the defenders put every Irish prisoner to death without trial] Ablewhackets (or Abelwhackets). A popular sea game with cards, wherein the loser is beaten over the palms of the hands with a handkerchief tightly twisted like a rope. Very popu- lar with horny-fisted sailors (Smyth). Aboard. A gamester's term for getting even in score. About See East, Right, Size. Above. See Bend, Par, Hooka, Huckleberry, Persimmon. Abracadabra. (1) A cabalistic word, formerly used as a charm. Hence (2), any word-charm, verbal jingle, gibberish, nonsense, or extravagancy. Abraham. 1. A cheap clothier's, slop (q.v.), or hand-me-down shop (q.v.). Hence Abraham work, ill-paid work, sweated labour (see Abraham- man). 2. Auburn : formerly written abern and abron : also Abram and Abraham-coloured. (1592.) 3. See Abraham- man. Abraham Grains. A publican brewing his own beer. Abraham-man (Abram, Abram- man or Abram-cove). A sturdy beggar (1567): also Bedlam beggar (q.v.) and Tom of Bedlam. These sturdy beggars roamed the country, begging and stealing, down to the period of the Civil Wars.] Hence To sham (or do) Abram (or to Abraham sham), to feign madness, sham sick (nautical). Also Abram, naked, mad, shamming sick ; Abraham-work, shams of all kinds, false pretences : whence to go on the Abraham suit, to resort to trick or artifice. The mad Tom of King Lear is an Abram-man : see Edgar's description, iii. 4.] Abraham Newl and. A bank note. [Abraham Newland was chief cashier to the Bank of England, from 1778 to 1807.] Hence To sham Abraham, to forge bank paper. Abraham's Balm. Hanging: see Ladder. Abraham's - bosom. Dead and gone to heaven : cf. Luke xvi. 22. Abraham's eye. A magic charm, the application of which was supposed to deprive a thief, who refused to con- fess his crime, of eyesight. Abraham's Willing. A shilling: see Rhino. Abroad. 1. Wide of the mark, out of one's reckoning, perplexed. To come abroad (Winchester), to return to school work after sickness ; to be on 2 Abroaded. Ace. the sick list is to be continent (q.v.). Also to be furked abroad, to be sent back to school after going continent: an implication of shamming. Abroaded. A noble defaulter on the continent to avoid creditors was said to be abroaded ; also police slang for convicts sent to a colonial or penal settlement, but likewise applied by thieves to imprisonment merely. Abs (Winchester). (1) Absent: placed against the name of a boy when absent from school. Also (2) to take away. Formerly, circa 1840, to abs a tolly (candle), meant to put itout; now, to take it away, whether lighted or unlighted : the modern notion (q.v.) for putting it out being to dump it. (3) To get (or put) away ; generally in the imperative : e.g. abs ! Hence, to abs quickly, to stir one's stumps (q.v.), or to put things away with speed. To have one's wind absed, to get a breather (q.v.). Abscotchalater. One in hiding from the police : cf. Absquatulate. Absence (Eton). Names - calling. (1856.) Absent. Absent without leave, of one who has broken prison, or ab- sconded. Absentee. A convici. Absent-minded Beggar. Tommy Atkins (q.v. ) : popularised by Kipling's verses in aid of the wives and children of soldiers serving in South Africa dur- ing the Boer War. Absit. Every undergraduate wish- ing to leave Cambridge for a whole day, not including a night, must obtain an absit from his tutor. Permission to go away for a longer period ... is called an exeat. Abskize (or Abschize). To de- camp : see Bunk. [Said to be of Western origin, circa 1833.] Absquatulate (or Absquotilate). To decamp, skedaddle (q.v.) : see Bunk. (1833.) Academy. (1) A gang of thieves ; (2) a rendezvous for thieves, harlots, or gamesters; and (3) a prison. Hence Academician, (1) a thief, and (2) a harlot. Also buzzing academy, a train- ing school for pickpockets ; canting- academy, ( 1 ) a common lodging-house, dossing-ken (q.v.), or house of call for beggars, and (2) a likely house for working (q.v.) ; floating academy, the hulks; character academy, a resort of servants without characters, which are there concocted ; and gammoning- academy, a reformatory (B. E., Grose, Bee, Matsell.) Accident. ( 1 ) Seduction ; and (2) a bastard : see By-blow. Accommodate. 1. To equip, supply, provide. [ Jonson, Discoveries : one of the perfumed terms of the time, Halliwell : the indefinite use is well ridiculed by Bardolph's vain attempt to define it (2 H. IV., iii. 2. 77) : cf. to accommodate with a loan, or with cash for a cheque.] (1597.) 2. To part a bet, or to let a person go halves (that is to accommodate him) in a bet that is likely to come off successful. It is also, in an ironical manner, to believe a person when you are well assured he is uttering a lie, by observing you believe what he is saying, merely to accommodate him (Grose). Accompany. To cohabit. (1500.) Account. To cast up accounts (one's gorge, or reckoning). 1. To vomit, cat (or shoot the cat) (q.v.): orig. to cast, thence by punning exten- sion (Ray, Grose) : also to audit one's accounts at the Court of Neptune (1484). 2. To turn King's evidence. To go on the account, to join a fili- bustering or buccaneering expedition, turn pirate. [Ogttvie: probably from the parties sharing, as in a commercial venture.] (1812.) To account for, to kill, literally to be answerable for bringing down one's share of the shoot- ing ; make away with. (1846.) To give a good account of, to be successful, do one's duty by : e.g. The stable gave a good account of their trainer. (1684.) Accoutrement. In pi., fine rigging (now) for Men or Women, (formerly) only Trappings for Horses. Well accoutred, gentilly dress'd (B. E.). [A recognised usage from the middle of the 16th century.] Accumulative. A sort of jour- nalistic sparring match, codicil (q.v.). Accumulator. A backer, success- ful with one horse,carrying forward the stakes to another event. Ace. The smallest standard of value : also ambs-ace : see Rap, Straw, etc. Hence To bate an ace, to make a slight reduction : also bate me an ace, quoth Bolton, a derisive retort ; with- in an ace (or amb's-ace), nearly, within a shade : see Ames Ace. (1528.) Ace of Spades. Admired. Ace of Spades. 1. A widow. 2. A black-haired woman. Ack (Christ's). No ! refusal of a request, e.g. Lend me your book. Ack! Ackman (Ackpirate or Ackruff). A fresh-water thief or pirate. [Cf. dialectic Acker, flood-tide, a bore, and Ark.] Acknowledge. To aclcntndedge the torn, to confess, make an admission : as to an accusation, failure, etc. (1846.) Acock-horse (or Acock). (1) Triumphant; also (2) defiantly. (1611.) Acorn. Horse foaled of an acorn, the gallows : see Ladder and Nubbing- cheat (Grose). (1694.) ''Acquisitive. Plunder, booty, pickings. Acreocracy. The landed interest : cf. Snobocracy, Squattocracy, Mob- ocracy, Cottonocracy, Slavocracy, etc. Acres. A coward : see The Rivals, v. 13. (1775.) Acrobat. A glass [i.e. tumbler]. Across. Across lots, (1) by the shortest way ; (2) completely. (1848. ) Acteon. A cuckold, also as verb : whence Acieon's badge, the stigma of cuckoldom (B. E., Grose, Bee). (1596.) Acting Dicky. 1. A temporary appointment which may, or may not, be confirmed by the Admiralty ; an acting-order. 2. A man acting in the name of an enrolled solicitor. Active Citizen. A louse : see Chates (Grose and Bee). Act of Parliament Small beer, five pints of which, by an act of Parlia- ment, a landlord was formerly obliged to give gratis to each soldier billeted upon him. Actual. Money ; generic : see Rhino: also the actual. (1856.) Ad (or Adver). An advertisement. (1854.) Adam. 1. A bailiff (Comedy of Errors, iv. 3). 2. A master man, fore- man : see Adam's Ale and Adam Tiler. Adamed. Married. Adam's- ale (-wine, or Adam). Water. (1643.) English synonyms, aqua pura ; aqua pompaginis ; fish broth ; pure element. Adam's-apple. The thyroid car- tilage : also Adam's- morsel. (1586.) Adam's -arms. A spade; cf. old saw : When Adam delved and Eve span, Who was then the gentleman ? Hence Adam's profession, spade work (i.e. gardening). (1602.) Adam Tiler (or Adam). An accomplice. (1696.) Add. To add to the list, to geld, add to the list of geldings in train- ing- Addition. Colouring matter, or cosmetics used for the face. ( 1 704. ) Addition, Division, and Silence 1 A Philadelphia catch phrase : properly multiplication, division, and silence \ a reply given by William (Boss) Tweed when asked the proper qualification for a ring or trust (1872.) Addle. To addle the shoon, to roll on the back from side to side : of horses. [In the South a horse is then said to earn a gallon of oats.] Addle-egg. Addle egg and Idle head, anything worthless, an abortion. (1589.) Addle- brain (-cove, -head, or -pate). A stupid bungler, dullard, one full of Whimsies and Projects, and as empty of Wit (B. E. and Grose). Hence addle-brained, etc. (1 580. ) Addle-plot A marplot, spoil-sport, Martin-mar-all (B. E. and Grose). Adjective- Jerker. A writer for the press ; ink-slinger (q.v.). Adjutant's Gig. The barrack roller : usually drawn by men under punishment Admiral. Admiral of the Blue, a tapster : from the colour of his apron (Grose). (1731.) Admiral of the Narrow Seas, a man vomiting into the lap of his neighbour or vis-b-vis (Grose). Admiral of the Red, a sot : see Lushing- ton. Admiral of the Red, White, and Blue, a beadle, hall-porter, or similar functionary when sporting the livery of office. Admiral of the White, a white-faced person, coward, woman in a faint Yalow Admiral, a rear- admiral retired without service afloat after promotion. [Admirals of the red, the white, or the blue, were grades in naval rank prior to 1864, according to the colour of the ensign displayed : all admirals now fly the white ensign, and they rank as Admiral of the Fleet, Admiral, Vice-Admiral, and Rear- Admiral.] To tap the Admiral, (1) to suck the monkey : see quots. ; Germ. Den Affen saugcn. Also (2) to drink on the sly. (1834.) Admiral's Regiment. Aggravator. Admiral's Regiment (The). The Royal Marines ; also nicknamed The Little Grenadiers, The Jollies, and The Globe Rangers. Adonis. 1. A dandy, exquisite. Hence, to ad-onize, to dandify, dress to kill : of men only. (1611.) 2. A wig. (1760.) Adrift. Loose I'll turn ye adrift, a Tar phrase ; I'll prevent ye doing me any harm (B. E.); also (Orose) adrift, discharged. Hence, astray, puzzled, distracted. (1690.) Adsum (Charterhouse). A response in answer to a summons or names- calling. (1821.) Adullamites. 1. A nickname for seceding Liberals who in 1866 voted Tory because dissatisfied with a Liberal measure for the extension of the Fran- chise. [See 1 Sam. xxii. 1.] The political party in question were also known collectively as The Cave. Hence (2) Adullamy, ratting (q.v.). Advantage. 1. A thirteenth: added to a dozen of anything ; (2) something in addition : also vantage. See Baker's dozen and Lagniappe. (1641.) To play upon advantage, to cheat. (1592.) ^Egrotat (/Eger). 1. An excuse for absence on account of sickness ; (2) a medical or other certificate of indis- position (Grose). [Mgritude, sickness; Mgroiat, an invalid. (1532).] Hence reading-cegrotant, leave taken to read for a degree ; oeger-room (Felsted), the sick room. Lat. he is sick.] Oradus ad Cantab., 1803. Affidavit-man. A false witness, said to attend Westminster Hall, and other courts of justice, ready to swear anything for hire (Orose). Afflicke. A thief. (1610.) Afflicted. Drunk : see Screwed (Say). Afflictions. Mourning goods : e.g. Afflictions are quiet, there is little demand for mourning. Mitigated afflictions, half mourning. Affygraphy. To an affygraphy, to a nicety, a T. In an affygraphy, in a moment, directly. Afloat. Drunk: see Screwed: also with back teeth well afloat. Afraid. Among colloquial and proverbial sayings are : He that's afraid of grass must not piss in a meadow (Ital. Chi ha paura d"ogni urtica non pisci in herba, He that's afraid of every nettle must not piss in the grass) ; He that's afraid of leaves must not come in a wood (French, Qui a peur des feuittes ne doit pas oiler au bois : Ital., Nbn entri tra rocca e fuso chi non vuol esser filato) ; He that's afraid of the wagging of feathers must keep from among wild fowl ; He that's afraid of wounds must not come near a battle ; He's never likely to have a good thing cheap that's afraid to ask the price ; Afraid of far enough (fearful of what is not likely to happen) Afraid of him that died last year (fearful of a shadow) ; Afraid of the hatchet lest the helve strike him ; Afraid of his shadow ; More afraid than hurt. After. A long way after, of a sketch, cartoon, or burlesque of aclassic picture, book, etc. After -clap. (1) Anything unex- pected (spec, disagreeable), after the conclusion of a matter. Hence (2) a demand made over and above a stipulated price, or for an amount already paid (Orose). (14th century.) After - dinner Man (or After- noon's - man). A man who drinks long into the afternoon : it was the custom, formerly, to dine in the halls of our Inns of Court about noon, and those who returned after dinner to work must have been much devoted to business, or obliged to work at unusual hours by an excess of it. (1614.) Afternoon-buyer. One who buys not until after the market dinner, thereby hoping to buy cheaper. Afternoon - farmer. A laggard ; spec, a farmer late in preparing his land, in sowing or harvesting his crops; hence one who loses his opportunities. Afternoon-tea (Roy. High Sch., Edin.). Detention after three o'clock. After Twelve. See Twelve. Against. Against the grain (collar, or hair), contrary to inclination, unpleasant, unwillingly done (Grose). (1589.) To run against, to meet by accident : e.g. I ran against him the other day in Brighton. Agaze. Astonished, open - eyed (Hatsell.) (1400.) -agger (Charterhouse). As in Com- binaggers, & combination suit : esp. football attire. Aggravator ( Aggerawator, or Haggerawator). A lock of hair Agitator. Air. brought down from the forehead, well greased, and twisted in a spiral on the temple, either toward the ear, or con- versely toward the outer corner of the eye. Usually in pi., once an aid to beauty : now rare. English synonyms : bell-ropes ; beau-catchers ; cobbler's- knots ; cowlicks ; lore-locks ; Newgate knockers ; number sixes ; spit-curls. (1836.) Agitator. 1. In Eng. Hist., an agent, one who acts for others ; a name given to the agents or delegates of the private soldiers in the Parliamentary Army, 1647-9 ; in which use it varied with" Adjutator (O. E. D.). J. A. H. Murray. Careful investigation satisfies me that Agitator was the actual title, and Adjutator originally only a bad spelling of soldiers familiar with Adjutants and the Adjutors of 1641.] 2. A bell-rope, or knocker. To agitate the, communicator, to ring the bell. Agogare. Be quick ! a warning signal (New York Slang Dictionary). Agony. To pile up (or on) the agony, to exaggerate, use the tallest terms in lieu of the simplest, cry Hell! when all you mean is Goodness gracious ! : as a newspaper when writing up murder, divorce, and other sensations. Also to agonize. Hence Agony-piler, a player in sensational parts: see Agony-column. (1857.) Agony-column. A special column in newspapers devoted to harrowing advertisements of missing friends and private business : orig. the second column of the Times. (1870.) Agree. To agree like pickpockets in a fair, to agree not at all. Other similes of the kind are, To agree like bells, they want nothing but hang- ing ; and To agree like cats and dogs (or like harp and harrow). Agricultural- implement A spade ; call a spade a spade and not an agricultural implement, a direct call to very plain speech. Aground (Grose). Stuck fast ; stopped; at a loss; ruined; like a boat or vessel aground. [This accepted figurative use of the nautical phrase was rare prior to the nineteenth century.] Algiers (The). The 1st battalion of The Royal Irish Fusiliers, late The 87th Foot [At Barrosa they captured the Eagle of the 8th French Light Infantry, a fact now commemorated in one of the distinctive badges of the regiment, viz. An Eagle with the figure 8 below.] Aim. (B. E.) Endeavour or Design ... he has missed his Aim or end. Ain't (Hain't or An't). That is, are not, am not, is not, have not, [0. E. D., in the popular dialect of London, Cockney speech in Dickens, etc.] See A'nt (1701.) Air. Castles in the air (the tines, in Spain, etc.), generic for (1) the impossible, (2) imagination, and (3) hope : see infra. To build castle, (1) to attempt the impossible; (2) to dream of visionary project, indulge in idle dreams ; and (3) to be sanguine of success. Hence in the air, (1) uncertain, in doubt, and (2) anticipated (in men's minds) a likely ; air-built, chimerical ; air-castle, the land of dreams and fancies; air-monger, a dreamer : see Spain. Analogous phrases [avowedly generic, and inserted in this place because as convenient as any other : the senses, too, must obviously sometimes over- lap]. 1. (the impossible), to square the circle, wash a blackamore white, skin a flint, make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, make bricks without straw, weave a rope of sand, ex tract sunbeams from cucumbers, set the Thames on fire, milk a he-goat into a sieve, catch a weasel asleep, be in two places at once, plough the air, wash the Ethiopian, measure a twig, demand a tribute of the dead, teach a pig to play on a flute, catch the wind in a net, change a fly into an elephant, take the spring from the year, put a rope in the eye of a needle, draw water with a sieve, number the waves ; also (French) prendre la lune avec Us dents ; rompre Farguille auge nou. 2. ( imagina- tion), to have maggots, or whimseys ; to see an air-drawn dagger, the flying Dutchman, the great sea-serpent, the man in the moon ; to dream of Utopia, Atlantis, the happy valley, the isles of the West, the millennium, of fairyland, the land of Prester John, the kingdom of Micomicon ; to set one's wits to work, strain (or crack) one's invention, rack (ransack, or cudgel) one's brains. 3. (hope), to seek the pot of gold (Fr. pot au lait), dream of Alnaachar, live in a fool's paradise ; see a bit of blue sky, the silver lining in the cloud, the bottom of Pandora's box, catch at 6 Air-and-exercise. AU. a straw, hope against hope, reckon one's chickens before they are hatched. Air of a face or Picture (B. E., 1696), the Configuration and Consent of Parts in each. For this 1 8th century quots. are given in 0. E. Z>.] To air one's vocabulary, to talk for phrasing's sake, flash the gab (q.v.). [One of the wite of the time of George IV., asked what was going on in the House of Commons, answered that Lord Castle- reagh was airing his vocabulary.] To air one's heels, to loiter, hang about : see Cool and Heels. Air-and-exercise. (1) A whipping at the cart's tail ; shoving the tumbler (q.v.). Also (2) the revolving pillory ; and (3), penal servitude (in America, a short term of imprisonment) (Grose). Airing. See Out. Air-line. See Bee-line. Airy (B. E.), Light, brisk, pleasant. . . . He is an Airy Fellow. Ajax (or Jakes). A privy ; a Jakes (q.v.): Sir John Harrington, in 1596, published his celebrated tract, called The metamorphosis of Ajax, by which he meant the improvement of a jakes, or necessary, by forming it into what we now call a water-closet, of which Sir John was clearly the inventor. Also a rm of abuse (1551.) Akerman's Hotel. Newgate prison. [The governor's name was Akerman, c. 1787.] Akeybo (Hotten). A slang phrase used in the following manner: He beats akeybo, and akeybobeat the devil. A-la-Mort. See Amort. Albany Beef. The flesh of the sturgeon. [Some parts of the fish have a resemblance, in colour, and taste, to beef : caught in large numbers as far up the Hudson River as Albany.] Albertopolis. The Kensington Gore district : out of compliment to the late Prince Consort, who was closely identified with the Albert Hall and the Exhibition buildings of 1862. Albonized. Whitened [L, albus], Alderman. 1. A half -crown, 2s. 6d. : see Rhino. 2. A long clay pipe ; a churchwarden (q.v.). 3. A roasted turkey garnished with sausages ; the latter are supposed to represent the gold chain worn by these magistrates. 4. A jemmy (q.v.) : sometimes alder- man jemmy : a weightier tool is the Lord Mayor (q.v.). 5. (Felsted). A qualified swimmer. [The Alders, a deep pool in the Chelmer : see Farmer, Public School Word Book.'] Blood and guts alderman : see Blood and guts. Alderman Lushington. Alder- man Lushington is concerned (or he has been voting for the Alderman), drunk. Alderman's Pace. A leisurely walking, slow gate (Cotgrave). Aldgate. Draught on the pump at Aldgate, a worthless bill of exchange (Grose). Ale. (1) A merry-making; and occasion for drinking. There were bride-ales, church-ales, clerk-ales, give- ales, lamb-ales, leet-ales, Midsummer- ales, Scot-ales, Whitsun-ales, and several more. (2) An ale-house. Hence alecie (or alecy), drunkenness ; ale- blown (ale-washed or alecied), drunk ; ale-draper (whence ale-drapery), an inn-keeper (Grose : of. ale-yard) ; ale- spinner, a brewer ; ale-knight (ale-stake, or ale-toast), a tippler, pot-companion ; ale-post, a maypole (Grose); ale-passion, a headache ; ale-pock, an ulcered grog- blossom (q.v.) ; ale-crummed, grogshot in the face ; ale-swilling, tippling, etc. (1362). (3) In pi., Messrs S. Allsopp and Sons Limited Shares. See Adam's Ale. Alexander. 1. To hang. [Rogers : From the harsh and merciless manner in which Sir Jerome Alexander, an Irish judge (1660-1674) and founder of the Alexander Library at Trinity College, Dublin, carried out the duties of his office.] 2. To extol as an Alexander the Great. (1700.) Alexandra Limp. An affected lameness ; cf . Grecian bend and Roman fall. Alfred David. An affidavit : also affidavy, davy, and (occasionally) after- davy. Algerine. (1) A manager-baiter, espec. when the ghost (q.v.) will not walk (q.v.). Also (2) a petty borrower. Alive. Alive occurs as an intensive and expletive : e.g. alive and kicking, very sprightly, all there (q.v.) ; also all alive ; man (heart, or sakes) alive ! (an emphatic address) ; to look alive, to make haste ; all alive, slovenly made (of garments). All. In pi., belongings : spec, tools : also awls : see Bens. Hence to pack up one's alls ; ( 1 ) to begone, to desist ; (2) see All-nations. The five aMn, & Attacompain. All-standing. country sign, representing five human figures, each having a motto under him the first is a king in his regalia ; his motto, 1 govern all : tho second, a bishop in pontificals ; motto, I pray for all : third, a lawyer in his gown ; motto, I plead for all : fourth, a soldier in his regimentals, fully accoutred ; motto, I fight for all : fifth, a poor countryman with his scythe and rake ; motto, I pay for all (Grose). At all ! The cry of a gamester full of cash and spirit, mean- ing that he will play for any sums the company may choose to risk against him (HaUiwell). Alfa quiet on the, Potomac, a period of rest, enjoyment, peace. [The phrase dates from the Civil. War; its frequent repetition in the bulletins of the War Secretary made it ridiculous to the public.] Phrases and colloquialisms. All about in one's head, light-headed ; all about it, the whole of the matter ; all-around, thorough, all round (q.v.) ; all at sea, uncertain, vague ; all face, naked ; on all fours, fairly, equally, exactly ; all holiday at Peckham, hungry, done for ; all in (Stock Exchange), slow, fiat (q.v.) : of a market when there is a disposition to sell ; whence, all out, improving ; all over, thoroughly, entirely, exactly ; all round my hat, queer, all-overish (q.v.) : That's all round my hat, Bosh ! spicy as all round my hat, sensational ; all serene, all's well, O.K. You know what I'm after ; all up with, finished, done for ; all T.H., of the best, very good indeed (tailors'), all there (q.v.). See also Alive ; All-nations ; Along ; Beat ; Betty Martin ; Blue ; Bandy ; Caboose ; Cheek ; Dickey ; Fly ; Gammon ; Gay ; Go ; Heap ; Hollow ; Hough ; Jaw ; Lombard-street ; Mops- and- brooms ; Mouth ; Out ; Pieces ; Sheep ; Shop ; Shoot ; Skittles ; Smash ; Smoke; There; Up; Way; Way- down. Allacompain. Rain: also alacom- pain, alicumpane, elecampain : cf. France and Spain. All- (or I'm-) afloat. A coat. All- bones. A thin bony person. (1602.) Alleviator. A drink, refreshment : see Go. Alley (Ally or Alay). A superior kind of marble. [Alabaster, of which they are sometimes made.] Also Ally- tor (or taw) : cf. stoney (q.v.) blood- alley, and commoney (q.v.). (1720.) The Alley, Change Alley : cf. House, Lane, Street, etc. (1720.) All - fired. A general intensive : e.g. oil-fired (violent) abuse ; an all- fired (tremendous) noise ; an all-fired (very great) hurry, etc. Also as adv. unusually, excessively. All-get-out That beats all-get-out, a retort to any extravagant story of assertion. All-harbour-light All right Allicholly. Melancholy, solemn- cholly (q.v.). (1595.) All Nations. 1. The tap-droppings of spirts and malt liquors : also alls, or all sorts (Grose). 2. A parti-coloured or patched garment ; a Joseph's coat All-night- man. A body-snatcher ; a resurrectionist (q.v.). Allot To allot upon, to count upon, reckon (q.v.), calculate (q.v.). (1816.) All-out A bumper, carouse. Hence to drink all out, to drain a bumper. (1530.) All-overish. An indefinite feeling of apprehension or satisfaction. Also to feel all over alike, and touch nowhere, to feel confusedly happy. Also as subs. (1841.) All-over-pattern. A term used to denote a design in which the whole of a field is covered with ornament in contradistinction to such as have units only at intervals, leaving spaces of the ground between them. Allow (Harrow). A boy's weekly allo wance. Also, to admit, declare, in- tend, think. (1580.) All-round (Amer. All-around). Generally capable, adaptable, or in- clusive ; affecting all alike : e.g. an all- round (average) rent ; an all-round ( thorough ) scamp; an all-round cricketer, one good alike at batting, bowling, and fielding. Hence all-rounder. All-rounder. 1. A shirt collar; spec, one the same height all round the neck, meeting in front, or (as in clerical collars) at the back. (1857.) 2. See All-round. Allslops. Allsopp and Sons' ale. [At one time their brew, formerly of the finest quality, had greatly de- teriorated.] All-sorts. See All-nations. Allspice. A grocer. All-standing. Fully dressed: hence to turn in all standing, to go to bed in one's clothes. Also brought up all-standing, taken unawares. 8 Alma Mater. Ambidexter. Alma Mater. Originally (and pro- perly) one' s University; now applied to any place of training ; school, college, or University. (1701.) Alman-comb. The four fingers and the thumb : see Welsh-comb. Almighty. An intensive : mighty, great, exceedingly. (1824.) Almighty- gold (-money, or [American] -dollar). The power or worship of money ; Mammon. (1616.) Almond -for- a- parrot. A trifle to amuse a silly person. (1529.) Aloft. To go aloft, to die: see Hop the twig. (1692.) To come aloft, to vault, play tricks: as a tumbler. ( 1624. ) Along of. On account of, owing to, pertaining to, about : also (for- merly) along on. [The 0. E. D. traces the phrase back to Anglo-Saxon times.] Along-shore (or Longshore) Boy (or Man). A landsman (Orose). Aloud. An intensive : e.g. to talk aloud, to rave ; to think aloud, to talk ; to walk aloud, to run ; to stink aloud, to overpower. Alphabet. Through the alphabet, completely, first to last. Alsatia. 1. Whitefriars : a dis- trictadjoining the Temple, between the Thames and Fleet Street. [Formerly thesiteof a Carmelite convent (founded 1241) and possessing certain privileges of sanctuary. These were confirmed by a charter of James I. in 1608, where- after the district speedily became a haunt of rascality in general, a Latin- ised form of Alsace having been jocu- larly conferred on it as a debateable land. Abuses, outrage, and riot led to the abolition of its right of sanctuary in 1697. Also Alsatia the higher. Whence Alsatia the lower, the liberties of the Mint in Southwark ; Alsatian, a rogue, debtor, or debauchee ; a resident in Alsatia : also, roguish, debauched ; Alsatia phrase, a canting term (B. E. and Grose). [See Fortunes of Nigel, chaps, xvi. and xvii.]. (1688). 2. Hence any rendezvous or asylum for loose characters or criminals, where im- munity from arrest is tolerably certain; a disreputable locality : the term has sometimes been applied (venomously) to the Stock Exchange. Alsatian, an adventurer; a Bohemian. (1834.) Alt. In alt, in the clouds ; high- flying ; dignified. \Altissimo, a musical termT] Cf. Altitude. (1748.) Altemal (or Altumal). Altogether. (1696.) Also as intj., cut it short, stow it (q.v.), stash it (q.v.). \p. E. D. : Lat. altum, the deep, i.e. the sea and AL. Dutch altermal.] Alter. To alter the Jeff's click, to make up a garment without regard to the cutter's chalkings or instruc- tions. Altham. A wife : Old Cant. Altitude. In one's altitudes, gen- eric for high-mindedness. (1 ) In lofty mood ; (2) in high spirits ; (3) hoity- toity ; and (4) drunk (B. E. and Grose) ; see Screwed. (1616.) Altocad. A paid member of the choir who takes alto (Winchester Col- lege). Altogether. A whole ; a tout-en- semble. (1677.) The altogether, nudity ; in the altogether nude : popularised byDu Maurier' s novel and play, Trilby. Alybbeg. See Lybbege. Alycompaine. See Allacompam. Amazon. 1. A masculine woman ; a vigaro. Also (the adjectival pro- ceded the figurative substantive usage) Amazonian, manlike, bold, quarrel- some. (1595.) 2. The Queen: chess. (1656.) Ambassador. A trick to duck some ignorant fellow, or landsman, fre- quently played on board ship in the warm latitudes. It is thus managed : a large tub is filled with water, and two stools placed on each side of it. Over the whole is thrown a tarpaulin, or old sail, which is kept tight by two persons seated on the stools, who are to repre- sent the king and queen of a foreign country. The person intended to be ducked plays the ambassador, and after repeating a ridiculous speech dictated to him, is led in great form up to the throne, and seated between the king and queen, who rise suddenly as soon as he is seated, and the unfortunate ambassador is of course deluged in the tub (Grose). Ambassador of Commerce. A commercial traveller ; bagman (q.v.). Ambes-ace. See Ames-ace. Ambia. Chewed-tobacco juice: also the intensely strong nicotine, or thick brown substance which forms in pipes. I have always supposed that it is merely a Southern variation of amber which exactly represents its colour. (Bartlett). Ambidexter (or Ambodexter). (1) A venal juror or lawyer, one taking a 9 Ambree. AngeT 8 OH. fee from both sides. Hence (2) a (1 on Me - dealer, vicar of Bray (q.v.). Aluo, deceitful, tricky. (1532.) Ambree. Mary Ambree, generic for a woman of strength and spirit [Jfowl Ambrol. Ambrol, among the Tan for Admiral (B. E.). Ambush. Fraudulent weights and measured. [A punning allusion : to lie in wait Le. lying weight.] Amen. To finish a matter (as amen does a prayer), approve, ratify. To say Yet and Amen, to agree to everything (Grose) ; amener, a general conformist. (1812.) Arhen-bawler (-curler or -snorter). A parish clerk ; also (military) amen- wallah: see Black-coat (<?rae). (1704.) Amerace. Near at hand, within call American Shoulders. A particu- lar cut in the shoulders of a coat : they are padded and shaped to give the wearer a broad and burly appearance. American Tweezers. An instru- ment to unlock a door from the outside, nippers (q.v.). Ames-ace (Ambs-ace, Ambes-ace, etc. ). ( 1 ) Orig. and lit. the throw of two aoee, the lowest cast at dice. Hence (2) misfortune, bad luck, nothing. Within ames-ace, nearly, very near (Grose): see Ace. (1297.) Aminadab. A quaker : in contempt (Grose). (1700.) Ammuni tion. 1 . Originally applied to every requisite for soldiers' use, as ammunition bread, shoes, hat, etc. : now only of powder, shot, shell, and the like. Whence colloquialisms such as ammunition face, a warlike face ; ammunition wife, a soldier's trull (Grose) ; ammunition leg, a wooden leg, etc. (1658.) 2. Bum-fodder (q.v.). Mouth-ammunition, food : cf. Belly- timber. (1694.) Amoret (or Amorette). (1) Ori- ginally a sweetheart : spec. (2) a mis- tress. [O. E. D. : Eng. Amoret having become obsolete, the word has recently been re-adopted from the French ; see sense 4.] Whence (3) the concomitants of love : e. g. a love-knot, a love- sonnet, love- books, and (in pi.) love-tricks, dalliances (Cotyrave). (1400.) (4) Amourette, a love-affair, an intrigue. (1865.) Ampersand. 1. The posteriors. 2. The sign & ; ampersand. Vari- ants : And - pussy - and ; Ann Passy Ann ; anpasty ; andpaasy ; anparse ; apersie (a.v.) ; per-se ; ampassy ; am- passy-ana ; ampene-and ; ampus-and ; am pussy and ; ampazad ; amsiam ; ampus - end ; apperse - and ; empersi- and amperzed ; and zumzy-zan. Amputate. To be off, to cut (q.v.) and run, also to amputate one's mahogany (or timber) : see Bunk and Timber-merchant. Amuse. To cheat, beguile, deceive. O. E. D. . . . Not in regular use, before 1600. . . . the usual sense in 17th and 18th centuries] : spec. (B. E. and Grose), to throw dust in one's eyes by diverting one, to fling dust or snuff in the eyes of the person intended to be robbed ; also to invent some plausible tale to delude shop-keepers and others, thereby to put them off their guard. Whence amuser, a cheat a snuff - throwing thief ; one that deceives (Ash and Grose). (1480.) Anabaptist. A thief caught in the act and disciplined at the pump or in the horse-pond (Grose). Anchor. To sit down. To let go an anchor to the windward of the law, to keep within the letter of the law. Ancient. See Antient. Ancient Mariner. A rowing don : row as in bough (Oxf. Univ.). Andrew. 1. A broadsword ; also Andrew Ferrara: cf. Gladstone. [Cosmo, Andrea, and Gianantonio Ferara, three Italian cutlers of Belluno in Venetia.] (1618.) 2. A body-servant, valet : cf. Abigail (1618.) 3. A ship, whether trading or man-of-war : also Andrew Millar, and (Grose) Andrew Miller's lugger. Among Australian smugglers, a revenue cutter. (1591.) See Merry- Andrew. Angel. A child riding on the shoulders : also Flying-angeL Angd on horseback, oysters rolled in bacon, and served on crisp toast, very hot. Angel Altogether. A toper. Angelic (or Angelica). A young unmarried woman. (1821.) Angeliferous. Angelic, super- excellent. (1837.) Angel's-food. Strong ale. (1597.) Angel's Footstool. An imaginary square sail, topping the sky-scraper (q.v.), the moon-sail (q.v.), and the cloud-cleaner (q.v.). Angel's Gear. Female attire. Angel's Oil. A bribe : also oil of 10 Angel's Suit. Anser. angels. [Angel, a gold coin, value 6s. 8d., first struck by Ed. IV. in 1465.] Angel's Suit. A combination garment for men : the trousers were buttoned to coat and waistcoat made in one. Angel's Whisper. The call to defaulter's drill : usually extra fatigue duty. Angle. To get by stratagem, fish (q.v.) ; and (in an absolute sense, see Angler) to cheat, steal. As subs., (1) a lure or wile ; (2) a victim : hence a simpleton, one easily imposed on ; and (3) a cunning or specious fellow, an adventurer. To angle one on, to lure. (1535.) To angle for farthings, to beg out of a prison-window, with a cap, or box, let down at the end of a long string. To angle with a silver hook, ( 1 ) to bribe, and (2) buy one's catch in the market. Angler. ' Angglers be peryllous and most wicked Knaues . . . they custom- ably carry with them a staffe of v. or vi. foote long, in which within one ynch of the tope thereof, ys a lytle hole ... in which they putte an yron hoke, and with the same they wyll plucke vnto them quickly anything that they may reche ther with ' (Harmon). To angle, to steal; Angling-cove, a fence (q.v.) (B. E. and Grose). Anglomaniacs. A club in Boston ; its members are opposed to everything British. Angry Boy. See Boy and Roaring- Boy. Angular Party. A gathering of an odd number of people ; three, seven, thirteen, etc. Animal. 1. A term of contempt ; a fool he is a mere Animal, he is a very silly Fellow (B. E., c. 1696). 2. A new cadet at the United States Military Academy, West Point ; cf. Snooker. See Whole. Animule. A mule. A portmant- eau-word (q.v.): i.e. animal-mule.] Ankle. To sprain one's ankle, to be got with child (Grose) : Fr., avoir mal aux genoux. Ankle-beater. A boy-drover : they tended their animals with long wattles, and beat them on the legs to avoid spoiling or bruising the flesh : also penny-boys (q.v.), because they received one penny per head as re- muneration. Ankle -spring Warehouse. The stocks. (1780.) Ananias. A liar. Hence Ananias- brand, an imposture ; Ananias-club, an imaginary company of liars ; to play Ananias and Sapphira, to keep back part of the swag (q.v.). Anna Maria. A fire. Anne. See Bacon,Sight, and Thumb. Annex. To steal, convey (q.v.). Anno Domini Ship. An old- fashioned whaler (Century). Annual. A holiday taken once in twelve months : cf. annual, a mass said, rent paid, or a book issued yearly. Anodyne. Death : also to kill. Anodyne necklace (or collar), a halter (Grose) : see Horse - collar, Ladder, and Nubbing-cheat. (1636.) Anoint. 1. To flatter, butter (q.v.). (1400.) 2. To bribe, grease the palm (q.v.); creesh the loof. (1584.) 3. To beat, thrash soundly ; also, anoint with the sap of a hazel rod (North) : cf. strap-oil. Whence anointed, well drubbed (see next entry). (1500.) Anointed. Pre-eminent in rascality. But in a French MS. ... is an account of a man who had received a thorough and severe beating: Quianoit este si bien oignt. The English Version [Early English Text Society] translates this : ' Which so well was anoynted indeed. From this it is clear that to anoint a man was to give him a sound drubbing, and that the word was so used in the fifteenth century. Thus, an anointed rogue means either one who has been well thrashed or who has deserved to be ' (Skeat ). Anonyma. A fashionable whore (c. 1 SCO- 60). Another. You're another, a tu quoque : i.e. another liar, fool, thief any imaginable term of abuse : see Nail. (1534.) Anotherguess (Anothergets, Anothergaines, Anothergates, Anotherguise, Anotherkins). That is, another sort, kind, manner, fashion, etc. [0. E. D. : A phonetic re- duction from anothergete ((or another- gates).] Hence anotherguess sort of man (woman, etc.), one up to snuff (q.v.). 1580.) Another Place. The House of Commons (Lord Granville). Anser. Anser is Latin for Goose (Brandy, Candle, Fish, etc.). A pun- ning catch or retort. (1612.) 11 Anshum-scranchum. A-pigga-back. Anshum-scranchum. A scramble: e.g. when provision is scanty, and each one is almost obliged to scramble for what he can get, it is said to bearuhum- tcranchum work (HalliweU). An't (Aint). A contraction for are not ; am not ; is not ; has not ; have not (han't) : chiefly Cockney ; cf. shan't, won't, can't : see Ain't Also, and may it (1612.) Ant. In an anfs foot, in a short time. Antagonize. To oppose a ball, bill, measure, etc. [Properly, only of contention or opposition between forces or things of the same kind.] Antarctic. To go to the opposite extreme: cf. lord, tree, etc. (1647.) Amechamber. (B. E., e. 1696.) Forerooms for receiving of Visite, as the back and Drawing-rooms arc for Lodgings, anciently called Dining- rooms. [Not in use in this sense until 18th century, the earliest reference in O. E. D. being 1767 : the orig. meaning, the room admitting to the royal bed- chamber.] An tern. See Autem. Anthony. ( 1 ) To knock Anthony, to walk knock-kneed, cuff Jonas (q.v.). Hence Anthony Cuffin, a knock-kneed man. Also (2) to keep warm by beat- ing one's sides : see Beating the Booby (Grose). Anthony (or Tantony pig), see Saint and Tantony. St. Anthony's fire, Erysipelas : from the tradition that those who sought the intercession of St Anthony recovered from the pestilential erysipelas called the sacred fire which proved extremely fatal in 1089 (Brewer). Antidote. A very homely Woman (B. E.). Antient. At sea, for Ensign or Flag (B. E.) [0. E. D.: a corrup- tion of Ensign, confounded with ancien.] Cf. Ancient Pistol, Othello's Ancient (i.e. standard bearers). Antimony. Type. [Antimony is a constituent part] Antrums. See Tantrum. Anvil. On the anvil, in prepara- tion, in hand, on the stocks (the usual modern equivalent) [an iron] in the fire. Hence to anvil, fashion, prepare. (1607). Anvil-beater (-thresher, -whacker, etc.). A smith. (1677.) Any. Any other man, a call to order : addressed to a prosy or a dis- cursive speaker, or when from lack of continuity in thought the same idea is repeated in synonymous terms. I'm not taking any, a more or less sarcastic refusal, Not for Joe. Anybody. An ordinary individual : in depreciation ; cf. Nobody, Some- body, etc. (1826.) Anyhow. All anyhow, carelessly ; at random. Anyhow you can fix it, a form of acquiescence : e.g. I don't know if you'll succeed, but anyhow you can fix it Any-racket. A penny-faggot Anything. Like (or as) anything, an indefinite but comprehensive standard of measurement or value, like one o'clock (old boots, winking, hell, etc.). (1542.) Anythingarian. An indifferentist, Jack-of-both-sides. Hence anything- arianism, the creed of All things to all men. (1704.) Anywhere. Anywhere down there ! A workroom catch - phrase on any- thing falling to the floor. Apart Apart, severally, asunder (B. E., e. 1696). [Except for an an- ticipation by Langland not in use till long after B. E.'s time.] Apartments. 1. Apartments to let, empty-headed, foolish, crazy : see Balmy. 2. Said of a widow, also of a woman given to prostitution (Ray and Or ose.) Ape. 1. An antic, gull. Hence God's ape, a natural fool ; to play the ape, (1) to mimic ; and (2) to play the fool ; to put an ape into one's hood (cap, or hand), to befool, dupe : also to make one his ape. As adj. (or apish), foolish : hence ape-drunk, maudlin ; ape-u-are, counterfeit ware. (1230.) 2. An endearment (Malone) : cf. monkey. ( 1595. ) 3. In pL, Atlantic and North- western First Mortgage Bonds. To lead apes in hell, to die unmarried : of both sexes. Hence ape-leader, an old maid, or bachelor (Grose). (1579.) To say an ape's paternoster, to chatter with cold. Fr., dire des pate-nitres de singe. (1611.) Phrases. The ape claspeth her young so long that at last she killeth them ; An ape is an ape, a varlet's a varlet, Though they be clad in silk or scarlet ; The higher the ape goes, the more he shows his tail. A-per-se. See A. Aphrodisian-dame. A courtesan. A-pigga-back (or A-pisty-poll). See Angel and Pick-a-back. 12 Apostles. April. Apostles (Twelve Apostles). Formerly when the Poll, or ordinary B.A. degree list, was arranged in order of merit, the last twelve were nick- named The Twelve Apostles ; also The Chosen Twelve, and the last, St. Poll or St. Paul a punning allusion to 1 Cor. xv. 9, For I am the least of the Apostles, that am not meet to be called an Apostle. The list is now arranged alphabetically and in classes. At Columbia College, D.C., the last twelve on the B.A. list actually receive the personal names of the Apostles. (1785.) To manoeuvre the apostles, to borrow of one to pay another, to rob Peter to pay Paul (Grose). Apostle's Grove. St. John's Wood ; also the Grove of the Evan- gelist. Apothecary. Formerly a term of contempt : prior to 1617 the business of grocer and chemist was combined, and it was not till 1815 that the status of an apothecary, as a medical practi- tioner, was legally held by licence and examination of the Apothecaries Com- pany. Hence To talk like an apothe- cary, to talk nonsense, use (Grose) hard or gallipot words : from the as- sumed gravity and affectation of know- ledge generally put on by the gentlemen of this profession, who are commonly as superficial in their learning as they are pedantic hi their language. Also Apothecaries' -Latin, gibberish, dog- (katchen-, or raw-) Latin (q.v.); Apothecaries' bitt, a long undetailed account : cf. Bawdy-house reckoning. Likewise proverbial sayings : A broken apothecary, a new doctor ; Apothe- caries would not give pills in sugar unless they were bitter. Appii (The) (Durham University). The Three Tuns : a celebrated Durham Inn. [A mis-reading of Actsxxviii. 15.] Apple. In pi., a woman's paps : also Apple-dumpling-shop (Grose), the bosom. (1638.) Phrases and proverbial expressions : One rotten apple decays a bushel ; To take an eye for an apple ; As like as an apple is like an oyster ; There's small choice in rotten apples ; Won with an apple, lost with a nut ; How we apples swim (What a good time we're having ; a reference to the fable of a posse of horse-droppings floating down the river with a company of apples). (1340.) See Adam's Apple. Apple-cart. The human body : cf. Beer-barrel. To upset one's apple-cart, to floor a man, to thwart (Grose). Also, to upset the old woman's apple-cart ; to upset the apple-cart and spill the gooseberries (or peaches). Apple-pie Bed. A bed made apple-pie fashion, like what is called a turnover apple-pie, where the sheets are so doubled as to prevent any one from getting at his length between them : a common trick played by frolicsome country lasses on their sweethearts, male relations, or visitors (Grose). Fr., lit en portefeuille. Apple-pie Day (Winchester). The day on which Six-and-six (q.v.) was played. It was the Thursday after the first Tuesday in December. So called because hot apple-pies were served on gomers (q.v.) in College for dinner. Apple-pie Order. The perfection of neatness and exactness. (1813). Apples-and-pears. A flight of stairs. Apple Squire. (1) A harlot's con- venience. Hence (2) a kept-gallant (see Squire, Bully, and Fancy-man) ; (3) a wittol (q.v.) ; and (4) a pimp (q.v.). Also Pippin-squire, Squire of the body, Apple-John, Apple-monger, Apron-man, and Apron-squire. Apple- wife, bawd. Occasionally Apron-squire, groomsman. ( 1 500. ) Approach. To know carnally. Hence approachable, wanton. April. This month the poetical type of verdure (see Green) and in- constancy is frequently found in con- temptuous combination. Thus April- fool (or Scots April-gowk), cuckoo : Fr., poisson d'Avril), one who is sent on a sleeveless errand (for strap -oil, pigeon's milk, the squad umbrella, the diary of Eve's grandmother, etc.), or who is the victim of asinine sport on April-Fools' (or All Fools') Day (1st April). This has given rise to the sar- castic April-day, a wedding-day ; and April-gentleman, a newly-married hus- band. Also April-fish, a pimp (Fr., maquereau) ; April-squire, a new-made or upstart squire. ( 1592. ) To smell of April and May, a simile of youth and courtship. (1596.) Also proverbial say- ings : A windy March and a rainy April make a beautiful May ; April showers bring forth May flowers ; When April blows his horn it's good for hay and corn ; April cling good for nothing ; April borrows three days 13 Apron. Ariftippus. of March, and they are ill ; A cold April the barn will fill ; An April flood carries away the frog and her brood ; April and May are the keys of the year. Apron. 1. A woman : generic ; cf. Muslin ; Petticoat ; Placket, etc. Hence tied to one's apron strings (or apron- led), ( 1 ) under petticoat - rule, hen- pecked ; and (2) in close attendance ; apron hold (or apron - string hold, or tenure), a life-interest in a wife's estate (Orose) ; apron - squire (see Apple- squire) ; apron - husband, a domestic meddler ; apron-up, pregnant, lumpy (q.vA Also (proverbial) : Wise as her mother's apron-strings, dependent on a mother's bidding. (1542.) 2. Generic for one wearing an apron : e.g. a shopkeeper, a waiter, a workman : also apron-man, apron-rogue, aproneer. [Spec, the Parliamentary party (many of whom were of humble origin) during the Civil War : by Cavaliers in contempt.] Hence (3), a cleric of rank, a bishop or dean (also Apron- and-Gaiters). As verb, to cover with (or as with) an apron ; and aproned, of the working-class, mechanic. Hence checkered-apron, a barber ; blue-apron (q.v.); green-apron, a lay-preacher; white-apron, a prostitute. (1592.) Apron-washings. Porter. Aqua. Water : also Aqua-pompa- ginis (Orose, Dog-Latin). Hence, in jocose combination, aquapote, aqua- bib (Bailey, 1731), and aquatic, a water-drinker; aqua -bob, an icicle. (1704.) Aquadiente. Brandy. (1835.) Aquatics. (Eton). 1. The wet-bob (q.v.) cricket- team ; and (2) the playing field used by them : see Sixpenny. A qua- vitas. Formerly an alchemic term, but long popularly generic for ardent spirits ; brandy, whisky, etc. [L. water of life. Cf. French eau-de- vie, and Irish usquebaugh.} Hence aqua-vitae man, (1) a quack, and (2) a dram-seller. (1542.) Arab. (1) A young street vagrant: also street arab and city arab. Whence (2) an outcast (1848.) Arabian-bird. Anything unique. [Properly the phoenix.] Also Arabian nights, the fabulous, the marvellous. (1605.) Arcadian - nightingale (or bird), An ass: see Nightingale. (1694.) Arch. 1. Properly chief, pre-emi- nent : hence, ( 1 ) clever, crafty, roguish (B. E.) ; and (2) extreme, out-and-out (q.v.). [0. E. D. : In modern use chiefly prefixed intensively to words of bad or odious sense.] Thus, arch- botcher, a clumsy patch-worker ; arch- fool (or dolt), an out-and-out duffer ; arch-knave, a rascal of parts ; arch-cove (or rogue), spec, the ringleader of a band of gipsies or thieves : whence arch- dell (or doxy), the same in rank among the female canters of gipsies (Orose) ; arch-whore, a bilking harlot (B. E.), etc. Also, sharp, Keen, splenetic : usually with at or upon. (1551.) 2. Saucy, waggish. Thus arch- (witty) fellow (B. IS.); arch- (pleasant) wag (B. E.) ; arch duke, a comical or eccentric fellow (Orose). (1662.) See Ark. Archdeacon. (Oxford). Merton strong ale. Archwif e. A masterful woman ; a virago. (1383.) Ard. Hot (Orose), ardent Ardelio. A busybody, meddler. (1598.) Area-sneak (or slum). A petty thief : spec, one working houses by means of an area-gate (Grose) : see Sneak, Slum, and Thief. ( 1865. ) Arg. To argue, grumble : cf. Argle. Argal. Therefore, ergo : of which it is a corruption. As subs., a clumsy argument See Argle. (1602.) Argent. Money : generic : spec, silver money (Bailey) : see Gent Hence argentocracy, the power of money; Mammon (q.v.). (1500.) Argle. To argue disputation/sly, haggle, bandy words; also angle- bargle, argol-bargol, or argie-bargie. Whence argol-bargolous, quarrelsome : cf. Arg. (1589.) Argot. The jargon, slang, or peculiar phraseology of a class, orig. that of thieves and rogues. See Slang and Cant Whence argotic, slangy. (1611.) Argue. To argue out of (away, a dog's tail off, etc.), to get rid of by argument: see Talk (1713.) Argufy. (1) To argue, worry, wrangle. Whence (2) to signify, prove of consequence, follow as a result of argument Argufitr, a contentious talker. See Arg and Argle. (1751.) Aristippus. 1. Canary wine. (1627.) 2. 'A Diet -drink, or Decoction of Sarsa China, etc. Sold at certain 14 Ark. Article. Coffee-houses, and drank as T ' (B. E. and Grose). Ark (or Arch). (1) A boat; a wherry : e.g. Let us take an Ark and winns, let us take a sculler (B. E. and Grose). Hence arkman, a waterman. Also (2), in Western America, a flat- bottomed market-produce boat (Bart- lett) : rarely seen since the introduction of steam. 3. A barrack-room chest : a lingering use of an old dialect word. Arkansas- toothpick. A large sheath knife : orig. a bowie-knife (q.v.) (1854.) Ark-floater. An actor well ad- vanced in years. Arm. Colloquialisms are : To make a long arm, to exert oneself ; as long as one's arm, very long ; to work at arm's length, to do awkwardly ; one- under the arm (tailor's), an extra job ; in the arms of Murphy (or Morpheus), asleep : see Murphy. Armful. A heap, a large quantity ; spec, an endearment : of a bouncing baby, a big cuddlesome wench, etc. (1579.) Armine. A wretched person, a beggar. (1605.) Armour. In armour, pot-valiant; primed (q.v.). ; full of Dutch courage (q.v.) : see Screwed (B. E. and Grose). Armpits. To work under the arm- pits, to escape the halter by the skin of one's teeth, to practise only such kinds of depredation as will amount, upon conviction, to whatever the law calls single, or petty, larceny ; the extent of punishment for which is transportation for seven years. [On the passing of Sir Samuel Romilly's Act, capital punishment was abolished for highway robberies under 40s. in value.] Arm- pro p. A crutch ; a wooden- leg (q.v.). Arms-and-legs. Small beer : be- cause there is no body in it (Grose). Arm - slasher (or stabber). A gallant who bled his arm to toast his mistress ; hence to dagger (or stab) arms to toast a lady-love. (1611.) Armstrong. See Captain Arm- strong. Arrah. An expletive, with no special meaning (Grose) ; an expletive expressing emotion or excitement,com- mon in Anglo-Irish speech (0. E. D.). [Farquhar, who first used the term (1705) was of Irish birth.] Array. (1) To thrash, to dress down (q.v.); (2) to afflict, punish (q.v.) ; and (3) defile. Hence as subs., a drub- bing, pickle (q.v.), plight, a pretty state of affairs. (1388.) Arrow (or Arra). A corruption of e'er a, or ever a. (1750.) "Arry. That is Harry: a popular embodiment of the vulgar, rollicking, yet on the whole good-tempered rough of the metropolis. Whence 'Arriet, 'Arry's young woman. [Popularised by Milliken in a series of ballads in Punch.] 'Arryish, vulgarly jovial. (1874.) Arst. Asked. Arter. After. Artesian. A Gippsland (Victoria) brew of beer : manufactured with water obtained from an artesian well at Sale hence artesian (generic), colonial beer : see Cascade. Artful Dodger. 1. A lodger. 2. An expert thief : also a fellow who dares not sleep twice in the same place for fear of arrest. [The Artful Dodger, a character in Dickens' Oliver Twiet.\ Arthur. King (or Prince') Arthur. A sailor's game. When near the line, or in a hot latitude, a man who is to represent King Arthur, is ridiculously dressed, having a large wig made out of oakum, or some old swabs. He is seated on the side, or over a large vessel of water, and every person in turn is ceremoniously introduced to him, and has to pour a bucket of water over him. crying out, Hail, King Arthur ! If during the ceremony the person intro- duced laughs or smiles (to which hia majesty endeavours to excite him by all sorts of ridiculous gesticulations), he changes places with, and then becomes King Arthur, till relieved by some brother tar who has as little command over his muscles as himself (Grose) : cf. Ambassador. Artichoke. 1. A term of contempt. (1600.) 2. A hanging : also hearty choak (Grose) ; whence to have an arti- choke and caper sauce for breakfast, to Article. 1. A woman : e.g. a prime article (Grose), a handsome girl, a hell of a goer (Lex. Bal.). 2. A mildly contemptuous or sarcastic address : usually with such adjectives as pretty, nice, etc. Thus, You're a pretty article, You're a beauty (q.v.) ; What sort of an article do you think 16 Artide of Virtue. Atomy. you arc T What's your name when out for a walk? Also (HaUiweU) of a wretched animal. 3. In pi., a suit of clothes (Grose). Article of Virtue. A virgin. [A play upon virtue, and virtu.] Artilleryman. A drunkard : cf. canon, drunk, and see Lushington. Artist An adroit rogue, skilful gamester. N. Y. 8. D. As. See Make. Asia Minor. The Kensington and Bayswater district [Many Anglo- Indians reside in this locality. The nickname is double-barrelled, for the district is also the headquarters of the Greek community in the metropolis.] Cf. New Jerusalem, Black Hole, etc. Asinego. (1) A little ass; hence (2) a fool, donkey (q.v.), duffer (q.v.). (1606.) Ask. To proclaim in church : as a marriage ; literally to ask for (or the) banns thereto. Formerly also of stray cattle, etc. [0. E. D. : The recognised expression is now to publish the banns ; but ask is the historical word.] Whence asking, an announce- ment in church of intended marriage (1461). Ask another, a jesting or con- temptuous retort to a question that one cannot, will not, or ought not, to answer : also Ask bogy (q.v.). Askew. A cup: see Skew (Barman, 1567). Aspasia. A harlot The name of one of the celebrated courtesans of Athens, called Heterae (iraipai), many of whom were highly accomplished and were faithful to one lover. . . . Repre- sentative of a fascinating courtesan, and more rarely, of an accomplished woman. Aspen-leaf. The tongue. (1532.) Ass. Generic for stupidity, clumsi- ness, and ignorance. Hence ( 1 ) a fool : see Buffle. [0. E. D. : now disused in polite literature and speech.] Also ass- head : whence assheaded, stupid ; and assheadedness, folly. To make an ass of, to stultify ; to make an ass of oneself, to play the fool ; Your ass-ship (a mock title : cf. lordship). Also Proverbs and proverbial sayings : When a fool is made a bishop then a horned ass is born therein ( 1 400) : Perhaps thy ass can tell thee what thou knowest not (Nash) ; To wrangle for an ass's shadow (Thijnne) ; Go sell an ass (Topseli : a charge of blockishness to a dull scholar). Angry as an an with a squib in his breech (Cotgrave) ; Honey is not for an ass's mouth (Shdton) ; An ass laden with gold will go lightly uphill (Shdton) ; Asses have ears as well as pitchers (Middleton) ; He will act the ass's part to get some bran ( Urquhart) ; An ass in a lion's skin (Addison) ; An unlettered king is a crowned ass (Freeman) ; to plough with ox and ass, to use incongruous means ; The ass waggeth his ears (Cooper, 1563 : ' a proverbe applied to theim, whiche, although they lacke learnynge, yet will they babble and make a countenance, as if they knew somewhat'). 2. A compositor : used by pressmen : the tit- for- tat is pig (q.v.) : also donkey : Fr., mulet. Assassin. A breast knot, or similar decoration worn in front [Cen- tury : with allusion to its killing effect] Assayes (The). The 2nd battalion (late 74th) Highland Light Infantry : for distinction at Assaye, when every officer present save one, was killed or wounded, and the battalion was re- duced to a mere wreck (Farmer, MH. Forces of Ot. and Greater Britain). Asses' Bridge (The). The fifth pro- position in the First Book of Euclid's Elements ; the pons asinorum. ( 1 780. ) Assig. An assignation (B. E. and Grose). Assmanship (or Asswomanship). The art of donkey-riding: on the model of horsemanship. (1800.) Aste. Money : generic : see Rhino (Nares). (1612.) Astronomer. A horse with a high carriage of the head ; a star-gazer (q.v.). At See All ; Breeches ; Hand ; Have ; Pickpurse ; Rest ; That ; You. Athanasian Wench. A forward girl ; Quicunque vult (q.v.) : see Tart Athens. The Modern Athens. (1) Edinburgh ; and (2) Boston, Mass, (also The Athens of America). Atlantic - ranger. A herring, a sea-rover (q.v.) : see Glasgow magis- trate. Atkins. See Tommy Atkins. Atomy. 1. An anatomy, specimen, skeleton ; also otamy : whence (2) a very lean person, walking skeleton (1598). 2. A diminutive person, pigmy (1591). 3. An empty-headed indi- vidual 16 Atrocity. Avast I Atrocity. Anybody or anything grievously below the ordinary stand- ard or out of the common : e.g. a bad blunder, a flagrant violator of good taste, a very weak pun, etc. Hence atrocious, shockingly bad, execrable, and as adv. excessively. (1831.) Attack. A commencement of opera- tions ; as (jocularly) upon dinner, a problem, correspondence, etc. Also as verb. (1812.) Attempt. To approach a woman ; to attack the chastity. Hence at- tempter, attemptable, and other deriva- tives. (1593.) Attic. The head, brain, upper storey (q.v.) Attic-salt (style or wit). Well- turned phrases spiced with refined and delicate humour. (1633.) Attleborough. Pinchbeck, Brum- magem (q.v.). [Attleborough is cele- brated for its manufacture of trashy jewelry.] Attorney. 1. A knave, swindler ; an ancient (and still general) reproach. Whence attorneydom and attorneyism (in contempt or abuse). (1732.) 2. A drumstick of goose, or turkey, grilled and devilled : cf. Devil. (1828.) Attorney- General's Devil. See Devil. Auctioneer. To tip (or give) the auctioneer, to knock a man down ; Tom Sayers' right hand was nick- named the auctioneer. Audit-ale (or Audit). A special brew of ale : orig. for use on audit days. Univ. (1823.) Audley. See John Audley. Aufe. See Oaf. Auger. A prosy talker, bore (q.v.). Aught. A common illiteracy for naught, the cyper 0. Auld Hornie. The Devil : see Blackspy. Auld Reekie. The Old Town, Edinburgh; i.e. Old Smoky. (1826.) Auly Auly. (Win. Coll.: obsolete). A game played in Grass Court on Saturday afternoons after chapel. An indiarubber ball was thrown one to another, and everybody was obliged to join in. The game, though in vogue in 1830, was not played as late as 1845. Aumbes-ace. See Ames-ace. Aunt. 1. A bawd ; a harlot (B. E. and Grose) : hence (old sayings) My aunt will feed me, She is one of my aunts that made my uncle go a-begging (or that my uncle never got any good of). (1604.) 2. An endearment or familiar address ; also aunty : spec. (1) in nursery talk, a female friend of the family ; and (2) a matronly woman : hence aunthood : cf. Uncle. (1592.) 3. (Oxford and Cambridge : obsolete.) The sister university. (1655.) Phrases. If my aunt had been my uncle what would have happened then ? (a retort on inconsequent talk) ; to go and see one's aunt, to go to the W.C. (see Mrs. Jones). Aunt Sally. A game common to race-courses and fairs ; a wooden head is mounted on a pole to form a target ; in the mouth is placed a clay pipe, which the player, standing at twenty or thirty yards, tries to smash. Au Reservoir I Au revoir. Aurum Potabile. That is, Drink- able gold ; ' a medicine made of the body of gold itself, totally reduced, without corrosive, into a blood -red, gummie, or honylike substance ' (Phil- lips) ; also, some rich Cordial Liquor, with pieces of leaf gold in it (Kersey). Australian Flag. A rucked - up shirt-tail. Australian Grip. A hearty hand- shake. Autem (Autum, Autom, or An- tem). A church (Harman, B. E., Grose). As adj., married ; also in numerous combinations, thus : autem- bawler (-cackler, -jet or -prickear), a parson : spec, of Dissenters ; autem- cackle tub, (1) a dissenting meeting- house, (2) a pulpit ; autum-cove, a married man ; autum-dipper (or -diver), (1) a Baptist, (2) a thief working churches or conventicles, and (3) an overseer or guardian of the poor; autum-goggler, a pretended French prophet (Grose) ; autum-mort, a mar- ried woman, also the Twenty-fourth Order of the Canting Tribe, Travelling, Begging (and often Stealing) about the Country with one Child hi Arms, an- other on Back,and (sometimes) leading a third in the Hand ; autum-quaver, a Quaker ; autum-quaver tub, a Quaker's meeting-house. Author-baiting. Calling a play- wright before the curtain to subject him to annoyance yelling, hooting, bellowing, etc. Avastl Hold! Stop! Stay! (1681.) 17 Avering. Avering subs. (old). Begging on the shallow (q.v.) dodge. (1695.) Avoirdupois. Excess of flesh, fat. Avoirdupois- lay. Stealing brass weights of! the counters of shops (Grose). Avuncular. Humorously employed in various combinations : e.g. avun- cular relation, a pawnbroker ; an uncle (q.v.); avuncular life, pawn broking ; also avuncular, of or pertaining to an uncle ; to avunculize, to act as an uncle. (1662.) Awake. On the alert, vigilant, fully appreciative : see Fly. (1785.) Away. Away (forthwith, con- tinuously) occurs in several colloquial- isms, mostly imperative. Thus : Fire away. Commence immediately ; Say away, Spit it out ; Peg away, Keep going ; Right away, at once : Away the mare, Adieu to care, Begone ; Far- and-away, altogether ; Who can hold that will away 1 Who can bind an un- willing tongue ? To mistake away, to pilfer and pretend mistake; Away back, (1) long ago, and (2) see Way-back. Awful. Monstrous : hence a generic intensive great, long, exceedingly good, bad, pretty, etc. Thus an aw- ful (very unpleasant) lime ; awful (side- splitting) fun ; awfully (uncommonly) jolly, etc. Also penny-awful, a blood- curdling tale : cf. Dreadful shocker, Blood-and-guts story, etc. As adv., exceedingly, extremely. (1816.) Awkward. Pregnant, lumpy (q.v.). Awkward-squad. Recruits at drill. Awls. See Alls. Ax. This archaic form of ask, once and long literary, survives dialectically [O. E. D. : Ax, down to nearly 1600, was the regular literary form : it was supplanted in standard English by ask, originally the northern form.] Also ax- my-eye, a cute fellow, a knowing blade. (1380.) Phrases: To have an ax to grind, to have personal interests to serve ; to put the ax in the helve, to solve a doubt, unriddle a puzzle ; to send the ax after the helve (or the helve after the hatchet), to despair ; to hang up one's ax, to desist from fruitless labour, abandon a useless project ; to open a door with an ax (said of barren or un- profitable labour). Axe wad die. To wallow. Hence axewaddler (a term of contempt). Ayrshires. Glasgow and South- western Railway Stock. B. 1. The title of a captain in the army of the Irish Republican Brother- hood (H. J. Byron). 2. (Harrow). A standard in Gymnasium the next below A (q.v.). 3. (Felsted). See A. Not to know B from a bull's foot (a battledore, a broomstick, or any allitera- tive jingle), to be illiterate or ignorant, unable to distinguish which is which : also affirmatively : see A, Battledore, Chalk, etc. (1401.) B Flat (or B), a bed bug, Norfolk Howard (q.v.): cf. F sharp. (1853.) Ba. To kiss : also as subs. : cf. Buss. [0. E. D. : probably a nursery or jocular word ; Century, perhaps the humorous imitation of a smack.] (1383.) Baa. A bleat ; also as verb ; of a sheep. Hence baaling, a lambkin : also baa-lamb ; baaing, noisy silliness, and as adj. (1500.) Bab. The first word children use, as with us dad or daddie or bab (F lorio): Also babba. Babber-lipped. See Blabber-lips. Babble. Confused unintelligible talk such as was used at the building of the tower of Babel (B. E. and Grose). Babbler, a great talker (B. E.). [O. E. D. : Common to several lan- guages : in none can its history be carried far back ; as yet it is known as early in English as anywhere else No direct connection with Babel can be traced ; though association with that may have affected the senses.] Babbler. 1. A hound giving too much tongue. (1732.) 2. See Babble. Babe. 1. The last elected member of the House of Commons : cf. father of the House, the oldest representative. 2. The youngest member of a class at the United States Military College, West Point. 3. An auction shark (q.v. ) ; a knock-out (q.v.) man : for a con- sideration these agree not to oppose the bidding of larger dealers, who thus keep down the price of lota. 4. (Ameri- can). A Baltimore rowdy : also blood 18 Babe in the Wood. Back. tub (q.v.), plug-ugly (q.v.) : see Baby. Babe in the Wood. 1. A culprit in the stocks or pillory (Grose). 2. In pi., dice. Baboo (or Babu). In Bengal, and elsewhere, among Anglo-Indians, it is often used with a slight savour of dis- paragement as characterising a super- ficially cultivated, but too often effemi- nate Bengali ; and from the extensive employment of the class to which the term was applied as a title in the capa- city of clerks, in English offices the word has come often to signify a native clerk who writes English (Yule). Hence baboo -English, superfine; grand- iloquent English such as is written by a baboo ; also baboodom and babooism. (1866.) Baboon. A term of abuse : see Ape. Whence baboonery ; baboonish ; and ba- boonize, to monkey (q.v.). (1380.) Baby (or Babe). 1. A childish per- son : e.g. a great baby, a mere baby, etc. Hence, to smell of the baby, to be infantine or childish (in character or ability) : cf. Baby-act. Also, to act (or treat) childishly; babyhood (babydom or babyism), childishness ; baby-bunt- ing, an endearment. (1596.) 2. In pi., pictures in books. [0. E. D.: perh. orig. the ornamental tail- pieces and borders with Cupids and grotesque figures in- terworked.] (1605.) 3. The minute re- flection of one gazing into another's eye. Hence to look babies (or a boy) in the eyes, to look amorously ; to cast sheep' s- eyes (q.v.). (1586.) 4. A doll, puppet, a child's plaything : also baby-clouts, a rag - doll : see Bartholomew - baby. (1530.) As adj., small; tiny; e.g. a baby-glass, baby-engine, etc. (1859.) To kiss the baby, to take a drink ; to smile (q.v.). Baby Act. The legal defence of in- fancy : hence to plead the baby act, (1) to plead minority as avoiding a con- tract ; and (2) to excuse oneself on the ground of inexperience. Baby-farmer. A professional adop- ter of infants, minder (q.v.) : spec, in an evil sense : once the money is paid, the children are frequently gradually done to death. Whence Baby-farming. Baby-herder. A nurse. Babylon. Generic for luxury and magnificence. Hence (1) the papal power (formerly identified with the mystical Babylon of the Apocalypse) ; (2) any large city : spec. London (also Modern Babylon). Babylonian, (1) a papist ; and (2) an astrologer (Chaldea was the ancient seat of the craft) ; babylonish, popish. (1564.) Babylonitish. (Winchester). A dressing gown. [That is Babylonitish garment.] Baby's-pap. A cap. Baby Wee-wees. Buenos Ayres Water Works shares. Bacca. Tobacco: Fr., perlot (from perle). Also Bacco, Baccy, Backer, and Backey. (1833.) Bacca- pipes. Whiskers curled in ringlets : obsolete : see Mutton-chops. Baccare (or Bakkare), Go back ! Give place ! Away! (1473.) Bacchus. 1. Wine, intoxicating liquor. Whence son of Bacchus, a tippler : see Lushington ; and Bacchi plenus, drunk : see Screwed. [In- numerable derivatives and combina- tions have been and are still in more or less regular and literary use.] (1496.) 2. (Eton.) Verses written (c. 1561) on Shrove Tuesday in honour or dispraise of Bacchus because poets were con- sidered the clients of Bacchus. . . . This custom was continued almost into modern days, and though the subject was changed, the copy of verses was still called a Bacchus. Bach (or Batch). To live as a bachelor. Bachelor. Then the town butt is a bachelor, the retort incredulous on a woman's chastity (Bay). Bachelor's Baby. A bastard: see Bye-blow and Bachelor's- wife. ( 1672. ) Bachelor's Buttons. To wear bachelor's buttons, to be a bachelor. [Orey. Country fellows carried the flowers of this plant in their pockets, to know whether they should succeed with their sweethearts, and they j udged of their good or bad success by their growing or not growing there.] Bachelor's-fare. Bread and cheese and kisses. (1738.) Bachelor's- wif e . (1) An ideal wife; and (2) a harlot : whence bachelor's baby, a bastard. (1562.) Back. 1. To espouse, advocate, or support, a matter, by money, influence, authority, etc. : commonly, to back up. Hence (2), in racing, to wager, or bet in support of one's opinion, judgment, or fancy ; to back the field, to bet against all horses save one, usually the favourite ; 19 Back-and-belly. Backing On. backed, betted on; backer, (1) a sup- porter, back - friend (q.v.), and (2) a layer of odds : cf. bookie ; backing, support. (1548.) 3. To endorse, counter- sign : e.g. to back a cheque ; also to back a bill, to become responsible for payment : cf. to foot an account ; backed, endorsed, accepted : for- merly to direct or address a letter : prior to the general use of envelopes, the address was written on the back of the folded sheet (1768) : to be backed, to be carried for dead. Phrases and colloquialisms : To give one the back, to ignore ; behind one's back, out of sight, hearing, or knowledge ; to give back, to turn tail ; to turn one's (or the) back on, (1) to go, (2) abandon, and (3) snub ; back ana side (back and belly, or back and edge), all over, completely, through thick and thin ; to take the back on oneself, to run away ; with back to the wall, hard - pressed, struggling against odds ; to have by the back, to seize, lay hold of ; to break the back, (1) to overburden, (2) all but finish (a task) ; to ride on one's back, to deceive ; to get the back of, (I) to take in the rear, and (2) have at an advantage ; on one's back, (1) floored (q.v.), (2) at the end of one's resources, (3) sick or indis- posed ; to have (put, get, or set) one's back up, ( 1) to resist, rouse, and (2) get (or be) angry (B. E. and Grose) : whence, don't get your back up \ Keep calm 1 or Your back's up, a jeer at an angry hunchbacked man ; to back out, to re- tire cautiously, escape from a dilemma; to give (or make) a back, (1) to lend a hand, and (2) bend the body, as at leap- frog ; to back down, ( 1 ) to yield or retire from a matter, and (2) eat one's words : hence a back-down (or square back down), (1) utter collapse, and (2) a severe rebuff ; to be on a man's back, to chide, be severe upon ; to see the back of, to get rid of. Also His back is broad enough to bear jests (Kay) ; What is got over the devil's back is spent under his belly. To back up (Win- chester), to call out : e.g. Why didn't you back up? I would have come and helped you. In College, times are backed up by Junior in Chambers : such as Three quarters, Hour, Bells go single, Bells down. See Beyond. Back-and-belly. All over, com- pletely : also back-and-bed, and cf. back - and edge (supra, s. v. Back, phrases). Hence to keep one back-and- belly, to provide everything, feed and clothe ; to beat one back-and-belly, to thrash thoroughly, (c. 1300.) Backare. See Baccare. Backbiter. 1. One who slanders another behind his back, i.e. in his absence (Grose). Also (2) His bosom friends are become his back - biters, said of a lousy man. Back-breaker. 1. A hard task- master : spec, the foreman of a gang of farm labourers ; and (2) any task that requires excessive exertion. Hence back-breaking, arduous. Back-cap. To depreciate, dispar- age : also to give a back-cap. Back-cheat A cloak ; a wrap- rascal (q.v.). Backdoor. The fundament. Hence backdoor - trot, diarrhoea. As adj., clandestine, speciously secret : also backstairs : e.g. backdoor counsellor, backstairs influence (or work), etc. ; orig. and spec, of underhand intrigue at Court, i.e. when the Sovereign is approached secretly by the private stairs of a palace instead of by the State entrance. (1611.) Back-end. The last two months of the racing season, commencing with October : also as adj. [Properly, the latter part of autumn.] Hence back- ender, a horse entered for a race late in the season. (1820.) Backfall. A trip or fall on the back, as also backheel and backlock. Also as verb. (1713.) Back- friend. (1) A secret enemy; one who holds back in time of need. Also (2) an ally (see Back, verb, 2). (1472.) (3) A splinter of skin formed near the roots of the finger-nail, a stepmother's blessing (q.v.). Back-gammon. See Backdoor. Back-handed Turn. An unprofit- able bargain. Back-hander. 1. A glass of wine out of turn, the bottle being passed back or retained for a second glass in- stead of following the sun round the table. Hence backhand (verb) and backhanding. (1855.) 2. A blow on the face delivered with the back of the hand ; hence an unexpected rebuff, a set-down (q.v.). (1836.) Backing and Filling. Shifty, irresolute, shilly-shally : orig. nautical (1854.) Backing On. See Turning-on. 20 Backings up. Bad. Backings up (Winchester). The unconsumed ends of half - burned faggots : obsolete. Back Jump. A back window : see Jump (Grose). Backmarked. To be backmarked, in handicapping to receive less start from scratch than previously given. Back - paternoster. See Back- wards. Back - scratcher. 1. A wooden toy on the principle of a watchman's rattle, which, drawn down the back, sounds like the ripping up of cloth ; much in favour at fairs and in crowds ; its use (in London) is now (1904) pro- hibited by police order. 2. A flatterer : hence back-scratching, flattery : cf. Ka me, Ka thee. Back- seam. To be down on one 1 a back-seam, to be down on one's luck. Back Seat. To take a back seat, to retire into obscurity, confess failure, be left behind. [The colloquialism re- ceived an immense send off by Andrew Johnson in 1868 : In the work of reconstruction traitors should take back seats.] Back-set (modern, Set-back). A rebuff, untoward circumstance, relapse. Hence, to set back, to check. Back-slang. 1. A variety of slang, orig. costers, in which a word is slightly veiled by being written or pro- nounced as nearly as possible back- wards : thus yob, boy ; cool, look ; yennep, penny ; etc. 2. See Slum. 3. A back-room; also the back-entrance to any house or premises ; thus, we'll give it 'em on the back slum, means we'Jl get in at the backdoor. As verb, ( 1 ) To enter or come out of a house by the backdoor ; or to go a circuitous or private way through the streets, in order to avoid any particular place in the direct road, is termed back-slanging it (Grose.). (2) (Australian) to ask for hospitality on the road : a common and recognised up-country practice. Back -slum. See Slum 2, and Back-slang. Backs tair. See Backdoor. Backstaircase. A bustle, dress improver : see Birdcage. Back-stall. See Stale, subs. 5. Back-talk. (1) A rude answer; (2) contradiction ; (3) an insinuation ; and (4) withdrawal from a promise or an accepted invitation (Lane.) : also back-word and back -answer. Hence backward - answer, a perverse reply ; No back talk ! Shut up ! (1605.) Back-teeth. To have one's back teeth afloat, to be drunk : see Screwed. Back- timber. Clothes : cf. Belly- timber. (1656.) Back Tommy. Cloth to cover the stays at the waist. Backtrack. To take the back-track, to retreat, back out (q.v.). Back- trade. A backward course. (1640.) Back- trick. A caper backwards in dancing. (1601.) Backward. A few phrases fall into alphabet here ; To say (or sing) the Te Deum (the Lord's Prayer or to spell) backwards, to mutter, curse : also as a charm : hence back-paternoster (or prayer), an imprecation ; to go back- wards, to go to the W.C. : see Mrs. Jones ; to piss backwards, to defecate ; to blow backwards, crepitate ; If I were to fall backwards, I should break my nose (Nay : It., i.e. I am so foiled in everything I undertake). See Bad talk. Backwardation. A sum which a seller pays for not being obliged to deliver the shares at the time before agreed upon, but to carry them over to the following account : cf. Contango. Also Backwardization. Back-word. See Back-talk. Backy. A shopmato working be- hind another. Bacon. 1. Generic for rusticity. Thus bacon-slicer (bacon-chops or chaw-bacon) a rustic ; bacon-brains, a stupid clod- hopper : hence bacon-brained (-faced or -fed), clownish, dull (Bee and Grose) : also bacon-faced (or -side), fat-jowled, fat, sleek ; bacon-picker, a glutton. (1596.) 2. The human body. Whence to save one's bacon, to save appearances, to escape injury or loss (B. E., Grose, Bee) : Fr., sauver son lard ; to sell one's bacon, (1) to work for hire and spec., (2) to play the harlot for bread. (1362.) To pvll bacon, described in the Ingoldsby Legends : He put his thumb unto his nose and spread his fingers out, to take a sight (q.v.), to make Queen Anne's Fan (q.v.). Phrases: A good voice to beg bacon (said in jeer of an ill voice) (B. E. and Grose) ; When the devil is a hog, you shall eat bacon (Ray). Bad (or Badly). Very much, greatly. Also colloquial phrases ; to go 21 Bad Bargain. Bad Way. to the bad, to go to ruin ; to be [any- thing] to the bad, to show a deficit, be on the wrong side of an account ; to come back again like a bad penny, (1) of anything unwelcome, and (2) a jocular assurance of return ; not half bad, fairly good ; bad to beat, difficult to excel ; to want badly, the superla- tive of desire ; cruel bad, very bad. Also Give a dog a bad name and you may hang him. (1816.) Bad Bargain. See Q.H.B. Bad- break. A corruption of bad outbreak. Bad Crowd Generally. In sing., a mean wretch, no great shakes (q.v.). Bad-egg (-halfpenny, -hat, -lot, penny, etc.). 1. A ne'er-do-weel, loose fish : in America more inde- finitely used than in England. Also (old), a bad or risky speculation : Fr., mauvais gobet. (1363.) Bad Form. Conduct not in keep- ing with a conventional standard, vulgarity. Badge. 'A mark of Distinction among poor People ; as Porters, Water- men, Parish- Pensioners, and Hospital- boys, Blew -coats and Badges being the ancient Liveries' (B. E.). Hence badge-cove (or -man), a parish pensioner (Grose). To have one badge, to be burned in the hand : e.g. He has got his badge and piked, He has been burned in the hand and set at liberty (Grose). Badger. 1. They that buy up a quantity of Corn and hoard it up in the same Market, till the price rises ; or carry it to another where it bears a better (B. E.). [O. E. D. : Origin unknown : Fuller derived it from L., bajutare, to carry (as if a cant con- traction baj., cf. the modern zoo, cab, etc.), but evidence is required before this can be admitted for the 15c. . . . By Act 5 and 6 Ed. VI. o. 14. 7, Badgers were required to be licensed by the Justices (the origin of the hawker's license).] 2. A river desperado ; vil- lains who rob near rivers, into which they throw the bodies of those they murder (Grose) : see Ark-ruffian. 3. A panel-thief (q.v.) : hence Badger-crib. 4. A red-haired individual. 5. A com- mon prostitute. 6. The impersonator of Neptune in the festivities incident to Crowing the Lone ; also Badger-bag ; see Ambassador and Arthur. 7. (Wel- lington School) A member of the 2nd XV. at football. [A badge is worn by each individual : see sense 1.] 8. A brush ; spec, when made of badger's hair. 9. See Badger State. As verb, to worry unceasingly : as a badger when baited ; to pester : usually of a helpless victim (Bee). Hence badgered, wor- ried, teased ; badgering, heckling, persecution: Fr., aguigner. (1794.) To overdraw the badger, to overdraw a banking account. (1843.) Badger-box (Australian). A bad- ger- box is like an inverted V in section. They are covered with bark, with a thatch of grass along the ridge, and are on an average about 14 X 10 feet at the ground, and 9 or 10 feet high. Badgerly. Elderly, grey-haired : cf. grey as a badger. (1753.) Badger State. (1) The State of Wisconsin. [Badgers once abounded there.] Whence Badger, an inhabitant of Wisconsin. Bad Give-away. See Give-away. Bad-halfpenny. See Bad-egg. Bad Job. An ill bout, bargain, or business (B. E.). Bad Man. A professional fighter or man-killer, but who is sometimes perfectly honest. These men do most of the killing in frontier communities ; yet the men who are killed generally deserve their fate. They are used to brawling, are sure shots, and able to draw their weapon with marvellous quickness. They think nothing of murder, are the terror of their asso- ciates, yet are very chary of taking the life of a man of good standing, and will often weaken, and back down, at once if confronted fearlessly. Stock- men have united to put down these dangerous characters, and many locali- ties once infested by bad men are now perfectly law-abiding (Boose- veldt). Bad Match Twist. Red (or car- roty) hair and black whiskers. Badminton. 1. A kind of claret- cup : claret, sugar, spice, soda-water, and ice. [Invented at the Duke of Beaufort's seat of the same name.] (1845.) 2. Blood: cf. Claret, Rosy, etc. Bad Shot See Shot Bad Slang. Faked up monstrosi- ties, spurious curiosities : see Slang, subs. 7. Bad Way. See Way. 22 Saff. Bagman. Baff. See Buff. Bag. 1. The womb. Hence as verb (or to be bagged), to become pregnant, to get big with child ; bagged, lumpy (q.v.) : properly of animals ; bag-pud- ding, pregnancy : cf. Sweet-heart and bag-pudding (Bay). (1598.) 2. The stomach : hence as verb, to feed, fill the stomach ; bagging, food : spec. (North) food eaten between meals, or (Lane.) a substantial afternoon repast, high tea; hence bagging -time. (1750.) 3. In pi., the paps, dugs (q.v.) : properly of animals. ( 1 642. ) 4. In pi. , Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway Bonds. 5. In pi., loosely-fitting clothes : spec, trousers ; also bumbags : whence hold- ing bags, breeches of loud pattern or cut, and go-to-meeting-bags, Sunday clothes, one's best wear : see Kicks. Hence baggy, stretched by wear ; bag- gily, loosely ; to bag, to sag ; bag-sleeve, a sleeve baggy above, and tight at, the wrist. (1350.) 6. (Westminster School). In sing., milk. 7. The contents of a game bag, the result of sport ; said of racing as of fishing, shooting, etc.; and alike of a big game expedition as of a day in the stubble. As verb (or to bring to bag), (1) to shoot, to kill, to catch. (1814.) (2) To acquire, secure : i.e. to seize, catch, or steal : cf. Nab, Cop, Bone, etc. Whence (old) bagger, a miser; bagged, (1) got, and (2) quodded (q.v.). (1740.) As intj.. Bags I or Bags I \ to assert a claim to some article of privilege : cf. Fains or Fain it (q.v.), a demand for a truce during a game, which is always granted : Pike I (or Prior pike) likewise serves to lay claim to anything, or to assert priority : also bar \ e.g. He wanted me to do so and so, but I barred not. Phrases. To turn to bag and wallet, to turn beggar ; to give one the bag to hold (Hay), to slip off : also leave in the lurch ; to give the bag, (1) to leave with- out warning (Grose), also (2) dismiss, and (3) cheat (Webster): see Canvas, Sack, and Wallet ; to let the cat out of the bag, to disclose a trick or secret (see Cat) ; to empty the bag, to tell all : also lose an argument (Fr., vider le sac); to put one in a bag, to vanquish, double up ; to put (or get) one's head in a bag, to drink a pot of beer ; to take the bag, to play the hare in Hare and Hounds ; to have the bags, ( 1 ) to come of age, and (2) be flush of money ; to bag the over (see Jockey). See Blue-bag ; Carpet- bagger ; Cat ; Green-bag ; Nose-bag ; Wind-bag. Bag-and- baggage. One's belong- ings : hence to dear (or turn) out bag- and-baggage, to make a good riddance : in depreciation. [0. E. D. : Originally a military phrase denoting all the pro- perty of an army collectively, and of the soldiers individually; hence the phrase, orig. said to the credit of an army or general, To march out with bag-and- baggage (Fr., vie et bagues sauves) ; i.e. with all belongings saved ... to make an honourable retreat.] Bag - and- baggage policy, wholesale surrender, general scuttling, peace at any price. (1600.) Bag and Bottle. Provisions, food and drink : cf. Back and belly. Bagatelle. A trifle, matter of little worth or consequence. As adj., trump- ery, trifling. [O. E. D. : Formerly quite naturalised ; now scarcely so.] (1637. ) Baggage. 1. Luggage, portable property ; belongings (q.v.) : spec, the equipment of an army. Hence bag-and- baggage (q.v.). Whence baggage-check, a luggage-ticket, cloak-room ticket ; baggage-man (or master), a guard in charge of luggage ; baggage-room, a parcels office or cloak-room ; baggage- smasher, a porter, station thief. ( 1430. ) 2. Generic for trash: e.g. encumbrances, rubbish, dirt, pus. Whence (spec. post- Reformation), the rites and accessories of Catholic ritual : cf. sense 3. As adj., trumpery (also baggagely), corrupt, vile. (1538.) 3. A good-for-nothing : man or woman : spec, strumpet (B. E. : cf. Fr. bagasse, Sp. bagaza, Port, bgasa, It. bagascia). Also (4) a familiar ad- dress to a woman, esp. a young woman : usually qualified by cunning, saucy, pretty, little, sly, etc. (Grose) : cf. Puss, Rogue, Wench, Drab, etc. As adj., worthless (see sense 2), vile ; baggagery, the rabble, the scum of society. Heavy baggage (Grose and Bee), women and children. Baggy. Inflated ; high-falutin' (q.v.). See Bag, subs. 3. Bagle. A prostitute (HattiweU). Bagman. 1. A bag - fox, a fox caught and preserved alive to be hunted another day, when it is brought in a bag and turned out before the hounds. 2. A commercial traveller, an Ambassador of commerce (q.v.) : formerly the usual epithet, but now in depreciation. (1766.) 23 Bagnio. Baktr. Bagnio. A brothel, a stew (q.v.). [Orig. a bathing-house.] Also Bainos. (1541.) Bag- of- bones. An emaciated person (or animal) a walking skeleton (q.v.), shapes (q.v). Also (old) Bed- full of bones, and Bagful of skin and bones : Fr., sacdos (i.e. sac d dos). (1621.) Bag of Nails. Confusion, topsy- turveydom. [Qy. from bacchanals.] Also, He squints like a bag of nails, i.e. his eyes are directed as many ways as the points of a bag of nails (Grose. ) Bag o' Moonshine. Nonsense : see Moonshine. Bag of Mystery. A sausage (or Baveloy), a chamber of horrors (q.v.). Bag-of- tricks. Usually the whole bag of tricks, every shift or expedient. [See fable of The Fox and the Cat] Hence the bottom of the bag of tricks (or the bag), a last resource, a card up one's sleeve. (1659.) Bagpipe. A chatterbox, a wind- bag (q.v.) : cf. He's like a bagpipe, he never talks till his belly's full. As adj., empty-headed, gutless (q.v.) ; and as verb, to gas (q.v.). Bag- pud ding. A clown: cf. Jack- pudding : see Bag, subs. 1. Bag-wig. An eighteenth century wig ; the back hair was enclosed in an ornamental bag ; hence bag - wigged, wearing a bag- wig. (1760.) Ba-ha. Bronchitis. Bah. An exclamation of contempt or disgust: Fr., bah ! (1600.) Bail. Straw-bail (or straw-shoes). 1. Professional bail : see Straw. Also (2) insufficient bail (modern). To give (or take) leg bail, to escape, be indebted to one's legs for safety : see Bunk. Also to take leg-bail and give land-security. (1775.) Bail up (or Bale up). (1) To se- cure the head of a cow in a bail for milking. (2) By transference, to stop travellers in the bush, used of bush- rangers. ... It means generally to stop. Like Stick up (q.v.), it is often used humorously of a demand for sub- scriptions, etc. (1844.) Bain. See Bagnio. Bairn's- bed. The womb. (1549.) Bait. 1. Anger, a wax (q.v.). 2. A fee, a refresher (q.v.). (1603.) Welsh (or Scotch) bait, a rest given to a horse at the top of a hill, a breather (q.v.). (1662.) Baiting-stock. A laughing-stock. (1630.) Bait land. An old word, formerly used to signify a port where refresh- ments could be procured. (1725.) Bake (Winchester). To rest, to sit (or lie) at ease. Hence baker, (1) a cushion, and (2) anything to sit (or kneel) upon, as a blotting- book, etc. [Bakers were of two kinds : that used in College was large, oblong and green ; whilst the Commoners' baker was thin, narrow, much smaller, and red.] Whence baker-layer (obs.), a Junior who carried a Prefect's green baker in and out of Hall at meal-times. Also bakester (obs.), a sluggard ; bak- ing-leave (obs.), (1) permission to bake (spec, on a kind of sofa) in a study in Commoners or in a Scob-place (q.v.) in College, and (2) leave to sit in another's toys (q.v.) ; baking-place, any place in which to bake, or in connection with which baking leave was given. [North, dial. : beek (or beak), to expose oneself to the genial warmth of sun, fire, etc., to bask. Jamieson : beik, beke, beek, to bask.] (1230.) Phrases : To bake one's bread, to punish (q.v.), to do for (q.v.) ; As they brew, so let them bake (prov. saying), Let them go on as they have begun ; I must go and bake some bread (a jocular excuse for departure) ( 1 380. ) Baked. Collapsed, exhausted, done up ; e.g. toward tne end of the course the crew were regularly baked. Half- (or dough-) baked, inconclusive, imper- fect Also dull-witted, soft (q.v.): see Half-baked. (1502.) Baker. 1. Bakers, against whom severe penalties for impurity of bread or shortness of weight were enacted from very early times, have been the subject of much colloquial sarcasm. ' I feare we parte not y6et, Quoth the baker to the pylorie.' (1562.) They say the owl was a baker's daughter. (1602.) Three dear years will raises baker's daughter to a portion ; 'Tis not the smallness of the bread, but the knavery of the baker ; Take all, and ry the baker ; Pull devil, pull baker. A loafer. [The word is generally atthbutedto Baron de MandatGrancey, who, in Cowboys and Colonels, inno- cently translated the word loafer as baker.] To spett baker, to attempt a difficult task. [In old spelling booka Baker was often the first word of 24 Baker-kneed. Ball. two syllables to which a child came when learning to spell.] Baker-kneed (or Baker-legged). Knock-kneed, bow-legged, effeminate (Grose). (1607.) Baker's Dozen (or Bargain). 1. Thirteen counted as twelve : sometimes fourteen (Grose and Bee). Hence 2. good measure : e.g. To give a man a baker's dozen, to trounce him well. Also Brown-dozen (q.v.), DeviPs-dozen (cf. Baker 1, and Fr., boulanger, devil), and Round-dozen (see Round). [Bakers were (and are) liable to heavy penalties for deficiency in the weights of loaves : these were fixed for every price from eighteenpence down to twopence, but penny loaves or rolls were not specified in the statute. They, therefore, to be on the safe side, gave, for a dozen of bread, an additional loaf, known as inbread. A similar custom was for- merly observed with regard to coal, and publishers nowadays reckon thir- teen copies of a book as twelve. (1596.) Baker's Light Bobs. The 10th Hussars. Bakes. 1. A schoolboy. 2. An ori- ginal stake : chiefly schoolboys': e.g. When I get my bakes back I shall stop playing. [Barttett : in reference possibly to a baker not always getting his bake safely out of the oven.] Bakester, Baking-leave, Baking- place, etc. See Bake. Balaam. Miscellaneous paragraphs for filling up a column of type, padding (q.v.) ; applied either to MS. copy or stereo. Hence Balaam-box (or -basket), (1) a receptacle for such matter, and (2) a waste - paper basket. [Webster : a cant term ; popularised by BlackwoocTa Mag. See Numbers xxii. 30.] (1822.) Balaclava- day. A soldier's pay day. [Balaclava in 1854-6 was a base of supply for English troops : as pay was drawn, the men went down to make their purchases.] Balance. The remainder, the rest : cf. lave (Scots) and shank (as in the shank of the evening). ( 1 846. ) Balbus. A Latin prose composition. [From the frequency with which Balbus is mentioned in Arnold's Latin Prose Composition.'] Baldcoot. 1. A term of contempt: cf. Baldhead. [The frontal plate of the coot is destitute of feathers.] Hence bald as a. coot, as bald as may be. [Tyndale, Works (1530), ii. 224, s.v.]. 2. A young man who parts with his blunt freely at gambling, and is rooked; older persons also stay and get plucked sometimes, until they have not a feather to fly with. Such men, after the plucking, become bald-coots (Bee). Balderdash. (1) Froth or frothy liquid ; (2) a jumble of liquors (B. E. and Grose) : e.g. brandy (or milk) and beer, milk and rum, etc. : also as verb, to dash with another liquid, and hence to adulterate (Grose) ; (3) a jumble of words, nonsense, trash ; and (4) lewd conversation (Grose), obscen- ity, scurrility. [0. E. D. : From the evidence at present the inference is that the current sense was transferred .... with the notion of frothy talk. Century : Of obscure origin, apparently dial, or slang.] (1598.) Bald -face. New whisky: war- ranted to kill at forty rods. Boldfaced, neat (q.v.). Bald-faced Shirt. A white shirt: cf. Boiled shirt. Bald-faced Stag. A bald-headed man, bladder of lard. Baldhead (or Pate). A term of contempt : also Baldy. [Of Biblical origin.] Hence baltititde, a state of baldness ; his balditude, a mock title ; and baldheaded-row, the first row of stalls at theatres, especially at leg- shops (q.v.). (1535.) Baldheaded. Eagerly ; with might and main. [Bartlett : as when one rushes out without his hat. (1848.) To snatch baldheaded, to defeat a person in a street fight. Baldober (or Baldower). A leader, a spokesman [Ger.]. Bald-rib. A lean person, a walk- ing-skeleton (q.v.). (1621.) Bal due turn. Nonsense, rubbish : as adj., affected, trashy. (1577.) Bal four's Maiden. A covered bat- tering-ram : used by the Royal Irish Constabularly in carrying out evictions in Ireland (1888-89.) Ball. 1. The head: also Ball in the hood, Billiard-ball, etc. (1300.) 2. A ration, food or drink. 3. (Win- chester) in pi., a Junior hi College : his duty is to collect footballs from lockers in school and take them through to the Ball-keeper in Commoners to be blown or repaired, and who, for service in looking after cricket and footballs, is exempted from kicking in (q.v.) and 26 Ballad-basket. Banbury. watching out (q.v.). Phrases. To catch (or take) the ball before the bound,to uiticipate ; to have the ball at one's foot (or before one), to have in one's power (or at one's finger-ends) ; to open the ball, to lead off, make a start ; to keep the ball rolling (or keep up the ball), to prevent a matter flagging or hanging fire ; to take up the bau, to take one's turn : whence the ball's with you, you're next (1589.) Call the ball (Stonyhurst), the Foul ! of Associa- tion football. Three brass (or golden) balls : see Three Balls. Ballad- basket. A street singer : see Street pitcher : Fr., braillard. Ballad-monger. A ballad-maker : in contempt : hence Ballad- mongering. (1596.) Ballahou. A term of derision applied to an ill-conditioned slovenly ship (Century) ; a West Indian clip- per schooner : apparently she may also be a brig to judge from The Cruise of the Midge (Clark Russell). Ballambangjang. The Straits of BaUambangjang, though unnoticed by geographers, are frequently mentioned in sailors' yarns as being so nanrow.and the rocks on each side so crowded with trees inhabited by monkeys, that the ship's yards cannot be squared, on ac- count of the monkeys' tails getting jammed into, and choking up, the brace blocks (Hotten). Ballast. Money : generic : see Rhino. Hence wett-baUasted, rich. Ball Face. A white man [Bartlett : applied at Salem, Mass., 1810-1820]. Ball-keeper. See Ball, subs. Ball of Fire. A glass of cheap brandy (Grose.) Ball of Honour. See Beggar's Ace. Ball of Wax. A snob, or shoe- maker. Balloon. To brag, to gas (q.v.). Also baUoonacy (cf. lunacy), a mania for ballooning ; baUoonatic (cf. lunatic), balloon - mad ; ballooning, inflating prices by fictitious means, and as adj., high falutin' (q.v.). (1826.) Ballot-box Stuffing. Tampering with election returns ; a box is con- structed with false bottom and com- partments so as to permit spurious bal- lots to be introduced by the teller in charge. The most outrageous frauds have been committed by this means Ball's-bull. Like BalT bull, said of a person with no ear for music : Ball's bull had so little that he kicked the fiddler over the bridge (HalliweU). Bally. A generic intensive : very, great, excessive. [A comparatively re- cent coinage, it is said, of The Sporting Times from ballyhooly.] Ballyhack. Go to hollyhock, Get along. Ballyrag. See Bullyrag. Balm. A lie (Duncombe). Balmy. The balmy, sleep : as adj., sleepy: cf. balmy slumbers (Shake- speare) and balmy sleep ( Young). To have a doze (or wink) of the balmy, to go to sleep : see Bedfordshire and Barmy. Balsam. Generic for money (Grose and Bee) : see Rhino. Bam (or Bamboozle). A hoax, cheat : as verb (bamboo, boozle, or 6am- booze), to victimize, outwit, mystify or deceive (Grose) : also (HalliweU) to threaten : cf. hum from humbug, [Swift (1710), Toiler, Refinements of Twenty Years Past : Certain words such as banter, bamboozle . . . now struggling for the vogue ; Johnson (1755) : a cant word ; Boucher (1833) : has long . . . had a place in the gypsy or canting dictionaries ; 0. E. D. : probably of cant origin ; Century : [a slang word of no definite origin.] Whence numerous combinations, col- loquialisms and phrases : e.g. to bam- boozle away, to get rid of speciously; to bamboozle into, to persuade artfully ; to bamboozle out of, to obtain by trick ; bamboozled, mystified, tricked ; bam- boozlement, tricky deception ; bam- boozler, a mystifier ; bambost, deceptive humbug ; to bamblustercate, to bluster, embarrass, or confuse : cf. conglomer- ate and comflogisticate ; bamsquabbled (or &itmgtta6Wed),discomfited,defeated squelched. See Banter. (1703.) Banaghan. He beats Banaghan, an Irish saying of one who tells travellers' tales. [Banaghan (Grose) was a minstrel famous for dealing in the marvellous.] Banagher. To bang. Bananaland, Bananalander. Queensland, a native of Queensland. A large portion of Queensland lies within the tropics to which the banana (Musa sapientum) is indigenous.] Banbury. The inhabitants of this Oxfordshire town (now noted for its 26 Banco. Bang. cakes) seem to have been the subjects of ridicule and sarcasm from very early times ; chiefly on account of their zeal for the Puritan cause. Thus Banbury- man (-blood or -saint), a hypocrite (cf. popular saying A Banbury man will hang his cat on Monday for catching mice on Sunday) ; Banbury - wife, a whore ; Banbury - story (or Banbury tale of a cock-and-a-butt), an extremely improbable yarn (Grose), silly chat (B. E.) ; Banbury-gloss, a specious reading ; Banbury-vapours, the stock- in-trade of a Puritan agitator ; Ban- bury-cheese, the thinnest of poor cheese (Hey wood : I never saw Banbury cheese thick enough) : hence a term of contempt. Also proverbs (Howett, 1660) : Like Banbury tinkers, who in stopping one hole make two ; As wise as the mayor of Banbury, who would prove that Henry III. was before Henry II. (1535.) Banco. (Charterhouse). Evening preparation at House, under the superintendence of a monitor ; the Winchester toy - time (q.v.). [See Farmer : Public School Word Book.'] Banco-steerer. See Bunco- steerer. Band. Our Lady's bands, accouche- ment, confinement (an old abstract meaning.) (1495.) See Banded. Bandanna. Orig. a silk handker- chief with white, yellow, or other coloured spots on a dark ground. Also (loosely) a handkerchief of any kind : see Wipe. (1752.) Bandbox (or Bandboxical). (1) Precisely neat, fussy, finical ; and (2) frail or small (as is a bandbox) : e.g. a bandbox thing ; She's just come out of a bandbox (or glass case) ; You ought to be put in a bandbox (of any- one over particular). See Bandog. (1774.) Banded. Hungry ; also to wear the bands (Grose and Vaux). Bandero. Widows' weeds. [Cf. Littrt/ : bandeau, anciennement, coiffure des veuves ; Kennett : bandore a widow's veil, and B. E., a widow's mourning Peak ; Eng., banderol, a streamer carried on the shaft of a lance near the head.] Bandog. 1. A bailiff, or his Follower, a Sergeant, or his Yeo- man (B. E. and Cfrose). [Properly a bound - dog, because ferocious ; hence a mastiff or bloodhound.] To speak like a bandog (or bandog and bedlam), to rave, to bluster. (1600.) 2. A bandbox (Grose). B. andS. Brandy and Soda. (1868.) Bandy. See Bender. Bandy-legged. Crooked (B. E.) [The earliest quot. in 0. E. D. is dated 1787 ; but the word did not come into general use until the second quarter of the eighteenth century.] Bang. 1. Generic for energy and dash : a blow, thump, sudden noise, go (q.v.). As verb, to drub (B. E. and Grose), strike, explode, or shut with violence. Hence to bang it out (or about), to come to blows (or fisti- cuffs), fight it out ; to bang (slam) a door ; to bang (fire) a gun ; to bang (play loudly) a piano ; to bang into one's head, to convince by force ; to bang against, to bump (or thump) ; to bang away at, to make a violent and continuous noise ; to bang out, to go with a flourish ; to bang up, to sud- denly throw oneself upon, to spring up; bang (or bang off), at once, abruptly; e.g. bang went saxpence ; tn a bang, in a hurry ; bang out, completely ; banging, violent, noisy, and as subs, a drubbing : see Wipe. 2. A fringe of hair (usually curled or frizzed) cut squarely across the forehead. As verb, to cut (or wear) the hair in this fashion : also bang tail, bang-tailed, and bang-tail muster (of horses, cattle, etc.) Every third or fourth year on a cattle station, they have what is called a bang tail muster ; that is to say, all the cattle are brought into the yards, and have the long hairs at the end of the tail cut off square, with knives or sheep-shears : the object of it is ... to find out the actual number of cattle on the run, to compare with the number entered on the station books (Tyr- whitt). As verb (1) to excel, surpass, beat : cf. (Irish) that bangs Bannag- her and Bannagher bangs the world ; (2) to outwit, puzzle, deceive : banging great, large, thumping (q.v.) : e.g. a banging boy, wench, lie, etc. ; banger, anything exceptional ; bang-up, fine, first-rate, of the best (the root idea is completeness combined with energy and dash) ; occasionally (as verb), to smarten up ; (3) to offer stock loudly with the intention of lowering the price (Stock Exchange). To be banged up to the eyes, to be drunk : see Screwed to bang (or beat) the hoof : see Hoof. 27 Bang-beggar. Bantling. Bang- beggar. 1. A stout cudgel. 2. A constable or beadle. 3. A vagabond : ^ term of reproach. Banger. A heavy cane, a bludgeon : one of the Yale vocables (Hall). The Bangert, the First Life Guards. Bang- pitcher. A tippler: see Lush- Ington. Hence to bang the pitcher, to guzzle : see Lush. Bangs ter. 1. A bully, braggart. As adj. turbulent. Bangstry, violence. 2. A victor, winner : cf. bang, verb. 3. A wanton. Bangstraw. A thresher: also ap- plied to all servants of a farmer (Grose). Bang- tail. See Bang. B a n g y (Winchester College). Brown sugar. As adj., brown. Hence bangy bags (or 6on0te),brown-coloured trousers : the strong objection to these in former times probably arose from Tony Lumpkin coming to school in corduroys (Wrench). Bangy -gate (1) a brown gate leading from Grass Court to Sick House Meads ; and (2) a gate by Racquet Court into Kings- gate Street. Banian (or Banyan) -day. One day (originally two) in the week on which, in the Royal Navy, meat was withheld from the crews ; hence, a bad day, a disagreeable day : in reference to the Banian's abstinence from flesh. Banister. A balustrade : a cor- ruption of baluster condemned by Nicholson as improper, by Stuart and Gwilt (Diet. Archit. 1830) as vul- gar, the term had already taken literary rank, and has now acquired general acceptance. Banjo. A bed-pan, fiddle (q.v.), slip- per (q.v.). Bank. 1. A lump sum, the total amount possessed : e.g. How's the bank ? Not very strong, about one and a buck. As verb, (1) to steal, make sure of : e.g. Bank the rags, Take the notes ; (2) to place in safety ; and (3) to share the booty, to nap the regulars (q.v.). 2. Spec. The Bank, i.e. Millbank Prison; the site is now (1903) occupied by an Art Gallery. Banker. 1. A horse, good at jumping on and off banks too high to be cleared. 2. In pi., clumsy boots and shoes, beetle-crushers (q.v.): see Trotter-cases. Bankrupt -cart. A one-horse chaise of a Sunday (Bcc) : said to be so called by a Lord Chief Justice through their being so frequently used on Sunday jaunts by extravagant shopkeepers and tradesmen (Grose). Bankruptcy List To be put on the bankruptcy lift, to be completely knocked out of time (Grose). Bank-shaving. Usury : before banks were regulated by Act of Congress, the least reputable purchased notes of hand and similar documents at enor- mously usurious rates of discount : he who thus raised the wind was said to get his paper shaved. Bankside-lady (or wench). In 15th to 17th c. a harlot: in old London the neighbourhood of the theatres was notably Bank-side, Southwark, and in later days, Covent Garden and Drury Lane. Bank-sneak. A bank thief (q.v.). Banner. Money paid for board and lodging : the origin of the term is un- known. Bannister. A traveller in distress : the term occurs in the ancient accounts of the parish of Chudleigh, co. Devon. Ban que t. Running banquet, a snack, slight repast between meals ; running banquet between beadles, a whipping. Banquet-beagle. A glutton, smell- feast (q.v.). Banter. Nonsense, raillery, pleasantry, a jest or matter of jest. As verb, with numerous derivatives : e.g. banter er, banter ee, bantering, ban- tery, etc. Swift says the word was First borrowed from the bullies in White Friars, then it fell among the foot- men, and at last retired to the pedants (Tale of a Tub, 1710; of unknown etymology : it is doubtful whether the verb or the sb. was the earlier : ex- isting evidence is in favour of the verb : the sb. wad treated as slang in 1688 (O. E. D.). 2. A challenge to a race, shooting-match, etc. (Bartlett, 1484). Also as verb. Bant. Orig. to follow the dietary prescribed by Dr. Banting for corp- ulence ; hence to diet oneself, train. Bantling. A bastard : cf. brat ; hence (modern), child (B. E., Grose) : spec, a young or undersized child ; usually in depreciation : with great probability, a corruption of Ger. oanlding, bastard, from bank, bench, i.e. a child begotten on a bench and not in the marriage-bed (AfaAn). 28 tianty. Bargain. Banty. Saucy, impudent. Banyan- day. See Banian-day. Baptised. Mixed with water, christened (q.v.) (Grose, Bee) : spec, of spirits when not taken neat (q.v.) : Fr., chretien, baptist. Baptist. A pickpocket caught and ducked (Bee). Bar. As verb and preposition bar, of respectable lineage, is now more or lees colloquial. 1. Except, excluding, save, but for : mostly used in racing, e.g. four to one bar one, four to one on the field, that is on all the horses entered excepting only the favourite. 2. To exclude from consideration, take exception to. 3. To stop, cease. 4. To frequent drinking-bars, to tipple. To bar too much, to get drunk : see Screwed. Barabbas. A publisher. [Usually, but erroneously, attributed to Lord Byron, who is said to have applied it to John Murray the elder, having sent him a Bible in which the famous pas- sage in John xviii., 40, was altered to Now Barabbas was a publisher. The reigning John Murray (1904) writes : I have it on the authority of my father, who was alive during all the time of his father's dealings with Byron, that there is not a word of truth in any detail of the story. The joke was in reality made by Thomas Campbell in regard to another pub- lisher, the Mr Longman of his day]. Baragan-tailor. A rough-working tailor. Barathrum. An extortioner, a glut- ton. Barb. To shave, trim the beard : also to barber : cf. Butch. 2. To clip gold, sweat (q.v.) : also applied to clipping wool, cloth, etc. Barbadoes. To transport (as a con- vict) : Barbadoes was formerly a penal settlement. Barbar. (Durham School). A can- didate for scholarship hailing from another school : i.e. barbar-i&a, stranger. Barber. 1. A thick fagot or bough : one was included in each bundle of fire- wood. 2. Any large piece of timber. 3. A generic reproach : thus, barber' s -block (cleric, or barber-monger), a fop, one who spends much time in barbers' shops ; spec, (mechanics) an over- dressed shopman or clerk ; barber's cat, a weak, sickly-looking person ; barber's - chair, a strumpet (because common to all comers) ; barber' s-music, rough music. Also (proverbial) Nos- trils wider than barbers' basins. As verb, to work off an imposition by deputy : also barberise : tradition says that a learned barber, was at one time employed as a scapegoat in working off this species of punish- ment. 3. See Barb and barberise. That's the barber, that's well done ; It's all O.K. (q.v.) : a street catch- phrase about the year 1760 (Grose). Barberize. To shave, cut hair, play the barber : cf. Barb. Barber's-knock. A double knock : the first hard, and the second soft as if by accident. Bard. A term of contempt : in early Lowland Scotch used for a strolling musician or minstrel, into which the Celtic bard had degenerated, and against whom many laws were enacted; in 16th cent., a term of con- tempt, but idealised by Scott to mean an epic poet, a singer. Bar' d cater tra. False dice: so constructed that the quatre and trois were seldom cast : cf. fullams, high- men, low-men, etc. Bare-board. To go on bare-board, to play without putting down the stake. Bare-bones. A lean person, walk- ing skeleton, rack of bones : also (in Commonwealth times) a term of con- tempt. Bare-footed. Variously applied : e.g. to take tea barefooted, to dispense with sugar and milk ; to take a dram barefooted, to drink spirits neat (q.v.), or naked (q.v.) ; barefooted on the top of the head, bald. Bargain. Subs. (old). A catch, sell (q.v.). Hence, to sell a bargain, to humbug, hoax, banter : a species of low wit, of ancient usage, but much in vogue about the latter end of the reign of Queen Anne. Swift remarks that, The maids of honour often amused themselves with it. Dutch (or wet) bargain, a deal clinched by a drink ; Dutch-bargain also means a deal the advantage of which is all on one side. Also in various proverbial phrases : thus, To make the best of a bad bargain (Hay) ; At a great bargain make a pause ; More words than one go to a bargain ; A good bargain is a pick-purse (i.e. tempts people to buy what they need not). 29 Barge. Barmy. Barge. 1. A fat, heavy person ; one broad in the beam : in contempt. 2. (Printers) (a) A case unduly loaded with stamps not in frequent request with a shortness of those most in use. Also (b) a card or small box for spaces : used while correcting away from case. 3. (Sherborne School). Small cricket : played against a wall with a stump for bat. As verb, to abuse, slang ; cf. Bullyrag. Also (Charterhouse and Uppingham) to hustle, mob up, brick. Bargee. A barge- man or barger (the dictionary terms): Cambridge wit (Grose). Barge-pole (Winchester). A large stick of thick bough, of which there was one in each fagot : also any large Eiece of wood : cf. Barber. Not fit to 5 touched with the end of a barge-pole (a pair of tongs, etc.), unapproachable through filth, disease, prejudice, or the like. Bark. 1. A native of Ireland : hence Barkshire, Ireland. 2. The skin. As verb, to abrade (scrape, or rub off) the skin, bruise. 3. A cough : spec, when persistent and hacking: per- sons thus troubled are said to Have been to Barking Creek (or Barkshire). As verb, to cough incessantly. Barker, one with a churchyard cough (q.v.) or notice to quit (q.v.). 4. See Barker, Phrases: To bark against (or at) the moon (see Barker) ; to take the bark off, to reduce in value, rub the gilt off ; the. word with the bark on it, without circumlocution, no mincing matters, the straight -tip (q.v.); between the bark and the wood (or tree) (of a well- adjusted bargain where neither party has the advantage (BaUiweU) ; to bark through the fence, to take advantage of adventitious shelter or protection to say or do that which would other- wise entail unpleasant consequences ; to bark up the wrong tree, to blunder, to mistake one's object or the right course to pursue, to get the wrong sow by the ear ; to go between bark and tree, to meddle : spec, in family matters ; the bark is worse than the btle (of one who threatens but fails to do as he vows). Barker. 1. A salesman's servant that walks before the shop, and cries, Cloaks, Coate, or Gowns, what d'ye lack, sir T (B. E.). 2. A tout of any description. Fr., aboyeur. 3. A boy attending a drover, helping him to drive his sheep by means of imitating the bark of a dog. 4. A noisy (or assertive) disputant, spouting dema- gogue, querulous fault - finder. As verb, to clamour, menace, abuse. 5. (Univ.), a big swell (i.e. one assert- ing himself or putting on side (q.v.) 6. (American) A noisy coward, blatant bully, lamb (q.v.). 7. Whence to bark at (or against) the moon, to clamour uselessly, agitate to no effect, labour in vain : cf. proverb, Barking dogs bite not. 8. Generic for firearms, spec, (in navy), a duelling pistol ; also a lower deck gun. Barking iron is historically the older term (Grose). English synonyms, blue lightning, dag, meat - in - the - pot, my uncon- verted friend, one-eyed scribe, pop, peacemaker, whistler. Barkey. Any kind of vessel : an endearment. [Bark for vessel is never used by sailors (Clark Russell).] Barla-fumble ! A call for truce or quarter : also barley. Barley. In general colloquial use : thus, oil of barley (or barley - bree, broth, -juice, -water, or -wine), (1) strong ale, and (2) whisky (Grose) ; barley-island, an alehouse ; John Bar- ley (or Barleycorn), the personification of malt liquor : cf. proverb, Sir John Barleycorn's the strongest knight ; barley - cap, a tippler ; barley-mood (or sick) (1) drunk; and (2) ill-humour caused by tippling ; also to have (or wear) a barley-hat (-cap, or -hood) (1500). Barley-bun gentleman. A gent (although rich) yet lives with barley bread, and otherwise barely and hardly (Minsheu). Barley-straw. A trifle (1721). Barmecide. Usually in the phrase a Barmecide feast, short commons ; lenten entertainment. [From the Arabian Nights story of a prince of that name who put a series of empty dishes before a beggar pretending that they formed a sumptuous repast, the beggar facetiously assenting.] Also as adj. Barmy (Balmy). Excited, flighty, empty-headed (i.e. full of nothing but froth) ; barmy-brained, crazy ; barmy- froth, a simpleton, muddle-head ; to put on the balmy stick (prison), to feign madness. English synonyms: to be dotty, off one's chump, sappy, spoony, touched, wrong in the upper storey, half-baked, have a screw loose, a bee 30 Barn. Ban ell's Blues. in one's bonnet, no milk in the cocoa- nut, rats in the upper storey (or cock- loft), a tile (screw or slate) loose. Barn. See Parson's barn. Barnaby. To dance Barnaby, to move expeditiously, irregularly ( Grose): an old dance to a quick movement was so named. Barnaby-bright (or Long Barnaby), St. Barnabas's Day, llth June, O.S. : cf. old rhyme Barnaby Bright ! Barnaby Bright : The longest day and the shortest night. Barnacle. 1. A close companion, a follower that will not be dismissed, a leech ; hence a decoy swindler (1591) : cf. Barnard. 2. One that speaketh through the nose (Percivatt). 3. A good job, or snack easily got (B. E. ). 4. A gratuity given to grooms by the buyers and sellers of horses (B. E.). 5. In pi., spectacles, bossers (q.v.), goggles (q.v.): Fr., persiennes: formerly applied only to spectacles with side-pieces of coloured glass, and used more as protectors from wind, dust, etc., than as an aid to the sight (1571). 6. A brake for unruly horses' noses (B. E.). 7. The irons felons wear in gaol (B. E.). Barnard. A sharper's confederate ; a decoy : cf. Barnacle. (1532.) Barnburner. A member of the radical section of the Democratic party (U.S.A.). (1848.) Barndoor. 1. A target too large to be easily missed ( 1547) : hence barn- door practice, a battue : the quarry is driven within a radius from which it is impossible for it to escape ; 2. applied at cricket to a player who blocks every ball. Barndoor-savage. A country yokel, farm-labourer, clodhopper. Barnet ! (Christ's Hospital : ob- solete). Nonsense ! humbug ! Barnet-fair (or Barnet). The hair. Barney. 1. Generic for humbug or deceit : spec, (sporting) an unfair competition of any kind a race, prize fight, or game ; the term is never ap- plied to a fair contest ; hence a free fight, or rough and tumble, in which the rules of the game are not too strictly observed. 2. A spree, lark (q.v.), picnic (q.v.). 3. A bad recita- tion (Harvard College, c. 1810). As verb, to recite badly. Barn - mouse. Bitten by a barn- mouse, tipsy, screwed (q.v.) : see Barley (Grose), Barn-stormer. A strolling player : spec, a mouthing actor (see quot. 1886) : also barnstorming. Barnumese. The high-f abating (q.v.) language so lavishly used by the late P. T. Barnum in advertising the greatest show on earth, exaggeration of style : cf. Telegraphese : hence to barnumize (1) to exhibit with a lavish display of puffing advertisement ; and (2) to talk of (or assert) oneself bom- bastically in the style of Barnum. Baronet. A sirloin of beef : cf. Baron. (1749.) Barrack. To jeer at opponents, interrupt noisily, make a disturbance ; also with for, to support as a partisan, generally with clamour : an Australian football term dating from about 1880 : the verb has been ruled unparlia- mentary by the Speaker in the Vic- torian Legislative Assembly, but it is in very common colloquial use : it is from the aboriginal word borak (q.v.), and the sense of jeering is earlier than that of supporting, but jeering at one side is akin to cheering for the other (Morris). Hence barracking and bar- rocker. Barrack- (or Garrison) -hack. 1. A young woman attending garrison balls year after year. 2. A soldiers' trull : see Hackney. Barred-gown. An officer of the law ; spec, a judge : broad stripes or bars of gold lace run across the front of the gown. Barrel. 1. A confirmed tippler : also beer-barrel ; whence barrel-house (American), a low groggery ; barrel- fever, drunkenness (or disease caused by tippling ) : see Gallon-distemper ; barrel-boarder , a bar loafer. 2. Money used in a political campaign (Ameri- can politics) ; spec, that expended for corrupt purposes : cf. Boodle ; barrel- campaign, an election in which bribery is a leading feature : a wealthy candi- date for office (c. 1876) is said to have remarked, Let the boys know that there's a bar I o' money ready for 'em, or words to that effect. Never (or the devil) a barrel the better herring, much like, not a pin to choose between them, six of one and half a dozen of the other. (1542). Barrel-bellied. Well - rounded in stomach, corpulent. ( 1 694. ) BarreU's Blues. The Fourth Foot, now The King's Own (Royal Lanca- 31 fiarrcs. Bates' Farm. hire Regiment) : from its facings and Colonel's name from 1734 to 1739. Barres. Money lost at play, but not paid : a corruption of barrace, an obsolete plural of bar. B a r r i k i n. Gibberish, jargon, jumble of words. (1851.) BarringOut A half serious bat oftentimes jocular rebellion of schoolboys against their schoolmaster. [HaUiweil. An ancient custom at schools : the boys, a few days before the holidays, barricade the school room from the master, and stipulate for -he discipline of the next half year. According to Dr. Johnson, Addison, in 1683, was the leader in an affair of this kind at Lichfield.] Barrow- bun ter. A barrow-woman, a female costermonger. (1771.) Barrow-man. A man under sen- tence of transportation. Barrow- tram. A raw-boned person : properly the shaft of a wheelbarrow. Barter (Winchester College). A half volley : as verb, to bit hard. [From the Warden of that name famous for disposing of them.] Hit- ting barters, practice catching, full pitches hit from the middle of Turf towards Ball - Court for catching practice towards the end of Long Meads. Bartholomew Baby. 1. A gaudily dressed doll, such as appears to have been commonly sold at Bartholomew Fair. 2. A person gaudily dressed. Bartholomew-pig. Roasted pigs were formerly among the chief attrac- tions of Bartholomew Fair, West Smith- field, London : they were sold pip- ing hot, in booths and on stalls, and ostentatiously displayed, to excite the appetite of passengers. Hence a Bartholomew-pig became a common subject of allusion : the Puritan railed against it Bar ts. St. Bartholomew Hospital. Bash. To beat, thrash, crush out of shape. Bashing, a flogging, spec, with the cat ; basher (1) a rough ; and (2) a prize-fighter. Bashaw. 1. A pasha. 2. A great (or imperious) man, grandee. (1593.) Bashi - Bazouk. A ruffian : used loosely as a more or less mild term of opprobrium ; also applied to anything bizarre in character or composition : the expression came into vogue during the period when the Bulgarian atro- cities were electrifying the world by their barbarous cruelty. Bash-rag. A ragamuffin. Basil. A fetter : usually fastened on the ankle of one leg only. (1592.) Basin. A schooner (q.v.). Baske t. An exclamation frequen tly made use of in cockpits where persons, unable to pay their losings, are ad- judged to be put into a basket BUS- pended over the pit, there to remain till the sport is concluded (Grose). To go to the basket, to go to prison : poor prisoners in public gaols were mainly dependent on the almsbasket for sus- tenance (1632) ; to pin the basket, to conclude a matter ; to be left in the basket, to remain unchosen ; left to the last ; the pick of the basket, the best, choicest ; to bring to the basket, to re- duce to poverty ; to leave in the basket, to leave in the lurch. Basket-scrambler. One living on charity, in receipt of alms. Bass. A familiar abbreviation for Bass' ale, brewed at Burton-on- Trent. Bass. A kiss: see Buss (1450). Also as verb. Basta. It is enough ! No more ! No matter ! Baste. To thrash, beat soundly : cf. Anoint (1533). Basting, a cudgel- ling, tanning (q.v.). Baster. 1. A house thief (q.v.). 2. A stick, cudgel. 3. A heavy blow. (1726.) B a s t i 1 e. A workhouse. 2. A prison, steel (q.v.). Bat 1. A prostitute : cf. Fly-by- night : Fr. hirondelle de nuit. 2. A drunken frolic : see Batter. 3. Pace, speed, rate, manner, style : e.g. going off at a lively bat Off one's own bat, by oneself, through one's own exertions, unaided (1845); to bat the eye, (1) to blink, wink ; (2) to look on, watch ; of a bystander not playing ; to carry out one's bat, to outlast all opponents, secure result aimed at Batch. To live single : of both sexes : a corruption of ' batchelor.' Batchelor's Son. A bastard. Bate. Bate me an ace, quoth Bolton, an expression of credulity (1570), Excuse me ! Bates' Farm (or Garden). Coldbath Fields prison : from a warder of that name and a certain appropriateness in 32 Bat-fowler. Bayard of Ten Toes. the initials, C.B.F., the prison initials, and used as a stamp, Charley Bates' farm. To feed the chickens on Charley Bates' Farm, to be put to the tread- mill. Bat-fowler. A swindler, sharper, victimiser of the unwary. Bat-fowl- ing, swindling, rookery (1602). Bath. Go to Bath, a contemptuous injunction to be off, Go to Blazes, Hull, Halifax anywhere : the in- junction was intensified by, 'and get your head shaved,' a suggestion of craziness. To go to Bath, to go beg- ging : Bath in the latter days of the 17th century was infested with the cadging fraternity. Bathing Machine. A 10-ton brig. Batie-bum (or Batie- bummil). A useless bungler, slowcoach, inactive helpless fellow (1550), Bat-mugger (Winchester College). A wooden instrument used for rubbing oil into cricket bats. Bats. A pair of bad or old boots. Elworthy, in West Somerset Words, gives this as a heavy laced boot with hobnails. Bats Down. How many bats down ? i.e. how many wickets have fallen ? Battels. The weekly bills of students at Oxford. Dr. Murray says much de- pends on the original sense at Oxford : if this was food, provisions, it is natural to connect it with battle, to feed, or receive nourishment. It appears that the word has apparently undergone progressive extensions of application, owing partly to changes in the internal economy of the colleges. Some Oxford men of a previous gener- ation state that it was understood by them to apply to the buttery accounts alone, or even to the provisions ordered from the buttery, as distinct from the commons supplied from the kitchen : but this latter use is disavowed by others. Also as verb, and Battler, an Oxford student, formerly used in con- tradistinction to a gentleman com- moner. Batter. Wear and tear ; e.g. the batter is more than can be stood for long. To go on the batter, to indulge in debauchery of any kind drunken- ness, prostitution, etc. Battered, drunk : see Screwed. Batterfang. To beclaw, attack with fists and nails (1630). B 33 Battle. See Battels. Phrases, to give the battle, to acknowledge defeat, grant the victory ; to have the battte, to be the victor (1400) ; half the battle (of anything that contributes largely to success). Battledore. Not to know a B from a battledore, to be utterly illiterate (1553) ; to say B (or Bo I) to a battle- dore, to open one's mouth, to speak : cf. Bo to a goose (1592). Battledore-boy. An abecedarian. Battle of the Nile. A hat, tile: see Cady. Battle-royal. A general squabble, free fight : spec, of two termagant women (1672). Battle- wright. A soldier. Battlings. A weekly allowance of money : at Winchester it is Is., while at Repton it is only 6d : also see Battels, passim. Battner. An ox : The cove has hushed the battner, i.e. has killed the ox (B. E.). Batty. Wages ; perquisites : from batta, an extra pay given to soldiers while serving in India. Col. Yule says in Indian banking, batty means difference in exchange, discount on coins not current (or of short weight). Baubee. See Bawbee. Bauble (Bable or Bawbell). A toy, trinket, trifle (B. E.). To deserve the baubel, to be foolish : the baubel being the Court jester's baton surmounted by a carved head with ass' ears j to give the baubel, to befool. Baulk. 1. A false report (especially that a master is at hand), which is sported (q.v.), not spread. 2. A false shot, a mistake. Baum. To fawn, flatter, curry favour (Hall). Bawbee (or Baubee). A halfpenny (B. E.). Bawcock. A burlesque term of en- dearment, my good fellow, my fine fellow. Bawdy-baskets. The twenty-third rank of Canters, with Pins, Tape, Ob- scene Books, etc., to sell, but live more by stealing (B. E.). Bawdy- house- bottle. A very small one (B. E.). Baw-waw. An exclamation of con- tempt (1599). As adj., contemptibly noisy. Bayard of Ten Toes. 1. The feet, Shanks mare, Marrowbone stage Bay State. Bean. (1606). To ride bayard of ten toes, to go OD foot ; as bold as blind Bayard (of those who do not look before they leap) ; hence generic for blindness, ignorance, or recklessness. Bayard was a horse famous in old romances. Bay State. The State of Massa- chusetts : orig. the Colony of Massa- chusetts Bay. Bayswater Captain. A sponger (q.v.), adventurer: cf. Dryland sailor. Bay Window. Fat, pregnant, lumpy .(q.v.)- Beach - cadger. A beggar whose pitch is at watering - places and sea-ports. Beach-comber. 1. A long wave roll- ing in from the ocean. 2. A settler on islands in the Pacific, living by means more or less reputable : comprising runaway seamen, and deserters from whalers. 3. A sea-shore loafer, one on the look-out for odd jobs. 4. A river boatman. 5. A wrecker, water- rat (q.v.). Beach- tram per. A coastguards- man, shingle smasher. Bead. To draw a bead, to attack an opponent by speech or otherwise : from backwoods parlance ; to raise a bead, to bring to the point, ensure success : from brandy, rum, or other liquors, which will not raise a bead unless of the proper strength ; to bid a bead, to offer prayer ; beads-bidding, prayer ; to say (tell, or count) one's beads, to say prayers ; to pray without one's beads, to be out of one's reckoning. Beadledom. Red-tapism, formal- ity, stupid officiousness (1860). Beady. Full of bubbles, frothy (1868). Beagle, subs. (old). A spy ; in- former ; man-hunter, policeman ; also a general term of contempt (1559). Beak. 1 . A constable (also barman - beck), policeman, guardian of the peace : as far as is known, this (as beck) is the oldest cant term for one of a class of men. In Harman's Caveat (1573), harman beck is explained as 'the counstable, harmans being the stockes.' 2. A magistrate : some- times beak of the law. 3. The nose : see Conk (1598). 4. (Eton and Marlborough Schools). A master : 5. A thrust, poke (1592). Birds of a beak, birds of a feather (q.v.). Beaker. A fowl : also Beak. Cackl- ing-cheat (q.v.) : Fr., estable, or estaphle Beaker-hunter. A poultry thief: also Beak-hunter. Beak-gander. A judge of the High Court of Justice. Beaksman. A policeman. Be - all and End - all. The whole, everything, the blooming lot (q.v.) (1606). Beam. An authorised standard of criticism, manners, morals, etc. To kick (or strike) the beam, to be over- powered, in a tight place (or corner). Beam Ends. To be thrown on one's beam ends, ( 1 ) tobe in bad circumstances, at one's last shift, hard-up : a metaphor drawn from sea - faring life : a ship is said to be on her beam ends when on her side by stress of weather, or shifting of cargo, as to be submerged (1830), 2. Also, less figuratively, to be thrown to the ground, reduced to a sitting or lying posture. Bean (or Bien). 1. A sovereign, 20s.: formerly a guinea : in America five- dollar gold pieces : see Half -bean and Haddock of Deans : in old French cant, biens meant money or property : see Rhino. 2. pi., small coal (Newcastle). Full of beans, in good form (or con- dition), full of health, spirits, or capa- city, aa a horse after a good feed of beans. To give beans, to chastise, give a good drubbing. Like beans, in good form (style, time, etc.), with force : a general expression of ap- proval ana praise : cf. Like blazes, (bricks, or one o'clock). Not to care (or be worth) a bean, to hold in little esteem, think lightly of, be of little value : the allusion is to the small worth or value of a bean, or the black of a bean (1297). Beany, in good humour a metaphor drawn from the stable. To know beans, to be well- informed, sharp and shrewd, within the charmed circle of the cultured elect, fully equipped in the upper storey. To know how many blue beans make five white ones, this is generally put in the form of a question, the answer to which is Five, if peeled, and those who fail to get tripped by the catch are said to know how many, etc. ; in other words to be cute, know- ing, wide awake. To draw a bean, to get elected : an allusion to the former use of beans in balloting ; to have the bean, to be first and foremost ; in re- ference to the custom of appointing as king of the company on Twelfth 34 Bean Belly. Bearings. Night, the man in whose portion of the cake the bean was found (1556). Also proverbial, Hunger maketh hard beans sweet ; It is not for idleness that men sow beans in the wind (i.e. labour in vain) ; Every bean hath its black. Three blue beans in a blue bladder, noisy talk, clap-trap, froth (1600). Bean Belly. A Leicestershire man : from a real or supposed fondness of the inhabitants of this county for beans. Bean-feast. An annual feast given by employers to their work - people. The derivation is uncertain, and, at present, there is little evidence to go upon. Some have suggested its origin in the prominence of the bean goose, or even beans at these spreads ; others refer it to the French bien, good, i.e. a good feast (by-the-bye, tailors call all good feeds bean - feasts) ; whilst others favour its derivation from the modern English bene, a request or soli- citation, from the custom of collecting subscriptions to defray the cost : also called a wayzgoose (q.v.). Bean-f caster. One who takes part in a bean-feast (q.v.). Beano. The same as bean - feast (q.v.). Bean-pole (stick, or wood). A lanky person, lamp-post (q.v.). Bean Trap. A swell mobsman, stylish sharper. Beany. Full of vigour, fresh, like a bean-fed horse. Bear (Stock Exchange). 1. Ap- plied, in the first instance, to stock sold by jobbers for delivery at a certain date, on the chance of prices falling in the meantime, thus allowing the seller to re - purchase at a profit. At first the phrase was probably To sell the bear-skin, the buyers of such bar- gains being called bear-skin jobbers, in allusion to the proverb, To sell the bear's skin before one has caught the bear. So far, the origin of the phrase seems pretty clear ; of the date of its in- troduction, however, nothing is known. It was a common term in Stock Ex- change circles, at the time of the burst- ing of the South Sea Bubble in 1720, but it does not seem to have become colloquial until much later. In these transactions no stock was delivered,the difference being settled according to the quotation of the day, as is the prac- tice now in securities dealt with for the account. At present the term for such an arrangement is time-bargain. 2. Hence a dealer who speculates for a fall. The earliest instance noted of this transferred usage is of the date 1744. Fr., baissier : see Bull, Stag, and Lame Duck. 3. A rough, un- mannerly, or uncouth person ; hence the pupil of a private tutor, the latter being called a Bear - leader (q.v.); also called formerly Bridled-bear. To play the bear, to behave roughly and uncouthly (1579). As verb, to act as a bear (q.v.). Are you there with your bears ? A greeting of surprise at the reappearance of anybody or anything ; are you there again ; What, again ! so soon ? The phrase is explained by Joe Miller, as the exclamation of a man who, not liking a sermon he had heard on Elisha and the bears, went next Sunday to another church, only to find the same preacher and the same discourse (1642). To bear the bell (coals, palm, etc.), see the nouns ; to bear low sail, to demean oneself humbly ( 1300) ; to bear a blow, to strike ; to bear up, to cheat, swindle : see Bonnet. Bear a bob, (1) lend a hand, look sharp ! look alive ! (2) To aid, to assist, to take part in anything. Beard. In spite of one's beard, in opposition or defiance to a purpose ; to one's beard, openly, to one's face ; to run in one's beard, to oppose openly, face out ; to take by the beard, to attack resolutely ; to make one's beard, to out- wit, delude ; to make one's beard without a razor, to behead ; to put against the beard, to taunt. Bearded Cad (Winchester College). A porter, employed by the College to convey luggage from the railway station to the school : the term origin- ated in an extremely hirsute individ- ual who at one time acted in the capacity. Bear-garden. A scene of strife and tumult. Bear - garden Jaw, subs. (old). Rough, unmannerly speech ; talk akin to that used in bear gardens and other places of low resort (Grose). Be-argered. Drunk: see Screwed. Bearing. Acting as a bear (q.v.) ; or using artifices to lower the price of stock to suit a bear account. Bearings. To bring one to one's bear- ings, to bring one to reason, to act as a check. 35 Bear-leader. Bed. Bear-leader. A travelling tutor. Bear - play. Rough, tumultuous behaviour. Bearskin-jobber. See Bear. Beast 1. Applied to anything un- pleasant ; or, to that which displeases ; e.g. It's a perfect beast of a day, for it's an unpleasant day : see Beastly. 2. A new cadet at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point 3. (Cam- bridge University). One who has left school and come np to Cambridge for study, before entering the Uni- versity: because he is neither man nor boy. Beastly. In modern colloquial usage applied to whatever may offend the taste : cL awful everlasting, etc. (1611). Beat 1. This word is used in many ways, its precise meaning often depend- ing on ita qualifying adjective. It is said of both men and things ; for example, a live beat is anybody or anything that surpasses another, and the sense is not derogatory in the least. A dead beat, on the other hand, is the name given to a man who sponges on his fellows. [Probably from that sense of beat signifying to overcome; to show oneself superior to, either in a good or bad sense.] 2. A daily round, duty, work, etc. ; and, figuratively, a sphere of influence (1788). As adj. (1) overcome, exhausted, done up: generally dead-beat (q.v.) ; (2) hence baffled, defeated. As verb, to swindle, deceive, cheat Daisy beat, a swindle of the first water, a robbery of magnitude. To beat hollow (to sticks, ribands, fits, all creation, to shivers, etc.), to excel, surpass (1759). To get a beat on, to get the advantage of. Other phrases are, to beat the air, to strive to no purpose (1375) ; to beat the rtreete, to walk to and fro ; tobeat over the old ground, to discuss topics already treated ; to beat about the bush, to act cautiously, approach warily or in a roundabout way (1572); to beat up, to visit unceremoniously ; to beat the brains, (head, etc.), to think per- sistently ; to beat out, to exhaust, overpower ; to beat the hoof, to walk, go on foot, plod, prowl (1596) ; to beat the rib (see Rib). To beat the booby (or goose), to strike the hands across the chest and under the arm pits to warm them : formerly to beat Jonas ; to beat the road, to travel by rail without paying. That beats the Dutch! (see Dutch). To beat daddy mammy, to tattoo, practise the elements of drum beating. To beat down to bed-rock (see Bedrock). To beat out, impoverished, in one's last straits, hard up. Beater-cases. Boots, shoes, now nearly obsolete. Trotter-cases (q.v.) being the usual term nowadays. Beaters. The feet : Barclay in Shyp of Polys (1509), speaks of 'night watchers and beters of the stretes : ' see Creepers. Beating-stock. A subject of fre- quent chastisement : cf. Laughing- stock. Beauetry. Dandyism, dandy out- fit : a humorous imitation of coquetry (1702). Beau Trap. 1 . A loose stone in a pave- ment, under which water lodges, and which, on being trodden upon, squirts it up. 2. A well-dressed sharper, on the look-out for raw country visitors and such like. 3. A fop, well-dressed outwardly, but whose linen, person, and habits generally are unclean. B eau ty. A term applied, on the rule of contrary, to the plainest or ugliest cadet in the class at the United States Military Academy at West Point It was great beauty, it was a fine sight ; That's the beauty of it, That's just as it should be : as affording special pleasure or satisfaction. Beauty-sleep. Sleep before mid- night, the idea being that early hours conduce to health and beauty ( 1850). Beauty-spot. Ironically of a pimple or other blemish on the face or other exposed parts of the person. Beaver, subs, (common). An old term for a hat; goss, cady (1528): at one time hats were made of beaver's fur hence the name ; the term is still occasionally applied to tall chimney- pot hats, but for many years silk has replaced the skin of the rodent in their manufacture. In beaver, in a tall hat and non-academical garb, as distin- guished from cap and gown (1840). See also Bever. Beck. 1. A constable : see Beak. 2. A parish beadle ; apparently the term was applied to all kinds of watch- men : see Harman-beck. As verb, to imprison : amongst Dutch thieves bfJcaan has the same signification. Bed. To put to bed with a pickaxe and shovel, to bury. 36 Bedder. Been. Bedder (Cambridge University). A charwoman ; one who makes the beds and performs other necessary domestic duties for residents in college. Bed-fagot. 1. Applied contemp- tuously to a woman ; cf. hussy, witch, etc. 2. A wanton. Bedfordshire. Sheet alley (q.v.), blanket fair (q.v.), the land of Nod (q.v.), etc. (1665). Bedful of Bones. A skinny, bony, bedfellow (1621). Bedoozle. To confuse, to bewilder : probably a corrupt form of the old English verb bedazzle, used by Shakespeare in Taming of the Shrew, IV. v. 46 (1593). Bedpost. In the twinkling of a bedpost, instantaneously, with great rapidity : originally in the twinkling of a bedstaff (1660). Among English synonyms may be included : in a jiffy, in two two's, in a brace of shakes, before you can say Jack Robinson, in a crack, in the squeezing of a lemon. Between you and me and the bed-post, a humor- ous tag to an assertion ; i.e. between ourselves I know what you say, but, between you and me, etc. . . . the thing is absurd : sometimes the last word is varied by post, door post, or gate post any prop will serve (1831). Bedrock. To get down to bedrock, to get at the bottom of matters, thorough- ly understand, get in on the ground floor (q.v.) : a miner's term, alluding to the solid rock underlying superficial and other formations. Bedrock fact, a chiel that winna ding, the incon- testable and incontrovertible truth. Bedtime. The hour of death (Al- ford). Bee. 1. A sweet writer. 2. A busy worker. 3. A working party of neighbours and friends for the benefit of one of their number ; as when a party of settlers combine to erect a log-house for a newcomer, or when farmers unite to gather one another's harvests in succession : e.g. apple-bee, raising bee, etc. ; hence, a social gather- ing for some specific purpose, as spelling bee. To have a bee in the head (brains, garret, or bonnet,) to have queer ideas, be half-cracked, nighty ; this phrase is of considerable antiquity, being traced back to a Scotch writer, Gawin Douglas by name [1474-1521], Bishop of Dunkeld, who used it in a transla- tion of Virgil's JEneid. Hence, bee- bonneted (or bee-headed) crazed ; bee- head, a crazy pate : see Buffle. Beef. 1. Human flesh (a trans- ferred sense) ; i.e. obese, stolid, fleshy like an ox. 2. By a further transi- tion beef has also come to signify men, strength, hands ; More beef I a bo' sun's exhortation to extra exertion. To be in a man's beef, to wound with a sword (Grose). To cry (or give) beef (or hot beef), to give an alarm, pursue, set up a hue and cry : it has been suggested that beef in this case is a rhyming synonym for thief. To be dressed like Christmas beef, to be decked out in one's best raiment. To make beef, to run away, decamp. Beef to the heels, like a Mullingar Heifer, said of a stalwart man, or a fine woman ; i.e. one whose superiority is manifest from the crown of the head to the sole of the foot ; literally, all beef down to the heels. Beef up I phr. Put on your strength ! Give a long pull and a strong pull ! To beef it, originally a provincialism, but now common in the East End of London : to take a meat meal, more particularly of beef. Beef - brained. Doltish, obtuse, thickheaded. Beef-head. A dolt ; a stupid, thick- headed person : see Buffle. Beefment. On the beefment, on the alert, on the look out. Beef-stick. The bone in a joint of beef. At mess it is First come, best served ; and those who come last sometimes get little more than the beef-stick. Beef Straight See Straight. Beef - witted. See Beef-brained (1594). Beefy. Fleshy, unduly thick, obese : a run of luck and good fortune, gener- ally, is likewise referred to as beefy. Whence beefiness. Bee-line. To take (or make) a bee- line, to go direct, as the crow flies, without circumlocution. Bees, when fully laden with pollen, make for the hive in a straight, or bee-line. One of the American railways is called the Bee Line Road from the direct route it takes between its termini (1849). Beelzebub's Paradise. Hell, the infernal regions. Been. Been in the sun, drunk : see Screwed. Been measured for a new umbrella, said sportively of any one 37 Beer. Before. appearing in new, ill fitting clothes, or who has struck out a new line of action, the wisdom of which is doubt- ful : the joke is an old one and refers to a man of whom it was said that nothing fitted him but his umbrella. Oh yes, Pve, been there ; I know what I am about. A popular exclamation : when it is said of a man that he has been there, shrewdness, pertinacity, and experience are implied. Beer. To drink beer, also, to do a beer. To be in beer, drunk : see Screwed. To think no email beer of oneself, to possess a good measure of self-esteem (1840) : see Small-beer. Beer an d Bi ble. An epithet applied sarcastically to a political party which first came into prominence during the last Beaconsfield Administration, and which was called into being by a measure introduced by the moderate Liberals in 1873, with a view to placing certain restrictions upon the sale of intoxicating drinks. The Licensed Victuallers, an extremely powerful association whose influence extended all over the kingdom, took alarm, and turned to the Conservatives for help in opposing the bill. In the ranks of the latter were numbered the chief brewers ; the leaders of the asso- ciation, moreover, had mostly strong high -church tendencies, while one of them was president of the Exeter Hall organization. The Liberals, noting these facts, nicknamed this alliance the Beer and Bible Association ; the Morning Advertiser, the organ of the Licensed Victuallers, was dubbed the Beer and Bible Gazette ; and lastly, electioneering tactics ascribed to them the war cry of Beer and Bible I This so-called Beer and Bible interest made rapid strides : in 1 870 the Conservatives were at their low-water mark among the London constituencies ; but, in 1 880, they had carried seats in the City, Westminster, Marylebone, Tower Ham- lets, Greenwich, and Southwark. A notable exception to this strange fellowship was Mr. Bass [afterwards Lord Bass], of pale-ale fame, who held aloof from opposition to the measure in question. Anent the nickname Beer and Bible Gazette, given to the Morning Advertiser, it may be men- tioned that it had already earned for itself a somewhat similar sobriquet. For a long time this paper devoted one-half of its front page to notices of publicans and tavern-keepers ; while the other half was filled up with announcements of religious books, and lists of preachers at the London churches and chapels. This gained for the paper the sobriquet of the Gin and Gospel Gazette. Beer and Skittles. Generally, Not all beer and skittles, i.e. not altogether pleasant, or couleur de rose. Beer- barrel. The human body : cf. Bacon. Beeriness (or Beery), pertaining to a state of (or approaching to) drunken- ness, intoxicated, fuddled with beer : see Screwed (1857). Beer-jerker (or -slinger). A tippler: see Lushington. Beerocracy, subs, (common). The brewing and beer-selling interest : a humorous appellation in imitation of aristocracy : cf. Mobocracy, Cotton- ocracy, etc. Beeswax. 1. Poor, soft cheese, sweaty-toe cheese (q.v.) (1821). 2. A bore ; one who button-holes another ; generally Old beeswax. Beeswaxers (Winchester College). Thick boots : used for football : prob- ably from being smeared with bees- wax to supple them : pronounced Beswaxers. Beeswing. A gauzy film or crust, in port wines, the result of age, so called from its appearance when broken up in the process of decanting. Hence also Beeswinged ( 1846). Ola beeswing, a nickname for any one, but especi- ally for one who takes to his liquor kindly. Beetle. Deaf (dumb, or dull) as a beetle, a type of dulness or stupidity, blockishness ; beetle-brain (-or head), a term of contempt : cf. Blockhead. Bee tie-crusher (or bee tle-squasher), 1. A large foot : the term was popu- larised by Leech in Punch. 2. A large boot or shoe : also Beetle-cases. 3. An infantry soldier ; a cavalry term : see Mud-crusher. Beetle-crushing. With solid tread, such as comes from large heavy feet in boots or shoes to match ; e.g. the marching of infantry. Beetles. Colorado mining shares. Beetle-sticker. An entomologist. Before. Before the wind, in prosper- ous circumstances, out of debt or difficulty. 38 Begad ! Bell-topper. Begad ! A corruption of By God ! and, as such, a euphemistic oath (1742). Beggar. 1. A term of contempt ; a mean or low fellow. 2. An endear- ment : cf. baggage, dog, rogue, etc. Also phrases : A beggar's wallet is never filled (1539) ; Beggars should not be choosers (1562) ; A beggar may sing before a thief (1562) ; I know him as well as a beggar knows his bag ; Beggars mounted run their horses to death ; Rich when young, a beggar when old ; As great as beggars; Sue a beggar and catch a louse ; Set a beggar on horseback and he'll ride to the devil. Beggar the thing ! confound it, or, hang the thing. Beggared. Ptt be beggared if, etc., an emphatic asseveration ; i.e. I'll give up everything, even to being reduced to beggary, if, etc. Beggar-maker. A publican. Beggars. The small cards from the deuce to the ten. Beggar's Brown. Scotch snuff : made of the stem of tobacco. Beggar's Bullets (or Bolts). Stones (1584). Beggar's Bush. To go home by beggar's bush, to go to ruin (1686). Beggar's Plush. Corduroy (1688). Beggar's Velvet. Downy particles which accumulate under furniture : otherwise called sluts'-wool (q.v.). Begin. To begin upon a person, to attack, assault. Begosh 1 B'gosh I An expletive (probably of negro origin), a half veiled oath. Behind. 1. The posterior. 2. (Eton and Winchester Colleges). A back at football : at Eton called short behind and long behind, usually abbreviated to short and long ; at Winchester, second behind and last behind : these answer to the half-back and back of Association football : at Winchester, in the Fifteens, there is also a third behind. Behind one's side (Winchester College). Said of a man when nearer the opponent's goal than the player of his team who last touched the ball. Beilby's Ball. An Old Bailey execution (Grose). Bejan, Baijan (Scotch University). A freshman student of the first year at the Universities of St. Andrews and Aberdeen : it is now obsolete at Edin- burgh : from the French bee jaune, yellow beak, in allusion to the colour of the mandibles of young birds. The term was adopted from the University of Paris ; but, signifying a novice, it has been in more or less general use for nearly three hundred years. At Aberdeen, the second-class students are semi-bejans ; in the third tertians ; while those in the highest rank are magistrands. Belph. Beer, especially poor beer : because of its liability to cause eructa- tion. One of Shakespeare's characters in Twelfth Night is Sir Toby Belch, a reckless, roystering, jolly knight of the Elizabethan period. Belcher. 1. A neckerchief named after Jim Belcher, a noted pugilist : the ground is blue, with white spots : also any handkerchief of a similar pattern (1812). 2. A ring: with the crown and V.R. stamped upon them. 3. A beer drinker, a hard drinker (1598). Belial. Balliol College, Oxford. Believe. / believe you, employed to signify general assent ; Yes : some- times / believe you, my boy ; once a favourite catch-phrase of a well-known actor. Bell. A song : a tramps' term : a diminutive of bellow. To bell a marble, to run away with it : the action scarcely amounts to actual theft. To ring one's own bell, to blow one's trumpet, to sound one's own praises. Bell - bastard. The illegitimate child of a woman who is herself illegitimate. Bellmare. A political leader, mostly contemptuously. Bellows. The lungs (1615). Bellows to mend, said of a broken-winded horse ; likewise of a man whose lungs are affected, or one who from any cause is out of health. Bellows-blower. 1. One exciting to strife. 2. An unskilled assistant, a mere hodman. Bellowsed. Transported, lagged : cf. Bellowser. Bellowser. 1. A blow in the pit of the stomach, a winder, that which takes the breath away. 2. A sentence of transportation for life. Bell-rope. Aggera waters (q.v.). Bellswagger. See Belswagger. Bell-topper. A silk hat : see Gol- gotha. 39 Bend. Bell- we ther. 1 . A chief or leader : in contempt. 2. Clamorous person, a mouther (q.v.). Henoe BeUwethering and Kdlwetherishneas. Belly-ache. A colic. Belly-bender. A boy's term for weak and unsafe ice. Belly- bound. Constipated ; costive. Belly-bumper (or Belly-buster). To take a belly-butter, to ride downhill in a sled lying on one's stomach : an amusement of young America : the idea of tobogganing was derived from this boyish pastime : also Belly- bumbo, Belly-guts (or gutter). Belly-flounders, Belly-Sumps, and Belly-plumper. Belly-button. The navel. Belly-cheat (or Belly-chete). 1. An apron. 2. Food (1609). Belly-cheer (or Belly-chere). Food. Belly-cheering, eating, drinking (1559). Belly-critic. A connoisseur of good living. Belly-friend. A parasite, sponger (q.v.). Belly-full. A sound drubbing, a thrashing (1599). Belly-furniture. Food, something wherewith to furnish the belly : cf. Belly-timber, Back- timber, etc. (1653). Belly-god. A glutton (1540). Belly - go-firster. An initial blow, generally given, say some authorities, in the stomach whence its classic name ! Belly-grinding. Colic, a pain in the bowels. Belly-gut, subs. (old). A lazy, greedy fellow; slothful glutton (1540). Belly-guts. 1. In Pennsylvania, molasses candy. 2. Belly - bumper (q.v.). Belly-hedges (Shrewsbury School). In school steeplechases, obstructions of such a height that they can easily be cleared i.e. about belly-high. Belly-metal. Food. Belly-mountained. Prominent in the belly, footy-gutted (q.v.). Belly- paunch. A glutton, a great feeder. Belly- piece. 1. An apron: cf. Belly- cheat (1689). 2. A mistress, concubine (1630). Belly-pinched. Hungry. Belly Plea. A plea of pregnancy : urged by female felons capitally con- victed. The plea still holds good, execution of female convicts in an interesting condition being deferred until after accouchement : in practice, it really means a commutation of the death penalty for life imprisonment. Belly- plum per. See Belly-bumper. Belly-sacrifice. A gluttonous feast. Belly- slave. A glutton. Belly-swain. A glutton. Belly-timber. Food, provisions of all kinds : like many other words of its class (e.g. Back-timber, q.v.), once in serious use, but now a thorough- going vulgarism, only surviving dia- lectically, and as slang : Massinger and the older dramatists employed it seriously, toward the end of the seven- teenth century it began to be used in a ludicrous and vulgar sense. Belly-up. Enceinte. Belly- vengeance. Sour beer: as apt to cause gastralgia : Fr., pissin de cheval. Belongings. 1. Qualities, endow- ments, faculties. 2. Relations, one's kindred. 3. One's effects, possessions. 4. Trousers. Belswagger,subs.(old). l.Alewdster, pimp (1775). 2. A bully, hector (1592). Belt. To strike below the belt, to act unfairly ; to take mean advantage, to stab a man in the back. Bel tinker. A beating, drubbing. As verb, to thrash, beat soundly. Bemused. Fuddled, in the stupid stage of drunkenness : see Screwed : usually bemused with beer (Pope). Ben. 1. A benefit, performance of which the receipts, after paying ex- penses, are devoted to one person's special use or benefit. 2. A fool : see Buffle (Orose). 3. A shortened form of Benjamin (q.v.), a coat ; also of Benjy (q.v.), a waistcoat. To stand ben, to stand treat. Benar. See Bene. Benbouse. Good beer (1567). Bench-babbler (or whistler). A loafer, one who sits idly on a bench : a generic reproach. Bencher. A frequenter of taverns, one who hulks about public houses. Ben Cull (or Cove). A friend, Pall (q.v.), companion. Bend. To tipple, drink hard (Jamie- son) (1758). Above one's bend, above one's ability (power or capacity), out of one's reach, above one s hook : in U.S. A. above my huckleberry (q.v.). Grecian bend, a craze amongst women which had a vogue from about 1872 to 1880: it consisted in walking with Bender. Bet. the body bent forward. On the bend, in an underhand, oblique, or crooked way not on the square. Bend over (Winchester College), a direction to put oneself into position to receive a spanking : this is done by bending over so that the tips of the fingers ex- tend towards the toes, thus presenting a surface as tight as a drum for castiga- tion. Bender. 1. A sixpence : see Rhino (1789). 2. A hard and persistent drinker, a tippler (1728). 3. In public school phraseology a stroke of the cane administered by the master while the culprit bends down his back. 4. The arm. 5. A drinking bout, spree. 6. The leg. 7. The bow-shaped segment of a paper kite. Over the bender, a variant of Over the left shoulder. As intj., an exclamation of incredulity, also used as a kind of saving clause to a promise which the speaker does not intend to carry into effect. Bendigo. A rough fur cap : named after a notorious pugilist. Bene, Ben. Good : this belongs to the most ancient English cant, and is probably a corruption from the Latin : benar and benat appear to have been used as comparatives of bene (1567). Stowe your bene, hold your tongue. Bene-bouze. See Benbouse. Bene-cove. See Ben-cull. Bene Darkmans ! Good-night ! French thieves say sorgabon, an in- version of bonne sorgue. Benedick. A newly-married man ; especially one who has long been a bachelor. Apparently, however, there is some confusion in the usage, for it also signifies a bachelor. Bene Feakers. Counterfeiters of bills (Grose). Bene Feakers of Gybes. Counter- feiters of passes (Grose). Bene (or Bien) Mort. A fine woman, pretty girl, hostess (1567). Beneship. See Benship (1567). Beneshiply. Worshipfully. Ben-flake. A steak. Bengal Tigers. The Seventeenth Foot, now the Leicestershire regiment : from its badge of a royal tiger granted for services in India from 1804-1823 : also called The Lily- Whites from its facings. Bengi. An onion. Benish. Foolish. Benjamin (Winchester College). 1. A small ruler. 2. (thieves') A coat : said to have been derived from a well- known London advertising tailor of the same name. Upper Benjamin, a greatcoat (1815). Ben Joltram. Brown bread and skimmed milk ; a Norfolk term for a ploughboy's breakfast (Hotten). Benjy. 1. A low crowned straw hat having a very broad brim. 2. A waistcoat: also Ben (q.v.). Bens. Tools. Benship (or Beenship). Worship, goodness : this word, evidently from Beneship (q.v.), is given by Bailey (1728), and by Coles (1724), As adj., very good (1567). Beong. A shilling : see Rhino : from Italian bianco, white ; also the name of a silver coin. Beray. To defile, befoul, abuse : old cant. Berkeleys. A woman's breasts. Bermudas. A district in London, similar to Alsatia in Whitefriars (q.v.), and the Mint in Southwark, privileged against arrests. The Bermudas are thought to have been certain narrow and obscure alleys and passages north of the Strand, near Covent Garden, and contiguous to Drury Lane. Berthas. London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway shares. Berwicks. The ordinary stock of the North Eastern Railway. Besom. A low woman. Besom-head. A blockhead, fool: see Buffle. Whence besom-headed. Besognio. 1. A raw soldier. 2. A needy beggar. 3. A worthless fellow. Bespeak-nigh t. A benefit. Bess. See Betty. Bess-o'- Bedlam. A lunatic vagrant. Best To best one. To obtain an advantage, secure a superior position in a contest or bargain, to worst, but not necessarily to cheat. To best the pistol, to get away before the signal for starting is actually given. To give one best,to leave one, sever companionship. Bester. A cheat, swindler : generally applied to a turf or gaming blackleg. Bet. 1. To bet one's eyes, to onlook, but to take no part in, nor bet upon the game. You bet ! Be assured, cer- tainly. 2. To bet round, to lay fairly and equally against nearly all the horses in a race, so that no great risk can be run : commonly called getting round (Hot- ten). Bethel. Biddy. Bethel. In the year 1680 Bethel and Cornish were chosen sheriffs. The former used to walk about more like a corn-cutter than Sheriff of London. He kept no house, but lived upon chops, whence it is proverbial for not feasting to bethel the city (North). Little Bethel, a place of worship other than those of the established church : in contempt. Be there. See There. Better. More : there is no idea of superiority : a depraved word, once in good usage, but now regarded as a vulgarism (1587). Better half, a wife : originally my better half, i.e. the more than half of my being ; said of a very close and intimate friend : formerly also applied to the soul, as the better part of man (Murray) (1580). Be t tor Roun d. One who is addicted to betting round : see Bet. Betty. 1. A man who occupies him- self with household matters : in con- tempt. 2. A small instrument used by burglars to force open doors and pick locks : also Bess, now called a Jenny (1671). 3. A Florence flask: as used for olive oil. As verb (collo- quial), to potter about, fuss about. All betty ! a cry of warning, it's all up, the game is lost ! Betwattled. Surprised, confounded, out of one's senses, bewrayed (Grose). Between. Phrases: Bet vxen thebeetle and the block, in parlous state ; between the cup and the lip, as near as a toucher (q.v.) ; between the devil and the Dead (or deep blue) sea, at one's last resource, cornered (q.v.) ; between the bark and the wood (or tree), see Tree ; between you and me and the bedpost ; see Bedpost. Beyer. 1. Drink, liquor. 2. A potation, drinking bout, a time for drinking. 3. A small repast between meals, snack : especially a snack between mid-day dinner and supper (1500). Also as verb. Beverage (or Bevy). A tip, vail : equivalent to the FT., pourboire: money for drink, demanded (Grose) of any one having a new suit of clothes. Beware. ' We [strolling actors] call breakfast, dinner, tea, supper, all of them, numyare ; and all beer, brandy, water, or soup, are beware' (Mayhew). Beyond. The back of beyond, an out-of-the-way place, ever so far off (1816). B Flat A bug : cf. F sharps : see Norfolk Howards. Bib. To nap a bib (or one'' a bib), to weep, blubber, snivel, Best bib and tucker, best-clothes. Bibables (or Bibibles). Drink, as distinguished from food : a coinage on the model of edibles, eatables, drinkables, etc. Bib-all-night A toper, confirmed drunkard : see Lushington (1612). Bible. A hand-axe, a small holy- stone (a kind of sand-stone used in cleaning decks), so called from seamen using them kneeling (Smyth). That's bible, that's the truth, that's A 1. Bible-carrier. A running stationer (q.v.) who sells songs without singing them: once often heard in the neigh- bourhood of Seven Dials. Bible-clerk (Winchester College). A College prefect in full power, appointed for one week. He keeps order in school, reads the lessons in chapel, takes round rolls (q.v.), and assists at floggings. He is absolved from going up to books (q.v. ) during his term of office. The prefect of hall need not act as Bible-clerk unless he likes, and the prefect of School may choose any week he pleases ; the rest take weeks in rotation, in the order of their Chambers in College : see Bibler and Bibling. Bible-pounder (sharp, or thumper). A clergyman. Bibler (Winchester College). Now called Bibling (q.v.). BMer under nail, see Bibling under nail. Bibling (Winchester College). For- merly called a bibler. A flogging of six cuts on the small of the back, ad- ministered by the head or second master. So called because the person to be operated upon ordered (q.v.) hia name to the Bible-clerk (q.v.). Bibling-rod (Winchester College). The instrument with which a bibling (q.v.) was administered. It consisted of a handle with four apple twigs in the end, twisted together. It is re- presented on Aut Disce. It was invented and first used by Warden Baker in 1454. It is not used now. Bibling under Nail (Winchester College). A bibling (q.v.) administered for very heinous offences after an offender had stood under nail (q.v.). Biddy. 1. A chicken : sometimes chick-a-biddy. 2. A young woman, 42 Bidet. Big Wig. not necessarily Irish : in both these senses the word appears in Grose (1785) Since that time it would seem to have changed somewhat in meaning as follows. 3. A woman, whether young or old. 4. (Winchester College). See Bidet. 5. (American). A servant girl generally Irish. Bidet (or Biddy) (Winchester College). A bath. Bidstand. A highwayman (1637). Bien. See Bene. Biff. A blow. To give a biff in the jaw, to smack one's face, to wipe one in the chops. Biffin. M y biffin ! my pal ! A biffin is properly a dried apple, cf. Pippin. Big. To talk (or look) big, to assume a pompous style or manner with a view to impressing others with a sense of one's importance ; to talk loudly, boastingly : Fr., se hancher (1579). Big as all outdoors, an expression in- tended to convey an idea of indefinite size, hugeness, enormous capacity. Big- bellied. Advanced in preg- nancy (1711). Big Ben. A nickname for the clock in the tower of the Houses of Parlia- ment at Westminster : named after Sir Benjamin Hall, the Commissioner of Works, under whose supervision it was constructed : it was commenced in 1856, and finished in 1857. Big Bird. To get (or give) the big bird, to be hissed on the stage ; or, conversely, to hiss. Big Bug. A person of standing (or consequence) : a common mode of allusion to persons of wealth or other claims to distinction : variants are Big-dog, Big-toad, Big- wig, and Great gun (1854). Big Country. The open country. Big Dog of the lanyard. A conse- quential, pompous individual; one who will neither allow others a voice in any matter, or permit dissent from his own views. Big Dog with the Brass Collar. The chief in any undertaking or enterprise, a leader. Big Drink. 1. The ocean: more par- ticularly applied to the Atlantic : also called the Big pond, Herring pond, the Puddle (q.v.). 2. When a Western plainsman talks of the Big drink he is always understood to mean the Mis- sissippi river. To take a big (or long) drink, to partake of liquor from a large glass. Big-endian. Anybody or anything of importance. Big Figure. To go the big figure, a variant of to go the whole hog, or to go the whole animal. Biggest. A superlative often used in the sense of the best or the finest. Biggest Toad in the Puddle. One of the many bold, if equivocal, metaphors to which the West has given rise. The biggest toad in the puddle is the recognised leader or chief, whether in politics or in connection with the rougher avocations of pioneer life. B i g g i t y. Consequential, giving oneself airs : a negro term. Big Gun. A person of consequence. Big-head. To have a big-head. 1. To be conceited, bumptious : also applied to those who are cocksure of every- thing, or affected in manner. 2. The after effect of a debauch. To get the big-head, to get drunk : see Screwed. Big House. The workhouse : some- times called the Large House. Big Mouth. Excessive talkative- ness, loquacity. Big Nuts to crack. An undertaking of magnitude, one not easy to perform. Big One (or Big "Un). A man of note or importance. Big People. Persons of standing or consequence. Big Pond. The Atlantic : also The big drink (q.v.). Big Pot. A person of consequence. Big-side (Rugby School). The com- bination of all the bigger fellows in the school in one and the same game or run ; also the ground specially used for the game so denominated : also used at other public schools. Whence Big-side run, a paper chase, in which picked representatives of all houses take part, as opposed to a house run. Big Take. That which takes the public fancy, a great success, etc., in short, anything that catches on. Big Talk. Pompous speech, a pedantic use of long words. Big Wig. A person of consequence, one high in authority or rank : used both contemptuously and humor- ously (1703). Big-wigged, pompous, consequential. Big-wiggery, a display of consequence, or pomposity. Big- wiggism, pomposity. Big Words. Big Words. Pompous speech, crack jaw words. Bike. Short for bicycle : cf. Trike. Bilbo (or Bilboa). (1) A sword: Bilbao in Spain was once renowned for well tempered blades. Hence (2) a sword personified, especially that of a bully. Bilbo's the word, Beware, a blow will follow the word. Bilbo-lord, a bully. Also (3) a kind of stock a long iron bar with sliding shackles for the ankle, and a lock by which to fasten the bar at one end to the ground (1567). Bile. A vulgarism for boil. Bilgewater. Bad beer. Bilk. A word, formerly in general use, to which a certain stigma of vul- garity is now attached. Uncertain in derivation possibly a corrupted form of balk it was first employed tech- nically at cribbage to signify the spoiling of an adversary's score in the crib. Among obsolete or depraved usages may be mentioned. 1. A state- ment or string of words without sense, truth, or meaning (1663). 2. A hoax, imposition, humbug (1664). 3. A swindler, cheat : this is the most familiar current use of the word in ita substantive form, and is applied mainly to persons who cheat cabmen of their fares, and such like : also Bilker (1790). 4. A person who habitually sponges upon another, and who never by any chance makes a return or even offers to do so. As adj., fallacious, without truth or meaning (1740). As verb, to cheat, defraud, evade one's obligations, escape from, etc. (1677). To bilk the bluet, to evade the police. To bilk the schoolmaster, to obtain knowledge or experience without paying for it ( 1821 ). Bilker. A cheat, swindler : see Bilk. Bilking. Cheating, swindling. BUI (Eton College). 1. A list of boys who have to go to the headmaster at 12 o'clock ; also of those who get off Absence (q.v.), or names-calling : e.g. an eleven playing in a match are thus exempt. 2. (Harrow School). Names- calling. To hang up a bill, to pass it through one or more of its stages, and then to lay it aside and defer ita further consideration for a more or lees indefinite period. To rush a bill, to expedite the passing of a bill through the Senate and Congress. To hold with bill in the water, to keep in suspense. Long (or short) bill, a long (or short) term of imprisonment. To pay a bill at sight, said of a man or woman who is always ready for action. To bill up, to be confined to barracks. Bill brighter (Winchester College). A small fagot used for lighting coal fires in Kitchen : so called from a servant Bill Bright, who was living in 1830. Billet. A situation, berth. To get a billet, amongst prisoners to obtain promotion to duties which carry with them certain privileges. Billiard Block. One who puts up with disagreeables for the sake of pecuniary or other advantages; also, occasionally, a jackal (q.v.), a tame cat (q.v.). Billiard-slum. False pretences. Billingsgate. Coarse language, scur- rilous abuse : from the evil reputation which the market of the same name has enjoyed for centuries. In the seventeenth century references to the violent and abusive speech of those frequenting the place were very numerous (1652). In French an analogous reference is made to the Place Maubert, also long noted for its noisy market To Billingsgate (or talk Billingsgate), to scold, talk coarsely (or violently), slang (q.v.)- So also, You're no better than a Billings- gate fishfag, i.e. rude and ill-mannered. Billingsgatry, scurrilous language. Billingsgate Pheasant. A red herring (or bloater), a two-eyed steak. Bill of Sale. Widow's weeds. Billy. 1. A pocket handkerchief (or neckerchief) : chiefly of silk : the various fancies have been thus described : Belcher, darkish blue ground, large round white spots, with a spot in the centre of darker blue than the ground : this was adopted by Jem Belcher, the pugilist, as his colours, and soon became popular amongst the fancy ; Bird's - eye wipe, a hand- kerchief of any colour, containing white spots : the blue bird's-eye is similar to the Belcher except in the centre : sometimes a bird's-eye wipe has a white ground and blue spots ; Blood-red fancy, red ; Blue Billy, blue ground, generally with white figures ; Cream fancy, any pattern on a white ground ; King's man, yellow pattern on a green ground ; Randal's man, green, with white spots : named after the favourite colours of Jack Randal, pugilist ; Water's man, sky coloured ; BUly Barlow. Bird's-eye. Yellow fancy, yellow with white spots ; Yellow man, all yellow. 2. Stolen metal. 3. A weapon : usually com- posed of a piece of untanned cowhide, as hard as horn itself, some six inches in length, twisted or braided into a sort of handle, and covered from end to end with woollen cloth : one ex- tremity is loaded with lead ; to the other is firmly attached a loop, large enough to admit a man's hand, formed of strong linen cord, and intended to allow the billy to hang loose from the wrist, and at the same time prevent it being lost or wrenched from the grasp of its owner. 4. A policeman's staff, truncheon. 6. A bushman'a tea-pot or saucepan. 6. A companion, comrade, mate (1505). 7. A fellow (1774). 8. A brother ; hence Billyhood, brotherhood (1724). Billy Barlow. A street clown, mountebank : from the hero of a slang song Billy was a real person, semi- idiotic, and though in dirt and rags, fancied himself a swell of the first water ; occasionally he came out with real witticisms ; he was a well-known street character about the East-end of London, and died in Whitechapel Workhouse (1851). Billy blinder. Ahoodwinker. Billy-boy. A vessel like a galliot, with two masts, the fore-mast square- rigged : they hail mainly from Goole : also called Humber-keels. Billy -button. 1. Mutton. 2. A journeyman tailor. Billy Buzman. A thief whose speciality ia silk pocket- and necker- chiefs. Billy-cock. A round, low-crowned hat generally of soft felt, and with a broad brim. The Billy-cock of the Antipodean colonies differs from the English headgear known by the name in being made of hard instead of soft felt, and in having a turned-up brim. Billy-fencer. A marine store dealer. Billy-goat. A tufted beard ; similar to that of a goat. Billy-hunting. 1. Collecting and buying old metal. 2. Stealing pocket- handkerchiefs. Billy Noodle. A ladykiller, con- ceited ass. Billy-roller. A long stout stick. Bim, Bimshire. A Barbadian: the island of Barbadoes : this place is also jeeringly called Little England. Bing. See Bynge a waste. Binge. A drinking bout. Bingham's Dandies. The 17th Lancers. Bingo. Brandy, or other spirituous liquor : thought to be a humorous formation from B. for brandy (cf. B. and S.) and stingo (Grose). Hence, Bingo boy, a tippler, drunkard ; Bingo mort, a drunken woman. Bingy. Bad, ropy butter ; nearly equivalent to vinnied (q.v.): in the English Dialect Society's Chester Glossary, bingy is given as a peculiar clouty or frowsty taste in milk the first stage of turning sour. Binnacle Word. A fine (or affected) word, which sailors jeeringly offer to chalk up upon the binnacle (Grose). Birch - broom. A room. Like a birch-broom in a fit, said of a rough towzly head. Birchin Lane. To send one to Birchin Lane, to castigate, flog : cf. Strap oil, etc. Birch-oil. A thrashing : cf. Strap- oil, Hazel- oil, etc. Bird. When a play is hissed the actors say The bird's there ! see Goose. As verb, to thieve, steal, look for plunder : used by Ben Jonson. A bird of one's own brain, one's own conception. The bird in the bosom, one's secret pledge, conscience. Birds of a feather, of like character. Also proverbs and proverbial sayings Some beat the bush and others take the bird ; A child's bird and a knave's wife lead a sore life ; The bird that fouleth its own nest is not honest, A bird in hand is worth three in the wood (or bush) ; An old bird is not caught with chaff ; To kill two birds with one stone ; The early bird catches the worm. Bird-cage. 1. A bustle, an article of feminine attire, used for extending the skirts of the dress : at one time con- structed of such a size and in such a manner as to be not altogether unlike an elongated bird-cage : among Eng- lish synonyms may be mentioned canary cage, backstaircase, false here- after, bishop. 2. A four-wheeled cab. 3. The paddock at the Newmarket race-course where saddling takes place. Birdlime. 1. Time. 2. A thief (1705). Bird's - eye (Bird's - eye Fogle, Bird's-eye Wipe). A silk handker- Bvrdsnye. chief spotted with eye-like markings : see Billy (1665). Birdsnye. An endearment : cf. Pigsnye. Bird-witted. Inconsiderate, thoughtless, easily imposed on (Grose) (1605). Birk. A crib (q.v.), i.e. a house. Birthday Suit Nudity, buff (q.v.) : FT., en sauvage (1771). Bishop. 1. A warm drink : wine, orange (or lemon), peel, and sugar but variously compounded (1703). 2. A bustle (q.v.) : a pad worn on the back part of the waist, and designed to give prominence to the skirt : see Bird-cage (1848). 3. A chamber- pot, jerry, Jordan, it (q.v.). 4. (Win- chester College). The sapling with which a fagot is bound together. As verb, (1) to burn marks into a horse's teeth, after he has lost them by age ; or, by other deceptive arts to give a good appearance to a bad horse : by bishopping, a horse is made to appear younger than he is : the expression is derived from the name of a person who initiated the practice ; (2) to murder by drowning : now obsolete : like Burke and Boycott from the name of an individual ; a man named Bishop drowned a boy in Bethnal Green,. in 1831, to sell the body for dissecting purposes. Bismarquer. To cheat, play foul at cards (or billiards) : the policy of Prince Bismarck, the German Chancellor, in 1865-66 roused the indignation of Europe. Bit, Bite, Byte, 1. Money: see Rhino (1532). 2. A coin varying in value according to locality usually, however, to the silver piece of the lowest denomination. Four penny pieces are still called bits in English, though more popularly known as Joeys (q.v.) (1748). 3. In disparage- ment otto of girls, bits of children, bit of a place, bit of one's mind, candid (and uncomplimentary) criticism, opinion, etc. Bitwise, little by little. Bitch, subs. (low). 1. A woman : not now in literary use, though for- merly so (1400). 2. A man : it has long since passed out of decent usage (1500). As verb, (1) to yield (or give up an attempt) through fear (Grose). (2) to spoil, bungle. To stand bitch, to make tea, or do- the honours of the tea table, or to perform a woman's duty. Bitch Booby. A country girl (Grose). Bitch-daughter. The night- mare. Bitch-fou. Very drank, beastly drunk : see Screwed. Bitch Party. A party composed of women : originally an Oxford term for a tea-party : cf. Hen-party (q.v.), and Stag-party. Bite. 1. Money : generic : see Bit and Rhino. 2. An imposition, piece of humbug, sell, do : cf. Bilk, Bam, Bargain, and Sell : the sense runs through all stages, from jocular hoax- ing to downright swindling ; also in the sense of disappointment, as in the old proverb, the biter bit (1711). 3. A sharper, cheat, trickster (1742). 4. Applied in a transferred sense to any- body or anything suspected of being different to what it appears, but not necessarily in a bad sense. 5. One who drives a hard bargain, a close fist 6. A Torkshireman. 7. An irregular white spot on the edge or corner of a printed page, caused by the frisket not being sufficiently cut out (1677). As verb, (1) to deceive, cheat, swindle, do, or take in : for- merly used both transitively and pas- sively ; now only in latter (1699) ; (2) to strike a hard bargain ; (3) to steal ; e.g. to bite the roger, to steal a port- manteau, to bite the wiper, to pur- loin a handkerchief. As intj., (1) formerly an equivalent to the modern Sold! Done! etc. (1704); (2) (Charterhouse). A warning Cave ! To do a thing when the maggot bites, to do it when the fancy takes one, at one's own sweet will. To bite one's hips, to regret a word or action. To bite one's name in, to drink heavily, tipple, drink greedily. To bite on the bridle, to be pinched in circumstances, reduced, in difficulties. Phrases : To bite upon the bridle, to wait impatiently, like a restless horse ; To bite the dust (ground, sand), etc., to die ; to bite the tongue, to repress speech ; to bite the thumb at, (1) 'To threaten or defie by putting the thumbe naile into the mouth, and with a ierke (from the upper teeth) make it to knack ' (Cotgrave) ; (2) to insult ; to bite one's ear, to caress fondly ; to bite the ear, to borrow. Biter. 1. A practical joker, hoaxer, one who deceives, a cheat and trickster : the term now only survives in the 46 Bite-up. Black-birders. proverbial expression, the biter bit (1669). 2. A wanton. Bite-up. An unpleasant altercation. Bit-faker (or Turner-out). A coiner of bad money. Bit- faking. Manufacturing base coin, counterfeiting. Bi ting-up. Grieving over a loss (or bereavement). Bit- maker. A counterfeiter. Bit-o'-bull. Beef : Fr., gobet ; for- merly, a dainty morsel. Bit of blood. A spirited horse thoroughbred (1819). Bit of cavalry. A horse (1821). Bit of ebony. A negro (or negress), snowball (q.v.). Bit o f fat. 1. An unexpected advantage in a transaction. 2. See Fat. Bit of jam. See Jam. Bit of leaf. Tobacco. Bit of muslin. A young girl, a woman : see Petticoat. Bit of mutton. A woman, cf. Laced mutton. Bit of sticks. A corpse. Bitofstiff. A bank-note (or other paper money), the equivalent of money when not in specie, i.e. a draft or bill of exchange (1854). Hence, to do a bit of stiff, to accept a bill. Bit of stuff. An overdressed man, man with full confidence in his appearance and abilities ; also a young woman. Bitter. A glass of beer. To do a bitter, to drink a glass of bitter : originally (says Hotten) an Oxford term : varied by, to do a beer. Bittock. A distance of very un- decided length : if a North country- man be asked the distance to a place, he will most probably reply, a mile and a bittock : the latter may be con- sidered any distance from one hundred yards to ten miles : also of time. Biz. Business, employment, occu- pation : Good biz, profitable busi- ness. B. K. S. Barracks : used by officers in mufti, who do not wish to give their address. Blab, subs, (vulgar). 1. A babbler : a depraved word, once in common use, but rarely employed now, except colloquially. 2. Loose talk, chatter. Also as verb and in various com- pounds and allied forms, such as blab- ber, blabbing, blabbing - book, etc. a taint of vulgarism now rests upon them all. Black. 1. A poacher working with a blackened face (1722). 2. A mute (1619). Phrases: To look black, to frown, look angrily ; to say black is any one's eye (eyebrow, nail, etc.), to find fault, lay to charge ; black-babbling, malicious talk. Black Act. Black art (q.v.). Blackamoor. \. A negro, any dark- skinned person ; originally not in depreciation, but now a nickname (1547). 2. A devil, demon, evil spirit (1663). Blackamoor's Teeth. Cowrie shells the currency of some savage tribes (1700). Black-and-tan. Porter (or stout) and ale, mixed in equal quantities. Black-and-tan country. The Southern States of North America. Black and White. The black characters of print or writing on white paper. Hence, to put a thing down in black and white, to preserve it in writ- ing or in print : black on white is a variant (1596). Black -apronry. The clerical and legal professions (1832). Black - art. 1. Picking of locks, burglary (1591). 2. The business of an undertaker. Black-ball. See Pill. Blackballing. Stealing, pilfering : a sailor's word : it originated amongst the employees of the old Black Ball line of steamers between New York and Liverpool the cruelty and scan- dalous conduct of officers to men, and sailors to each other, were so proverb- ial, that the line of vessels in question became known all over the world for the cruelty of its officers, and the thieving propensities of its sailors. Blackbeetles. The lower strata of society (1821). Blackberry swagger. A hawker of tapes, boot-laces, etc. Blackbird. Formerly a captive on board a slaver ; now generally understood as referring to a Poly- nesian indentured labourer, who, if not by name a slave, is often one to all intents and purposes. As verb, to cap- ture negroes or Polynesians, to kidnap. B 1 a c k - bir der s. Kidnappers for labour purposes on the islands of the Pacific. 47 Black-book. Blackleg. Black- book. To be in the black books, to be in disgrace, have incurred dis- pleasure, to be out of favour. Black box. A lawyer (Grow}. Black- boy. See Blackcoat Black Bracelets. Handcuffs : see Darbies (1839). Black-cattle. 1. Clergymen, par- sons. 2. lace, active citizens (q.v.), chates (q.v.). Black-cattle Show. A gathering of clergymen. Black-coat A parson (1627). Black-country. Parts of Stafford- shire and Warwickshire blackened by the coal and iron industries (1834). Black-cuffs. The Fifty-eighth Foot: now the second battalion of the North- amptonshire Regiment ; from the regimental facings, which have been black since 1767 : also nicknamed the steel backs (q.v.). Black Diamonds. 1. Coals (1849). 2. A rough (but clever or good) person : this has given place to rough diamond (q.v.). Black Dog. 1. Applied, circa 1702- 30, to a counterfeit shilling and other base silver coinage. 2. Delirium tremens, the horrors, jim jams : black dog is frequently used for de- pression of spirits, and melancholy: when a child is sulky, it is said, the black dog is on his back : among the ancients a black dog and its pups were considered an evU omen. To Hush like a black dog, not to blush at all, to be shameless (1634). Black Doll. See Dolly shop. Black-eye. To give a bottle a black eye, to empty it Black -eyed Susan. Texan for a revolver : among other slang equiva- lents for this weapon current in the Lone Star State may be mentioned, Meat in the pot, Blue lightning, The peace-maker, Mr. Speaker, One-eyed scribe, Pill box, and My unconverted friend. Black-fellow. An Australian aboriginal (1831). Black- fly. A clergyman: see Devil-dodger (1811). Black- foot A go-between, match-maker (1814). Blackfriars. Look out ! Beware ! Black Friday. 1. The day on which Overend, Gurney, & Co. suspended pay mentr 10th May 1886: cf. Blue Monday (1750). 2. The Monday on which the death penalty is carried out ; these events are (or were) gener- ally arranged to fall on the day in question. Black-gown. A collegian, learned man (17 10). Blackguard, subs, (common). A man coarse in speech, and offensive in manner, scamp, scoundrel, disreput- able fellow : the term, as now used, is one of opprobrium, and although a good deal of uncertainty hangs about its history and derivation, it seems pretty clear that a certain amount of odium has always been attached to the word (1532). As adj., of or per- taining to a blackguard, to the scum or refuse of society, vile, vicious ( 1 760). As verb, to act like a rufnan,use filthy (or scurrilous) language, play the vagabond (or scoundrel). Black Hole. 1. Cheltenham, from the number of retired Anglo-Indians who live there : cf. Asia Minor. 2. A barrack punishment-cell (or lock-up), guard-room : the official designation till 1868. Black Horse. The Seventh Dra- goon Guards : so called from the regi- mental facings, black on scarlet : occasionally The Blacks. During the reign of George II., the corps was known as The Virgin Mary's Guard, and is often called Strawboots (q.v.). Black House. A place of business where hours are long, and wages at starvation rates ; a sweating house. Black-humour. Melancholy. Black Indies. Newcastle-on-Tyne : from its trade, coal : the term is now obsolete, but it was in common use at the latter part of the eighteenth century. Black Jack. 1. A leathern jug for beer, usually holding two gallons (1591). 2. A black leather jerkin (1512). Black job. A funeral. Blackleg. 1. A turf swindler, rook, welcher ; also one who cheats at cards or billiards : origin unknown : although many speculations have been hazarded, none are satisfactory (1771). 2. A workman who, when his fellows are on strike, is willing to go on working. 3. Also any one failing or refusing to join his fellows in combination for a given purpose. As verb, to boycott, to make things so uncomfortable for a man that he is compelled to leave hi 48 Black-leggism. Blanket. work or the town. To blackleg it, amongst trades' union men to return to work before the causes of a strike have been removed (or settled) to the satisfaction of the leaders. Black-leggism, Black-legger7. Cheating, swindling, the arts and practices of a blackleg (q.v.) (1832). Black-letter Day. An inauspicious day : cf. Red-letter day. Black Literature. That printed in black letter (1797). Blackmail (or rent). An illegal tribute (1533). Black - man (Black Gentleman). The devil (1606). Blackmans. See Darkmans. Black Maria. A prison van or omnibus : used for the conveyance of prisoners : the origin of the phrase is unknown. A variant is Sable Maria. Black Monday. A schoolboys' term for the Monday on which, after holidays, school re-opens. Black Mouth. A foul-mouthed person, a slanderer. Hence black- mouthed, calumnious. Black - mummer. One unwashed and unshorn. Black-neb. A person of democratic sympathies at the time of the French Revolution. Black -nob. A non-unionist, one who (while his fellows are on strike) persists in working at his trade, a blackleg (q.v.). Black Ointment. Uncooked meat. Black- pot. A toper, tippler, Lush- ington (q.v.) (1594). Black Psalm. To sing the black psalm, to cry ; a saying used to children (Grose). Blacks. See Black horse. Black Sal (or Suke). A kettle. Black Sanctus. A burlesque hymn or anthem, rough music. Black Saturday. A Saturday on which an artisan or mechanic has no money to take, having anticipated it by advances. Black Sheep. A scapegrace, bad lot ; mauvais sujet : also applied like blackleg and black-nob to workmen who persist in working when their comrades are on strike. As verb (Win- chester College) : when a fellow in Junior Part got above (or jockeyed) a fellow in Middle Part. Blacksmith's Daughter. A key: formerly the key with which the doors of sponging houses were unlocked : also Locksmith's daughter. Black-snake. A long whip-lash. Black- spice Racket. Robbing chimney sweepers of their tools, bag, and soot (Lexicon Ealatronicum). Black Spy. The devil : Fr., dache. Black-strap. 1. Thick, sweet port. 2. Properly speaking, gin mixed with molasses, but frequently applied to a compound of any alcoholic liquor with molasses : beverages of this description were at one time the commonest of drinks among agricul- tural labourers. 3. A task of labour imposed on soldiers at Gibraltar as a punishment for small offences (Grose). Black-teapot. A negro footman. Black Watch (The). The 42nd Foot ; now the Royal Highlanders : from the colour of the dress. Blackwork. Undertaking : waiters at public dinners are often employed during the day as mutes. Blacky. A negro : cf. Darky. Bladder. A pretentious person, windbag (q.v.). Bladderdash. Nonsense, bunkum (q.v.), spoof (q.v.): a portmanteau word bladder balderdash. Bladder of Lard. A bald-headed person. Bladderskate. See Bletherskate. Blade. A roysterer, gallant, sharp, keen, free-and-easy man, good fellow (1595). Blamed. Used to emphasize a statement : it partakes of the nature of an oath, being often used instead of doomed or damned : in America the expression is more of a collo- quialism than it is in England (1835). Hence, Blame it I a round - about oath. Blamenation ! Damnation ! Blandiloquence. Smooth, flattering speech, carneying (q.v.). Hence Blandiloquous, smooth-speaking, flat- tering (1615). Blank (Blanked, Blankety). Euphemistic oaths : clearly an out- come of the practice of representing an oath, for decency's sake, in printing, by a dash or blank space ; e.g. d a. Blank - charter. Liberty to do as one likes. Blank cheque. Unlimited credit. Blanket. Lawful blanket ; a wife : see Dutch. Wet-blanket, any thing or person that discourages, a damper 49 Blanket Fair. Bless. (q.v.) (1830). Born on the wrong side of the blanket, illegitimate (1771). Blanket Fair. Bed: cf. Bedford- shire, Sheet Alley, and Land of Nod. Blanket-love. Illicit amours (1649). Blarmed. A euphemism for blessed (q.v.) ; damned ; bio wed (q.v.) ; or blamed (q.v.), of the last of which it is probably a corruption. Blarm me 1 A euphemistic oath. Blarney. Blandishment, soft speech, or sawder, gross flattery, gammon. [From Castle Blarney in Ireland, in the wall of which, difficult of access, is placed a stone. Whoever is able to kiss this is said thereafter to be able to persuade to anything (Grose).] As verb, (1) to wheedle, coax, flatter grossly ; (2) to pick locks (American thieves). Blasted. Execrable, confounded : Grose has bloated fellow for an aban- doned rogue (1682). Blatantation. Noisy effusion, swagger. Blater. A calf : probably a cor- ruption of bleater (1714). Blather. Noisy talk, voluble non- sense : cf. Blether. As verb, to talk volubly, noisily, nonsensically. Blatherskite. 1. Boastful dis- putatious swagger : cf. Bletherskite. 2. A swaggerer, boaster, one who talks volubly and nonsensically. Blayney's Bloodhounds. The Eighty-ninth Foot, now the second battalion of the Royal Irish Fusiliers : they obtained this nickname during the Irish Rebellion in 1798. Blaze. Blaze-away ! Look sharp ; stir your stumps an injunction to renewed and more effective effort. Blazer. Originally applied to the uniform of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St. John's College, Cambridge, which was of a bright red and was called a blazer : now applied to any light jacket of bright colour worn at cricket or other sports. Prof. Skeat [N. and Q., 7 S., iii. 436] speaking of the Johnian blazer, says it was always of the most brilliant scarlet, and thinks it not improbable that the fact sug- gested the name which subsequently became general. Blazes. 1. The infernal regions. As a verb, to blaze is employed in a manner closely bordering on slang : thus one says of an action that it is a blazing shame ; that he has a blazing headache ; that so-and-so is a blazing thief ; that such a job is blazing hard work ; that it is a blazing hot day. 2. The brilliant habiliments of flunkeys : from the episode of Sam Weller and the swarry. Old blazes, the deviL Go to blazes ! Go to the devil ; go to hell used in imprecations (1851). Like blazes, vehemently, with extreme ardour. How (Who, or What) the blazes. How (What or Who) the Dickens. Drunk as blazes (or blaizers), very drunk, beastly drunk : see Screwed. Bleach (Harvard University). To absent oneself from morning prayers. Bleached Mort A fair complex- ioned wench (Grose). Bleak. Handsome. Bleater. The victim of a sharper or rook (1609). Bleating cheat A sheep (1567). Bleating Cull. A sheep stealer. Bleating Prig (or Rig). Sheep steal- ing- Bleed. 1. To be victimised, lose or part with money so that the loss is felt, be rushed (q.v.), have money drawn or extorted from one (1668). 2. To plane down so that the edge of a printed book is cut away. 3. To let water out (nautical). To bleed the monkey, to steal rum from the mess tub called the monkey : the term is exclusively naval, monkeys not being known on merchant ships : also called sucking the monkey and tapping the admiral. Bleeder (University). 1. A duffer beyond compare, a superlative fool : see Buffle. 2. A sovereign : see Rhino. 3. A spur. Bleeding. An expletive : cf. (Shake- speare), bleeding new. Bleeding Cully. One who parts easily with his money, or bleeds freely (Grose). Blanker. To plunder : much used during the Civil War. Bless. To curse, damn. To bless oneself, to be surprised, vexed, mor- tified : generally, God bless me ! Bless my eyes ! Bless my soul ! Lor' bless me ! (1592). Not a penny to bless oneself with, utterly im- pecunious, without a sou (1843). To bless one's stars, to thank oneself, attribute one's good fortune to luck, generally in a ludicrous sense (1845). 50 Blessed. Block. Blessed (Blest). An ironical euphemism ; often used like blazing for cursed, damned, etc., or as a vow (1806). Blessing. A curse : ironical. Blether Blather. Nonsense, vapid talk, voluble chatter (1787). Hence Blethering, volubly, foolishly talkative : cf. Bletherskate. Bletherskate, Blatherskite. 1. Boastful swagger: in talk or action. 2. A boaster, noisy talker : in Ireland, Bladder skate, and Bladderum-skate (1650). Blew. 1. To inform, peach, expose, betray : see Blow upon. 2. To spend, waste : generally of money ; when a man has spent or lost all his money, he is said to have blewed it. Blimey 1 Blind me ! Blind. 1. A means or place of con- cealment (1647). 2. A pretence, shift, action through which one's real pur- pose is concealed, that which obstructs, make - believe (1663). 3. A para- graph [in mark is so called ; from the eye of the reversed P being filled up. As adj., tipsy, in liquor : see Screwed. Blind as a brickbat, very blind men- tally or physically (1849). When the devti is blind, never : Fr., le trente six du mols, and quand les ponies auront des dents. To go it blind, to enter upon an undertaking without thought as to the result, or inquiry beforehand : from poker. Blind-drunk (or fou). So drunk as to be unable to see better than a blind man : see Screv/ed : Americans say, So drunk as not to be able to see through a ladder. Blinder. To take a blinder, to die : see Hop the Twig. Blind Half Hundred. The Fiftieth Regiment of Foot, now the first bat- talion Queen's Own (Royal West Kent Regiment) : many men suffered from ophthalmia during the Egyptian cam- paign [1801]. Blind Harper. A beggar coun- terfeiting blindness, playing on a fiddle (Grose). Blind-man's Holiday. Formerly, the night or darkness ; now usually applied to the time between lights, when it is too dark to see, but often not dark enough to light up, and a holiday or rest from work is taken (1599). Blind Monkeys. An imaginary collection at the Zoological Gardens, which are supposed to receive care and attention from persons fitted by nature for such office and for little else. An idle and useless person is often told that he is only fit to lead blind monkeys. Another form is for one man to tell another that he knows of a suitable situation for him. How much a week ? and what to do ? are natural questions, and then comes the scathing and sarcastic reply, Five bob a week at the doctor's you're to stand behind the door and make the patients sick. They won't want no physic when they sees your mug (Hotten). Blindo. A drunken spree. As verb, to die : see Hop the Twig. Blind Side. The side that is weakest, the most assailable side (1606). Blind Story. A story without point. Blink. To drink : see Lush. Blinker. 1. The eye : cf. Winker, Peeper, Optic, etc. (1816). 2. In pi. Spectacles, barnacles (1732). 3. In Norfolk, a black eye. 4. A hard blow in the eye. Blank your blinkers, a euphemistic oath. Blink - fencer. A vendor of spec- tacles. Blinko. An amateur entertain- ment, a free-and-easy (q.v.); a sing- song (q.v.). Blister. Euphemistic for damn: cf. Blamed (1840). Blizzard. 1. A poser, stunning blow, unanswerable argument, etc., etc. (1831). 2. A snow-gale, furious storm of frost-wind and blinding snow. Bloak. See Bloke. Bloat. 1. A drowned body. 2. A drunkard. 3. A contemptuous name for a human being. Bloated Aristocrat. A man swollen with the pride of rank or wealth ; also a general sobriquet applied by the masses to the classes. Bloated has long been employed in a similar sense. Swift spoke of a certain states- man as a bloated minister (1731). Bloater. See My bloater. Blob. To talk, patter. Blob- tale, a tell-tale, tale-bearer (1670). Block. A stupid person, hard unsympathetic individual, one of mean, unattractive appearance (1534) : see Buffie. Barber's block (1), the 51 Slackers. Bloody. head (1637); (2) s fop. A chip of the tame (or old) block, a man or thing exhibiting the same qualities as he or that with which a comparison is made (1627). At deaf <u a block, as deaf as may be. To cut a block with a razor, in- consequent argument, futile endeavour, incongruous application of means (or ability) to the end in view (1774). To block a hat, to crush a man's hat over the eyes, to bonnet (q.v.). Blockers. See Block ornaments. Blockhead (or Block- pate). A etupid fellow, woodenhead ; see Buffle. Block House. A prison, house of detention : see Cage (1624). Block Island Turkey, subs. (Ameri- can). Salted cod-fish. Connecticut and Rhode Island. Slang delights in naming fish as flesh. For some curious examples, see Two-eyed Steak. Block Ornament (or Blocker). 1. A small piece of meat of indifferent quality, a trimming from a joint, etc. : as exposed for sale on the blocks or counters of butchers' shops in cheap neighbourhoods, opposed to meat hung on hooks (1848). 2. A queer- looking man or woman one odd in appearance. Block- pate. See Blockhead. Bloke (or Bloak). A man, fellow (1851). Blood. 1. A fop, dandy, buck, or fast man : originally in common use, but now obsolete : from that legitimate sense of the word which attributes the seat of the passions and emotions to the blood hence, a man of spirit ; one who has blood worth mention, and, in an inferior sense, he who makes him- self notorious, whether by dress or rowdyism : in the last century, especi- ally during the regency of George IV., the term was largely in vogue to denote a young man of good birth or social standing about town ; subsequently, it came to mean a riotous, disorderly fellow (1562). 2. Money: generic: see Rhino. As verb, to deplete of money, victimise : a figurative usage of to bleed ; i.e. surgically, to let or draw blood by opening a vein. Blood ana Entrails. The British ensign is so nicknamed by Yankee sailors ; English salts return the compliment by jokingly speaking of the American flag as The Gridiron and Doughboys (q.v.). Blood and Thunder. A beverage of port wine and brandy mixed. Blood and Thunder Tales. Low class fiction, the term being generally applied to works dealing with the exploits of desperadoes cut- throats, and other criminals : also called Awfuls, Penny dreadfuls, Gutter literature, Shilling shockers. Blood-an'-'ouns. An abbreviated form of an old and blasphemous oath. Blood-curdler (or Blood-freezer). A narration or incident which makes the flesh creep, that which stirs one's feelings strongly (and generally re- pulsively) : said of a sensational murder, a thrilling ghost-story, etc. Blood for Blood. When tradesmen exchange wares, setting the cost of one kind off against another instead of making payment in cur- rency, they are said to give blood for blood. Blood-Freezer. See Blood-curdler. Blood-red Fancy. A particu- lar kind of handkerchief sometimes worn by pugilists and frequenters of prize fights : see Billy. Blood Suckers. The Sixty-third Regiment of Foot, now the first battalion of the Manchester Regi- ment. 2. An extortioner, sponger (1668). Blood-tub. A rowdy, blustering bully, rough : this nickname was peculiar to Baltimore ; the Blood-tubs were said to have been mostly butchers, and to have got their epithet from having, on an election day, dipped an obnoxious German's head in a tub of warm blood, and then driven him running through the town. Bloody, adj. (low). An intensive difficult to define, and used in a mul- titude of vague and varying senses, but frequently with no special meaning, much less a sanguinary one : generally = an emphatic, very : in general collo- quial use from 1650-1750, but now vulgar or profane. The origin is not quite certain ; but there is good reason to think that it was at first a refer- ence to the habits of the bloods or aristocratic rowdies of the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th cent. The phrase bloody drunk was ap- parently as drunk as a blood (cf. as drunk as a lord) ; thence it was extended to kindred expressions, and at length to others ; probably in later 62 Bloody Back. Slowed. times, its associations with bloodshed and murder (cf. a bloody battle, a bloody butcher) have recommended it to the rough classes as a word that appeals to their imagination. Compare the prevalent craving for impress- ive or graphic intensives as seen in the use of jotty, awfully, terribly, devil- ish, deuced, damned, ripping, rattling, thumping, stunning, thundering, etc. Bloody Back. A soldier. Bloody Chasm. To bridge the bloody chasm, a favourite expres- sion with orators who, during the years immediately succeeding the Civil War, sought to obliterate the memory of the struggle. The anti- thetical phrase is to wave the bloody shirt (q.v.). Bloody Eleventh. The Eleventh Regiment of Foot, now the Devon- shire Regiment : at the battle of Sala- manca (fought with the French) the corps was nearly cut to pieces, whence its sanguinary sobriquet. At Fon- tenoy and Ostend also, it was hard- pressed and nearly annihilated. Bloody Jemmy. An uncooked sheep's head. Bloody Shirt. To wave the bloody shirt, to keep alive factious strife on party questions. Primarily it was the symbol of those who, during the Reconstruction period at the close of the rebellion of the South- ern or Confederate States, would not suffer the Civil War to sink into oblivion out of consideration for the feelings of the vanquished. Bloomer. A mistake : said to be an abbreviated form of blooming error. Blooming (often Bloomin'). This word, similar in type to blessed, blamed, and other words of the kind, is, as used by the lower classes, a euphemism, but it is also frequently employed as a mere meaningless in- tensitive (1726). Bloss. Generic for a woman girl, wife, or mistress : Shakespeare, in Titus Andronicus (1588, iv. ii. 72), employs it in the sense of one lovely and full of promise Sweet blowse you are a beautious blossome sure ; Tennyson (1847) in the Princess (v. 79), uses the expression, My babe, my blossom, ah, my child ! Blossom-faced. With red bloated face. Blossom-nose. A tippler, Lushing- ton (q.v.). Blossom-nosed, red with tippling : cf. Grog-blossom, Rum-bud. Blot. To blot the scrip, to put an undertaking into writing : the modern phrase is, to put it in black and white. Hence, To blot the scrip and jark it, to stand engaged, bound for any one (Grose). Bloviate. To talk aimlessly and boastingly, indulge in high falutin' : said to have been in use since 1850. Blow. 1. A shilling : see Rhino. 2. A drunken froh'c, spree. As verb, (1) to boast, brag, gas, fume, storm generally to talk boastfully or self- assertingly of oneself or one's affairs (1400) ; (2) to inform, expose, betray, peach (1575) ; (3) to lie ; (4) employed euphemistically for damn gener- ally in the imperative Blow it I hang it t (5) to lose or spend money : cf. Blue ; (6) to indulge in a frolic or spree ; (7) (Winchester School), to blush. To bite the blow, to steal goods, prig. To blow a cloud, to smoke. To blow hot and cold, to vacillate, be inconsistent ; to blow the bellows, to stir up passion ; to blow off, to relieve one' s feelings, get rid of super- fluous energy ; to blow into one's ear, to whisper privily ; to blow one's own trumpet, to brag, sound one's own E raises ; to blow the coals (or the fire), to in the flame of discord, promote strife ; to blow up, to scold, rate, rail at ; To blow great guns, to blow a hurricane or violent gale : sometimes to blow great guns and small arms (1839). To blow one's bazoo, to boast, swagger, gasconade. To blow oneself out, to eat heartily, gorge : hence, blow out, a heavy feed (or enter- tainment), a tuck in. To blow the gab (or gaff), to reveal (or let out) a secret, peach (Grose). To blow the grampus, to throw cold water on a man who has fallen asleep when on duty. To blow together, to make gar- ments in a slovenly manner. To blow up sky-high, to do everything with un- usual energy. To blow upon, to betray, tell tales of, discredit, defame. Blowboul (orBloboll). A tippler : see Lusbington. Blow-book. A book containing indelicate or ' smutty ' pictures (1708). Blowed. To be blowed, Slowed is here a euphemism, frequently little 53 Blue. more than a thinly-veiled oath. To be cursed, sent about one's business. Blowen (or Blowing). Origin- ally a woman, without special refer- ence to moral character, now a showy courtesan or a prostitute (1688). Blower. 1. A girl : contemptuous in opposition to jomer (q.v.) (Grose). 2. A good talker, boaster, gas-bag. 3. A pipe. Blowhard. A Western term of abuse : a newcomer may, in one and the same breath, be called a blareted Britisher, a coyote, and a blowhard. Blowse (Blowsy, Blouze, Blowzy). 1. A beggar's trull, a wench. 2. A slatternly woman, especially one with dishevelled hair. Thought to be of canting origin. Blowze. 1. A beggar's trull, beg- gar wench, wench (1573). 2. A fat, rod - faced bloated wench, or one whose head is dressed like a slattern (Bailey). Blubber. 1. The mouth: see Potato-trap (Grose). 2. A woman's breasts. As verb, to cry, weep : in contempt (1400) : also Blab. Blubber and Guts. Obesity; a low term. Blubber-belly. A fat person. Blubber Head. A foolish, empty- headed individual : see Buffle. Blucher (ch. hard) (Winchester College). 1. A College praefect in half power : their jurisdiction does not extend beyond Seventh Chamber passage, though their privileges are the same as those of other prefects . they are eight in number. 2. A non- privileged cab plying at railway stations : railway companies recog- nise two classes of cabs, called the Pri- vileged .... and the Bluchers, non- privileged cabs, which are admitted to stations after all the privileged have been hired, named after the Prussian Field - Marshal who arrived on the field of Waterloo only to do the work that chanced to be undone. Bludgeoner. A bully, pimp, ponce. Bludger. A thief, who does not hesitate to use violence ; literally one who will use a bludgeon. Bludget. A female thief, who decoys her victims into alley-ways, etc., to rob them. Blue. 1. A policeman : from the colour of the uniform ; also (collect- ively). Blues, Men in Blue, Blue-boys, Blue-bottles, Blue-devils, Royal Regi- ment of Foot-guards Blue. 2. Among licensed victuallers and their customers in certain districts of Wales a com- promise between the half -pint and the pint pot ; it is not recognised as a legal measure by the authorities, but the Board of Trade has pointed out to the local authorities that there is nothing in the Weights and Measures Act to prevent the use of the Blue or to make its possessor liable to penalties, always provided of course that the vessel is not used as a measure. 3. A scholar of Christ's Hospital : a blue- coat boy : also derived from the colour of the clothes a blue drugget gown or body with ample skirts to it, a yellow vest underneath in winter time, small clothes of Russia duck, worsted yellow stockings, a leathern girdle, and a little black worsted cap, usually carried in the hand, being the com- plete costume ; this was the ordinary dress of children in humble life in Tudor times. 4. Short for blue- stocking (q.v.) ; formerly a contempt- uous term for a woman having (or affecting) literary tastes (1788). 5. Female learning or pedantry (1824). 6. At Oxford and Cambridge a man is said to get his blue when selected as a competitor in inter-university sports : the University colours are, for Oxford, dark blue ; and for Cambridge, light blue : cf. to get one's silk, said of a barrister when made King's Counsel. As adj., (1) applied, usually in con- tempt, to women of literary tastes : FT., bleue celle-la ; (2) indecent ; smutty ; obscene ; (3) gloomy, fearful, depressed, low-spirited : cf. to look blue, blue funk, and in the blues. As verb, (1) to blush (1709); (2) to pawn, pledge, spend, actually to get rid of money quickly : cf. Blew ; (3) to miscalculate, to make a mess of anything, to mull ; (4) to steal, plunder ; to be blued, to be robbed : see Prig. By all that's blue, a euphemistic oath : probably by Heaven : it may be compared with the French parbleu, synonymous with par Dieu. Till all is blue, (1) to the utmost, the end, for an indefinite period : Smyth, in his Sailors' Word Book, says this phrase is borrowed from the idea of a vessel making out of port and getting into deep water ; (2) tipsy : see Screwed Blue Apron. Blue Murder. (1616) : cf. Fr., avoir un coup cFbleu. To look blue, to be confounded, sur- prised, astonished, annoyed, dis- appointed. Fr., en r ester tout bleu, en lire bleu, en bailler tout bleu ( 1 600). To make the air blue, to curse, swear. True blue, faithful, genuine, real : an allusion to blue as the colour of con- stancy (1383). Blue Apron. A tradesman (1721). Bluebacks. 1. The paper money of the Confederates : originating, as in the case of United States paper currency greenbacks, in the colour of the printing on the reverse. 2. The Orange Free State paper money. Blue Bellies. A nickname be- stowed by Southerners, during the Civil War, upon their opponents of the North, whose uniform was blue : also Boys in blue, Yanks, etc. The Southerners, on the other hand, re- ceived such names as The secesh, Rebs, and Johnny Rebs, the latter being some times shortened to Johnnies. The grey uniform of the Confederates likewise caused them to be styled Boys in grey, and Greybacks. Blue Bills (Winchester College). A tradesman's bills sent home to the parents and guardians of students. Blue Billy. A handkerchief (blue ground with white spots) some- times worn and used as a colour at prize-fights : see Billy. Blue Blanket. 1. The sky: probably suggested by Shakespeare's Blanket of the dark (Macbeth, i. v.) (1720). 2. A rough overcoat made of coarse pilot cloth. Blue Blazes. See Blazes. Blue Boar. A venereal disease. Blue Bottle. 1. A policeman, constable, watchman (1598). 2. A serving-man : blue was the usual habit of servants (1602). 3. A term of re- proach for a servant. Blue Boy. A bubo, a tumour or abscess with inflammation. Blue-boys. The police. Blue Butter. Mercurial ointment. Blue-cap. A Scotchman (1596). 2. A kind of ale (1822). Blue-coat. 1. A constable, guardian of public order. 2. A serv- ing man, and, 3. (generally) one of the lower orders : as wearing coats of blue (1600). 4. A blue-coat boy : see Blue. Blued (or Slewed). Tipsy, drunk: see Screwed. Blue Dahlia. Something rare (or seldom seen), a rara avis. BlueDevils. 1. Dejection, low- ness of spirits, hypochondria (1786). 2. Delirium tremens (1818). Hence, such derivatives as Blue devilage, Blue devilry, Blue devilism ; and Blue devilly. Blue Fear. Extreme fright : the same as Blue funk (q.v.). Blue Flag. A blue apron (q.v.) worn by butchers, publicans, and other tradesmen (Grose). Blue Funk. Extreme fright, nervousness, dread (1856). Blue - gown. 1. A loose woman : a blue-gown was the dress of igno- miny for a harlot in the house of correction (Nares). 2. A beggar, especially a licensed beggar who wore the dress as a badge. Blue Hen's Chickens. The inhabitants of Delaware. The nickname arose thus : Captain Cald- well, an officer of the first Delaware regiment in the American War of In- dependence, was noted for his love of cock-fighting. Being personally popu- lar, and his regiment becoming famous for their valour, they were soon known as game - cocks ; and as Caldwell maintained that no cock was truly game unless its mother was a blue hen, his regiment, and subsequently Dela- wareans generally, became known as blue hen's chickens, and Delaware as the Blue Hen State for the same reason. A boaster is also often brought to book by the sarcasm Your mother was a blue hen no doubt. Blue Horse. The Fourth Dragoon Guards (1746-88). Blue- jacket. A sailor ; especially used to distinguish seamen from the marines. Blue Laws. Puritanic laws of extreme severity : originally of enact- ments at New Haven, Conn., U.S.A. Blue Lightning. A revolver. Blue Monday. A Monday spent in dissipation and absence from work. Blue Moon. Once in a blue moon, extremely seldom, an unlimited time, a rarely recurring period : an old phrase, first used in the sense of something absurd ; a blue moon, like the Greek Kalends, is something which does not exist (1526). Blue Murder (or Blue Murders) 55 Blueness. Bluey. Cries of terror (or alarm), a great noise, an unusual racket: cf. Fr., morbleu. Blueness. Indecency (1840). Fr., horreurt, bftises, gueultes. Blue Noses. The natives of Nova Scotia : in allusion, it is said, to a potato of that name which Nova Scotians claim to be the best in the world ; Proctor, however, hazards the suggestion that the nickname refers to the blueness of nose resulting from intense cold (1837). Blue Peter. The signal or call for trumps at whist : properly a blue flag with white square in centre, hoisted as a signal for immediate sailing. Blue Pigeon. 1. Lead used for roofing purposes : see Blue pigeon flyer. 2. The sounding lead. Blue Pigeon Flyer. A thief who steals lead from the roofs of buildings. Hotten thus explains the modus operandi. Sometimes a journey- man plumber, glazier, or other workman, when repairing houses, strips off the lead, and makes away with it. This performance is, though, by no means confined to workmen. An empty house is often entered and the whole of the roof in ite vicinity stripped, the only notice given to the folks below being received by them on the occasion of a heavy downfall of rain. The term flyer has, indeed, of late years been more peculiarly ap- plied to the man who steals the lead in pursuance of his vocation as a thief, than to him who takes it because it comes in the way of his work (1789). Fr., limousineur, gras-doublier, mas- taroufleur. To fly the blue, pigeon, to steal lead from the roofs of houses. Blue Pill. A bullet; also Blue plum and lilue. whistler. Blue Ribbon (or Riband). A first prize, the greatest distinction. Blue Ruin. Gin : see Drinks (1817). Blues. 1. Despondency, hypo- chondria, depression of spirits : a shortened form of blue devils (q.v.). 2. The police. 3. The Royal Horse Guards Blue are popularly so known from their blue uniform with scarlet facings : the corps first obtained the name of Oxford Blues in 1690, to distinguish it from a Dutch regiment of Horse Guards dressed in blue, commanded by the Earl of Portland, the former being commanded by the Earl of Oxford ; subsequently the regiment was, during the campaign in Flanders [1742-45], known as the Blue Guards. Blue Skin. 1. Formerly a contemptuous term for a Presby- terian. 2. A half-breed the child of a black woman by a white man. Blue Squadron. Mixed blood ; properly one with a Hindoo strain : Eurasians belong to the blue squad- ron : cf. Touch of the tar brush. Blue Stocking. A literary lady : applied usually with the im- putation of pedantry. The gener- ally received explanation, is that the term is derived from the name given to certain meetings held by ladies in the days of Dr. Johnson for conversa- tion with distinguished literary men. One of the most eminent of these literati was a Mr. Benjamin Stilling- fleet, who always wore blue stockings, and whose conversation at these meetings was so much prized, that his absence at any time was felt to be a great loss, so that the remark became common, We can do nothing without the blue stockings, hence these meet- ings were sportively called blue- stocking clubs, and the ladies who attended them blue-stockings. It is stated that the name specially arose in this way. A foreigner of rank refused to accompany a friend to one of these parties on the plea of being in his travelling costume, to which there was the reply, Oh ! we never mind dress on these occasions ; you may come in bat bleus or blue stockings, with allusion to Stillingfleet's stockings, when the foreigner, fancying that bat bleus were part of the necessary cos- tume, called the meeting ever after the Bas-bleu Society. In modern slang the term blue-stocking is abbrevi- ated into blue. Derivatives are blue- stockingism, bluc-stockinger, etc. (1738). Blue Stone. Gin (or whisky) of so bad a quality that it can only be compared to vitriol, of which blue-stone is also a nickname in the north of England and Scotland. Blue Tape. Gin : see Drinks. Blue Water. The open sea. Blue Whistler. A bullet. Bluey. 1. Lead: see Blue pigeon. 2. A bushman's bundle, the 56 Bluey-hunter. Bob. outside wrapper of which is generally a blue blanket hence the name : also called swag (q.v.) and drum (q.v.). Bluey-hunter. A thief who steals lead, as described under Blue pigeon flyer (q.v.) (1851). B 1 u ff . An excuse, pretence, that which is intended to hoodwink or blind. As verb, to turn aside, stop, hoodwink, to blind as to one's real intention. Bluffer. 1. An innkeeper (Qrose). 2. A bo'sun. Blunderbuss. A stupid blundering fellow : see Buffle (Qrose). Blunt. Generic for money, espe- cially ready money: see Rhino (1714). Blunted. Possessed of money, in comfortable circumstances, warm ( q. v. ) Blunt-worker. A blunderer (1440). Blunt-working, blundering. B 1 u n t y. A stupid fellow, one slow-witted : see Buffle. Blur-paper. A scribbler (1603). Blush. To blush like a black or blue dog, to blush not at all (1579). Blushet. A modest girl, a little blusher (1625). B. N. C. Brasenose : the initials of Brasen Nose College, Oxford : in spite of the nose over the gate, the probability is that the real name was Brasinium; it is still famous for its beer. Bo (or Boh). To cry (or say) Bo to a goose (battledore, bull, etc.), to open one's mouth, to speak. Boanerges. A loud, vociferous speaker : i.e. a son of thunder (Mark iii. 17). Board. 1. To borrow. 2. To accost, ask of, make a demand ; i.e. to come to close quarters (1547). To board in the smoke, to take one un- awares, or by surprise. On the board, enjoying all the privileges and emolu- ments of a competent workman : when an apprentice becomes a regular jour- neyman he goes on the board : tailors usually work squatting on a low raised platform hence possibly the expres- sion. To keep one's name on the board, to remain a member of a College. To sweep the board, to pocket all the stakes. To begin the board, to take precedence. To go by the board, to go for good and all, be completely done for, ruined. To sail on another board, to change one's tactics. Boarding House (or School). Newgate: but equally applicable to any gaol New York thieves apply it to the Tombs : see Cage. Boardman. A standing pat- terer : they endeavour to attract at- tention to their papers, or, more commonly, pamphlets ... by means of a board with coloured pictures upon it, illustrative of the contents of what they sell : this in street technology is board work : sometimes called a sandwich man. Board of Green Cloth. A card (or billiard) table. Boat. Formerly the hulks ; latterly to any prison : see Cage. To have an oar in another's boat, to meddle, busybody. To sail in the same boat, to pursue the same course. As verb, ( 1 ) originally to transport : the term is now applied to penal servitude. To get the boat (or to be boated), to be sentenced to a long term of imprison- ment equivalent to transportation under the old system ; (2) to join as partner : evidently a corruption of to be in the same boat, i.e. to be in the same position or circumstances. To bail one's own boat, to be self- reliant, to paddle one's own canoe. Bob. LA shilling: seeRhino (1812). 2. A shoplifter's assistant ; one who receives and carries off stolen goods : Fr., nonne (or noune). 3. Gin: see Drinks ( 1749). 4. An infantry soldier ; generally Light-bob, i.e. a soldier of the fight infantry (1544). 5. (Winchester College). A large white jug contain- ing about a gallon in measure, and used for beer. As adj., lively, nice, in good spirits (1721). As verb, to cheat, trick, disappoint : also to 606 out of ( 1605). As intj., Stop ! That's enough ! Dry bob (Wet bob) (Eton College), the first-named is one who devotes him- self to cricket or football and other land sports ; the latter one who goes in for rowing and aquatics generally (1844). All is bob, All's safe, serene, gay (1786). Bear a bob I Be brisk ! look sharp ! To give the bob, ( 1) to give the door : used by Massinger It can be no other but to give me the bob; (2) to befool, mock, impose upon. S'help me bob, a street oath, equivalent to So help me God ; a corrupted form of the legal oath : So help is pro- nounced swelp : also a'help the cot my greens the toturs, etc. To shift one's bob, to go away. 67 Bogus. Bobber, l. \ follow- workman, mate, chum. 2. A spurious plural of bob (q.v.) = a shilling. Bobbery. A noise, squabble, disturbance, racket (1813). Bobbish. Frequently pretty bobbish, i.e. hearty, in good health and spirits, clever, spruce (1819) ; also bobbishly. Bobby. A policeman : this nick- name, though possibly not derived from, was certainly popularised by the fact that the Metropolitan Police Act of 1828 was mainly the work of Mr., afterwards Sir Robert Peel. Long before that statesman remodelled the police, however, the term Bobby the beadle was in use to signify a guard- ian of a public square or other open space. There seems, however, a lack of evidence, and examples of its literary use prior to 1851 have not been discovered. At the Universities the Proctors are or used to be called bobbies. Bobby- twister. A burglar or thief (q.v.), who, when resisting pur- suit or capture, uses violence. Bob-cull. A good fellow, pleasant companion. Bob my pal. A girl, i.e. gal. Bobstick. A shilling's worth. Bob Tail. 1. A lewd woman. 2. A contemptible fellow Tag, rag, and bobtail. See Tag. Bocardo. A prison : see Cage : specially the prison in the old North Gate of Oxford, demolished in 1771. Boco. 1. The nose : see Conk. 2. Nonsense, bosh. Bodier. A blow on the side of the body. Bodkin. Amongst sporting men, a person who takes his turn between the sheets on alternate nights, when an hotel has twice as many visitors as it can comfortably lodge ; as, for instance, during a race - week. A transferred sense from To ride (or sit) bodkin, to take a place and be wedged in between other persons when the accommodation is intended for two only (1638). Body-cover. A coat. Body of Divinity Bound in Black Calf. A parson : see Devil-dodger. Body-slangs. Fetters : see Dar- bies (1819). Body-snatcher. 1. A bailiff or runner : the snatch was the trick by which the bailiff captured the delin- quent. 2. A policeman. 3. A gener- ally objectionable individual : also mean body tnatcher. 4. A violator of graves, resurrectionist : also Body- lifter (1833). 5. An undertaker. Bog. 1. The works at Dartmoor, on which convicts labour ; during recent years a large quantity of land has been reclaimed in this way. 2. An abbreviated form of bog-house (q.v.). As verb, to ease oneself, evacuate. Bogey. See Bogy. Boggle- de- Botch ( Boggled y- Botch). A bungle, mess, hash : Boggle, however, is more frequently employed (1834). Bog-house (Bog-shop). A privy, necessary house (1671). Boglander. An Irishman : from the boggy and marshy character of a considerable portion of the Emerald Isle (1698). Bog Latin. A spurious mode of speech simulating the Latin in con- struction : see Dog Latin. Bog-oranges. Potatoes : see Bogland, with an eye to the vegetable in question forming a very substantial food staple of the Irish peasantry. Bog-trotter. An Irishman : Camden, however (c. 1605), speaking of the debateable land on the bor- ders of England and Scotland, says, Both these dales breed notable bog- trotters; so the original sense would appear to have been, accustomed to walk across bogs ; as a nickname for an Irishman, it dates at least from 1671. Bog - trotting, living among bogs ; e.g. a bog-trotting Irishman (1758). Bogus. Spurious, fictitious, sham, not what it professes to be : of American origin. Dr. Murray, who, while slily satirising the bogus deri- vations circumstantially given, says : Dr. S. Willard, of Chicago, in a letter to the editor of this Dictionary, quotes from the Painesvitte (Ohio) Telegraph of July 6 and Nov. 2, 1827, the word bogus as a subs., applied to an ap- paratus for coining false money. Mr. Eber D. Howe, who was then editor of that paper, describes in his Autobio- graphy (1878) the discovery of such a piece of mechanism in the hands of a gang of coiners at Painesville, in May 1827 ; it was a mysterious-looking object, and some one in the crowd 58 Bogy. Bolter. styled it a bogus, a designation adopted in the succeeding numbers of the paper. Dr. Willard considers this to have been short for tanlrabogus, a word familiar to him from his child- hood, and which in his father's time was commonly applied in Vermont to any ill-looking object ; he points out that tantrabobs is given in Halliwell as a Devonshire word for the devil. [Bogus seems thus to be related to bogy, etc.] (1825). Bogy, Bogey. A landlord : Fr., Monsieur Vautour (vautour & vulture). Ask Bogy, a reply to a question (Grose) : modern God knows ! or Bramah knows ! under similar cir- cumstances. As adj., sombre, dark in tint : said of a painting exhibiting these characteristics. Bohemian. A gipsy of society; one who either cuts himself off, or is by his habits cut off, from society for which he is otherwise fitted ; especi- ally an artist, literary man, or actor, who leads a free, vagabond, or irre- gular life, not being particular as to the society he frequents, and despis- ing conventionality generally : used with considerable latitude, with or without reference to morals (O.E.D.). Bonn (American College). A trans- lation, pony (q.v.) : the volumes of Bonn's Classical Library are in such general use among under-graduates in American Colleges, that Bohn has become a common name for a trans- lation. Boil. To betray, peach (1602). To boil down, to reduce in bulk by con- densing or epitomising. To boil the pot, to gain (or supply) one's liveli- hood. To keep the pot boiling, to keep going. The blood boils, of strong emotion, anger, or resentment. To boU one'slobster, to enter the army after having been in the church. Boiled Shirt (Biled Shirt or Boiled Rag). A white shirt (1854). Boiler (Winchester College). 1. A plain coffee-pot used for heating water : called fourpenny and sixpenny boilers, not from their price, but from the quantity of milk they will hold : ro irav boilers were large tin saucepan-like vessels in which water for hot bidets (q.v.) was heated. 2, See Pot boiler. Boiler - plated. Imperturbable, stolid, stoical. Boilers (or Brompton Boilers). 1. The Kensington Museum and School of Art, in allusion to the peculiar form of the temporary build- ings, and the fact of their being mainly composed of, and covered with sheet iron. This has been changed since the extensive alterations in the building, or rather pile of buildings, and the term boilers is now applied to the Bethnal Green Museum : cf. Pepper- boxes. 2. (Royal Military Academy). Boiled potatoes : Fried potatoes are called Greasers. Boiling (or B i 1 i n g). Whole boiling (or bUing), the whole lot, entire quantity: also whole gridiron (q.v.) and All the shoot (1835). Boke. The nose. Bold. Bold as brass, audaci- ously forward, presumptuous, without shame. Boler (or Bowler). A stiff felt hat (1861). B o 1 1 y (Marlborough College). Pudding. Bolt. The throat (1821). As verb (at one period slang, now recog- nised), 1. To escape, leave suddenly : an instance of a word once orthodox, subsequently fell into disrepute, but which, after having for generations served as a mere slang term, is now nearly as respectable as when Dryden wrote : I have reflected on those who, from time to time, have shot into the world, some bolting out on the stage with vast applause, and others hissed off. 2. The usage hi the United States indicates the right of the independently minded to revolt against partisan rule, as He bolted the party nominations : also substantively, as He has organised a bolt. 3. To eat hurriedly without chewing, swallow whole, gulp down. To get the bolt, sentenced to penal servitude. To turn the corner of Bolt Street, to run : cf. Queer Street. See Moon. Bolter. 1. One who hides himself in his own house, or some privileged place, and dares only peep, but not go out of his retreat (Dyche) : the privileged places referred to were such as Whitefriars, the Mint, Higher and Lower Alsatia, etc. 2. One who bolts ; especially applied to horses, but figuratively to persons in the sense of one given to throwing off restraint ; 59 Bolt-in-Tun. Bone-house. in American parlance one who kick (q.v.) (1840). 3. One who exercises the right of abstention in regard to his political party. Bolt-in-Tun. Bolted, run away (1819). A term founded on the cant word bolt, and merely a fanciful variation very common among flash persons, there being in London a famous inn so called ; it is customary when a man has run away from his lodgings, broken out of jail, or made any other sudden movement, to say, the Bolt -in -tun is concerned, or, he's gone to the Bolt-in-tun instead of simply saying, he has bolted, etc. Boltsprit (Boltspreet, Bowsprit). The nose : see Conk (1690). Bolus. An apothecary, a doctor. Boman. A gallant fellow. Bombay Ducks. 1. The Bombay regiments of the East India Company's army. 2. A well - known delicacy : the Anglo - Indian relation of the Digby chick ; alive, it is a fish called the bummelo ; dead and dried, it becomes a duck. Bombo, Bumbo. A nickname given to various mixtures, but chiefly to cold punch ; Smollett, in a note in Roderick Random, speaks of it as A liquor composed of rum, sugar, water, and nutmeg (1748). B o n a. A girl, young woman, belle : a modern form, in a good sense, of Bona-roba (q.v.). As adj., good. Bonanza. A happy hit, stroke of fortune, success : from the Spanish, a fail wind, fine weather, prosperous voyage ; Bonanza was originally the name of a mine in Nevada, which once, quite unexpectedly, turned out to be a big thing, and of enormous value ; now applied to any lucky hit or suc- cessful enterprise. Bona-roba, subs. (old). A wench, specially a courtesan, a showy wanton. The term was much in use among the older dramatists. Ben Jonson speaks of a bouncing bona-roba ; and Cowley seems to have considered it as implying a fine, tall figure. Bona in modern times is frequently employed to signify a girl or young woman, without re- ference to morals (1589). Bonce. 1. The head (probably a derivative of sense 2) 2. A large marble (origin unknown, but see Alley). Bond. Our Lady' s bonds, pregnancy, confinement Bone. 1. A bribe to a Custom! House officer. 2. Something relished (1884). As adj., good, excellent; O is the vagabonds' hieroglyphic for bone, or good, chalked by them on houses and street corners as a hint to succeeding beggars. As verb, (1) to filch, steal, make off with, take into custody (1748); (2) to bribe, grease the palm ; (3) to study : see Bonn. To bone standing, to study hard. The ten bones, the fingers : as in asseveration, By these ten bones ! To have a bone in the leg (arm, throat, etc. ), a humorous reason for declining to do anything, a feigned obstacle (1642). Hard (or dry) as a bone, as hard (or dry) as may be ( 1833). Bones of me (you, etc. ), an exclamation (1588). To feel a thing in one's bones, to feel acutely, under- stand perfectly. A bone to pick, a difficulty to solve, nut to crack, a matter of dispute, something dis- agreeable needing explanation, a settlement to make. A bone of con- tention, a source of contention or discord. To make bones of, to make objection to, have scruples of, hesitate. To find bones in, to be unable to credit, believe, or swallow. To put a bone in one's hood, to break one's head. To carry a bone in the mouth (or teeth), of a ship when cutting through the water making foam about her. One end is pretty sure to be bone, an old-time saying equivalent to an admission that All is not gold that glitters ; that the realization of one's hopes never comes up to the ideal formed of them. To be upon the bones, to attack (1616). Bone-ache. The lues venerea ( 1 592). Bone-baster. A staff, cudgel ( 1600). Bone-box. The mouth : see Potato-trap (Grose). Bone-breaker. Fever and ague. Bone-crusher. A heavy-bore rifle used for killing big game. Boned. See Bone, verb, sense 1. Bone-grubber. 1. One who lives by collecting bones from heaps of refuse, selling his spoils at the marine stores or to bone grinders (1750). 2. A resurrectionist, a violator of graves : Cobbett was therefore called a bone- grubber, because he brought the remains of Tom Paine from America. Bone-house. 1. The human body. 2. A coffin : also a charnel- house : Americans generally call a cemetery a bone-yard (1836). 60 Bone Musde. Boodle. Bone Muscle. To practise gymnastics. Bone-picker. 1. A footman : Fr., larbin. 2. A collector of bones, rags, and other refuse from the streets and places where rubbish is placed, for the purpose of sale to marine dealers and crushers : the same as bone -grubber. Bone-polisher. The cat - o' - nine- tails. Boner (Winchester College). A sharp blow on the spine. Bones. 1. Dice, also called St. Hugh's bones (q.v.) To rattle the bones, to play at dice (1386). 2. Pieces of bones held between the fingers and played Spanish castanet fashion : generally an accompaniment to banjo and other negro minstrel music (1592). 3. A member of a negro minstrel troupe ; generally applied to one of the end men who plays the bones (sense 2) (1851). 4. The bones of the human body, but more generally applied to the teeth : Fr., pUoches, ossdots. 5. A surgeon ; generally sawbones (q.v.). 6. (a) The shares of Wickens, Pease and Co. ; (b) North British 4% 1st Preference Shares, the 4% 2nd Preference Stock being nick- named Bonettas. One end is pretty sure to be bone : an old-time saying equivalent to an admission that All is not gold that glitters ; that the realiza- tion of one's hopes never comes up to the ideal formed of them. To be upon the bones, to attack. Bonesetter. A hard riding horse, ricketty conveyance : see Bone- shaker (Grose). Bone-shake. To ride a bone- shaker (q.v.). Bone-shaker. 1. A hard trotting horse : see Bone-setter. 2. An ordin- ary, as distinguished from a safety, a type of bicycle in use prior to the introduction of india-rubber tires and other manifold improvements. Bonettas. The 4% 2nd North British 2nd Preference Stock. Bong. See Boung. Boniface. The landlord of a tavern or inn, mine host : from Farquhar's play of The Beaux' Stratagem (1707). Boning. Boning adjutant, aping a military bearing. Boning muscle (q.v.) going in largely for gymnastics. Boning demerit, giving no cause for complaint as regards one's conduct : all West Point cadet slang. Bonk. A short, steep hill. Bonnering. Burning for heresy (1613) :cf. Boycott, Burke, Maffick, etc. Bonnet. 1. A gambling cheat, decoy at auctions ; sometimes called a bearer up : the bonnet plays as though he were a member of the general public, and by his good luck, or by the force of his example, induces others to venture their stakes; bonneting is often done in much better society than that to be found in the ordinary gaming- rooms ; a man who persuades another to buy an article on which he receives commission or percentage, is said to bonnet or bear-up for the seller (1812). 2. A pretext, pretence, make believe. 3. A woman : cf . petticoat. As verb, ( 1 ) to act as a bonnet, cheat, puff, to bear up (q.v.) ; (2) to crush a hat over a man's eyes (1835). To have a green bonnet, to fail in business. A bee in one's bonnet, see Bee. To fill a person's bonnet, to fill his place, equal him. To rive the bonnet of, to excel. Bonnet- builder. A milliner (1839). Bonneter. 1. See Bonnet. 2. A crushing blow on the hat. Bonnet - laird. A petty proprie- tor in Scotland : as wearing a bonnet like humbler folk. Bonnet-man. A highlander. Bonnets-so-blue. Irish stew. Bonny. Looking well, plump. 2. Fine, good, very. To give a bonny penny for, to pay a long price. A bonny row, a jolly uproar. Bono. Good : from the Latin. Booby. 1. A stupid fellow, lubber, clown : see Buffle. 2. A dunce, the last in a class. To beat the booby, see Beat. Booby Hutch. A police station. Booby - trap. An arrangement of books, wet sponges, vessels of water, etc., so arranged on the top of a door set ajar that when the intended victim enters the room the whole falls on him (1850). Boodle. 1. A crowd, com- pany, the whole boiling (q.v.) : often caboodle (q.v.). 2. Capital, stock-in- trade : specially something secret, peculiar and illegal ; also money used for bribery, money that comes as spoils, the result of some secret deal, the profits of which are silently divided ; the term is likewise used to cover the booty of a bank robber, or the absconding cashier. Amongst the thieving fra- ternity boodle is used to denote money 61 Books. that is actually spurious or counterfeit, and not merely money used for nefari- ous purposes, but which as currency is genuine enough. 3. Generic for money : see Rhino. 4. A fool, noodle : see Buffle. To carry boodle, to utter base money. Fake - boodle, a roll of paper over which, after folding, a dollar bill is pasted, and another bill being loosely wrapped round this, it looks as if the whole roll is made up of a large sum of money in bills. B o o d 1 e r. 1. One who bribes or corrupts. 2. A man uttering base money : swindlers of this type gener- ally hunt in couples ; one carrying the bulk of the counterfeit money, and receiving the good change as obtained by his companion, who utters the boodle piece by piece ; the game is generally worked so that at the slightest alarm the boodle carrier vanishes and leaves nothing to incriminate his con- federate. B o o g e t. A travelling tinker's basket (Harmon) (1567). Book. 1. In betting (more especially in connection with horse- racing), an arrangement of bets made against certain horses, and so cal- culated that the bookmaker (q.v.) has a strong chance of winning something whatever the result (1836). By the book, formally, in set phrase. In a person's good (or bad) books, in favour (or disfavour). Out of one's book, mistaken, out of one's reckoning. Without one's book (1) unauthorised, (2) by rote. To drive to book, to compel to give evidence on oath. To bring to book, to bring to account. To speak like a book, to speak with authority. To talk like a book, to speak in set terms, as a precisian. To take a leaf out of a person's book, to take example by him. 2. The first six tricks at whist. 3. The copy of words to which music is set, the words of a play : formerly only applied to the libretto of an opera (1768). To know one's book, to have made up one's mind, to know what is best for one's interest. To suit one's book, to suit one's arrange- ments, fancy, or wish. Book Answerer. A critic (1760). Booked. Caught, fixed, disposed of, destined, etc. (1840). Book-form. The relative powers of speed (or endurance) of race-horses as set down in the Racing Calendar or book. Bookie (or Booky). A book- maker (q.v.). Bookmaker. A professional betting- man. The English Encyclo- paedia says : In betting there are two parties one called layers, as the bookmakers are termed, and the other backers, in which class may be in- cluded owners of horses as well as the public. The backer takes the odds which the bookmaker lays against a horse, the former speculating upon the success of the animal, the latter upon its defeat ; and taking the case of Cremorne for the Derby of 1872, just before the race, the bookmaker would have laid 3 to 1, or perhaps 1000 to 300 against him, by which transaction, if the horse won, as he did, the backer would win 1000 for risking 300, and the bookmaker lose the 1000 which he risked to win the smaller sum. At first sight this may appear an act of very questionable policy on the part of the bookmaker ; but really it is not so, because so far from running a greater risk than the backer, he runs less, inasmuch as it is his plan to lay the same amount (1000) against every horse in the race, and as there can be but one winner, he would in all probability receive more than enough money from the many losers to pay the stated sum of 1000 which the chances are he has laid against the one winner, whichever it is (1862). Bookmaker's Pocket. A breast- pocket made inside the waistcoat, for notes of large amount (Hottcn). Books. 1. A pack of cards ; used mainly by professional card- players : also called devil's books, book of broads, book of briefs : Fr., juge de paix, cartouchiere a portces (a prepared pack used by sharpers) (1706). 2. (Winchester College), (a) The prizes formerly presented by Lord Say and Sele, now given by the govern- ing body, to the Senior in each division at the end of Half, (b) The school is thus divided : Sixth Book Senior and Junior Division ; the whole of the rest of the School is in Fifth Book Senior Part, Middle Part, Junior Part, each part being divided into so many divisions, Senior, Middle, and Junior, or Senior, 2nd, 3rd, and Junior, as the case may require. G2 BoolcworJc. Boots. Formerly, there was also Fourth Book, but it ceased to exist about twenty -five years ago (1840). (c) Up at books, in class, repeating lessons : now called Up to books, (d) Books chambers, on Remedies (a kind of whole holiday), we also went into School in the morning and afternoon for an hour or two without masters ; this was called books chambers ; and on Sun- days, from four till a quarter to five. (Mansfield), (e) To get or make books, to make the highest score at anything. Bookwork. Mathematics that can be learned verbatim from books all that are not problems. Bookwright. An author. Boom. This word is a compara- tively recent production in its slang sense ; and is used in a variety of com- binations ; as, The whole State is booming for Smith, or The boys have whooped up the State to boom for Smith, or The State boom is ahead in this State, etc., etc. Stocks and money are said to be booming when active ; and any particular spot within a flourishing district is regarded as within the boom - belt. A successful team or party is said to be a booming squad, and we even read of boomlets to ex- press progress of a lesser degree. As subs, commercial activity, rapid ad- vance in prices, flourishing state of affairs synonymous with extreme vigour and effectiveness (1875). As verb, to make rapid and vigorous progress, advance by leaps and bounds, push, puff, bring into prominence with a rush (1874). To top one's boom off, to be off (or to start) in a certain direc- tion. Boomer. 1. One who booms or causes an enterprise to become flourish- ing, active or notorious. 2. Anybody (or anything) considerably above the average : a bouncing lie, a fine woman, a horse with extra good points, etc., etc. Boomerang. Acts or words, the results of which recoil upon the person from whom they originate : the boomerang is properly an Australian missile weapon which, when thrown, can be made to return to the thrower ; or which, likewise, can be caused to take an opposite direction to that in which it is first thrown (1845). Booming. Flourishing, active, in good form, large, astonishing. Boom-passenger. A convict on board ship : prisoners on board convict ships were chained to, or were made to crawl along or stand on the booms for exercise or punishment (Hotten). Boon - companion. A comrade in a drinking bout, a good fellow (1566). Boon - companionship. Jollity, conviviality (1592). Boong. See Bung. Boorde. See Bord. Boost. A hoisting, shove, lift, push up a New England vulgar- ism (1858). As verb, to hoist, lift up, shove. Boosy. See Boozy. Boot. To beat, punish with a strap : the punishment is irregular and unconventional, being inflicted by soldiers on a comrade discovered guilty of some serious breach of the un- written law of comradeship, such as theft, etc. : formerly inflicted with a bootjack hence the name. To make one boot serve for either leg, to speak with double meaning. The boot is on the other leg, the case is altered, re- sponsibility is shifted. To have one's heart in one's boots, to be in extreme fear. Over shoes, over boots, reck- less continuance of a course begun, in for a lamb in for a sheep. Like old boots, vigorously, thorough-going. To die in one's boots, to be hanged. Boot- catcher. A servant whose duty it was to remove a person's boots. Booth. A house. To heave a booth, to rob a house. Booth-burster. A loud and noisy actor, barn-stormer (q.v.). Booting. A punishment ad- ministered with a strap. Boot- Joe. Musketry drill. Bootlick. A flunkey, hanger- on, doer of dirty work, toady. As verb, to toady, hang on, undertake dirty work. Boots. 1. The servant at hotels and places of a kindred character who cleans the boots of visitors : formerly called boot - catchers (q.v.), because in the old riding and coaching days part of their duty was to divest travel- lers of their footgear. 2. The youngest officer in a regimental mess. 3. In humorous (or sarcastic) combination : e.g. Clumsy-boots, Lazy-boots, Sly- boots, Smooth-boots, etc. 63 Boots and Leathers. Botany Bay. Boots and Leathers. See Com- moner Peal. Booty. Plunder, spoils, swag (q.v.). To play booty, to play falsely, dis- honestly ; or unfairly ; this with the object of not winning, a previous ar- rangement having been made with a confederate to share the spoils result- ing from the bogus play : sometimes it takes the form of permitting the victim to win small stakes in order to encourage him to hazard larger sums which, naturally, he is not allowed to win (1575). Booty-fellow, a sharer in plunder, illicit - gains, etc. Booze. 1. Drink, a draught : the older forms are bouse or bouze (q.v.), but booze in its present form appears as early as 1714. 2. A drink- ing bout, tipsy frolic. As verb, to drink heavily, tipple, guzzle : an old term employed in some sense of to drink, as early as 1300. Boozed, drunk, fuddled. Boozy, drunken, screwed (q.v.). Boozing, the act of drinking hard. Boozer, a drunkard, a tippler. Boozing Cheat A bottle. Boozing -ken. A drinking den: Fr., bibine : see Lush crib (1567). Bpozington. A drunkard, Lushington ( q. v. ) Borachio. A drunkard : see Lushington : properly a akin for hold- ing wine (1599). B o r a k. To poke borak, to pour fictitious news into credulous ears, stuff, kid. Bord, Borde, Boorde. A shilling : see Rhino (1567). Bordeaux. Blood : cf. Claret and Badminton. Bordeaux hammer, a vinous headache. Bord You ! An expression used to claim the next turn in drinking. Bore (old slang, but now recog- nised). Anybody (or anything) weari- some or annoying. As verb, (I) to weary or to be wearied : the word does not appear in English literature prior to 1750 ; (2) push (or thrust) out of the course : amongst pugilists it signifies to drive an opponent on to the ropes of the ring by sheer weight, whilst amongst rowing men it denotes the action of a coxswain in so steering a boat as to force his opponent into the shore, or into still water, thus obtaining an unfair advantage; also analogously applied to horse - racing (1672). Born. All one't born days, one's lifetime (1740). Born weak, said of ft vessel feebly built Bosh. Nonsense, rubbish, stuff, rot anything beneath contempt : Murray says from the Turkish both lakerdi, empty talk ; the word became current in England from its frequent occurrence in Morier's Persian novel, Ayesha [1834], an extremely popu- lar production. As verb, to num- bug, spoil, mar. As intj., nonsense 1 Rubbish ! It's all my eye ! Bosh Faker. A violin player. Boshing. A flogging, bashing. Boshy. Trumpery, nonsensical. Bos-ken. A farmhouse : an old canting term. Boskiness. The quality of being fuddled with drink (or bemused), a state of drunkenness. Bosky. Drunk, tipsy, fuddled : see Screwed (1748). Bosnian. A farmer. Bosom-bird. An intimate friend. Bosom-mischief. The root of offending. Bosom-piece. A bosom friend : especially of a woman. Bosom -sermon. One learnt by heart Bosom-slave. A mistress. Boss. 1. A master, head man, one who directs : from the Dutch boat, a master. 2. A short-sighted person ; also one who squints : also Bosser : cf. Boss-eyed. 3. A miss, blunder. As adj., pleasant, first rate, chief. As verb, (1 ) to manage, direct, control ; (2) to miss one's aim, make such a shot as a boss-eyed (q.v.) person would be ex- pected to make. Boss-shot, a shot that fails of its mark. Bossers. Spectacles. Boss-eyed. Said of a person with one eye (or rather with one eye in- jured), a person with obliquity of vision, squinny-eyed (q.v.), swivel- eyed (q.v.). Bostruchyzer (Oxford University). A small kind of comb for curling the whiskers (H often). Bot, Bott, Botts. The colic, belly-ache, gripes (1787). Botanical Excursion. Transporta- tion : the allusion is to Botany Bay ( q. v. ) Botany Bay (University), 1. At Oxford, Worcester College : on Botany Bay Fever. Bounty-jumper account of its remote situation as re- gards other collegiate buildings. 2. A certain portion of Trinity College, Dublin : for a similar reason. 3. Penal servitude : formerly convicts [1787-1867] were transported to Bot- any Bay, a convict settlement at the Antipodes. Hence to go to Botany Bay, to get a long term of imprison- ment. Botany Bay Fever. Trans- portation, penal servitude. Botch. A tailor. Bottle. To turn out no bottle, not to turn out well, to fail. To pass the bottle of smoke, to countenance a conventional tie, to cant. To look for a needle in a bottle of hay, to engage in a hopeless search : also, needle in a hay- stack. To bottle up, to restrain temper (or) feelings, to hold (or keep) back (1622). Bottle - ache. Drunkenness : see Gallon distemper. Bottle - arsed. Type thicker at one end than the other a result of wear and tear. Bottle-head. A fool : see Buffle. Bottle-holder. 1. A second at a prize-fight. 2. One who gives moral support, backer, adviser : in the Times of 1851, Lord Palmerston was reported to consider himself the bottle-holder of oppressed states : and in Punch of the same year, a cartoon appeared repre- senting that statesman as the judi- cious bottle-holder (1753). Bottle - holding. Backing, sup- porting. Bottle of Brandy in a Glass. A long drink, of beer. Bo ttle of Spruce. Twopence, deuce (q.v.). Bottles. Barrett's Brewery and Bottling Co. Shares. Bottle - sucker. An able - bodied seaman, the abbreviation is A.B.S. Bottom. 1. The posteriors : not now in polite or literary use (1794). 2. Capital, resources, stamina, grit (1662). 3. Spirit placed in a glass prior to the addition of water. To knock the bottom out of one, to overcome, defeat. To stand on one's own bottom, to act for oneself, to be independent. Bottom Dollar. The last dollar. To bet one's bottom dollar, to risk all. Bottom Facts. The exact truth about any matter. To get to the bottom facts concerning a subject, to arrive at an unquestionable conclusion concerning it, to get to the root of the question : also Bottom-rock. B o 1 1 y. An infant's posteriors, Fr., tu tu. As adj., conceited, swag- gering: Fr., faire sa merde, faire son matador. Bough. The gallows : see Tree (1590). Boughs. Up in the boughs, in a passion (Grose). Bounce. 1. Brag, swagger, boast- ful falsehood, exaggeration (1714). 2. Impudence, cheek, brass (q.v.). 3. A boaster, swaggerer, showy swindler, bully (1812). As verb, (1) to boast, bluster, hector, bully, blow up (1633) ; (2) to lie, to cheat, swindle ( 1762). On the bounce, in a state of spasmodic movement, general liveliness. To get the grand bounce, to be dismissed: spec. in reference to government appoint- ments. Bounceable. Prone to bounc- ing or boasting, uppish, bump- tious (1830). Bouncer. 1. A bully, hector, blusterer, one who talks swagger- ingly (1748). 2. A thief who steals goods from shop counters while bar- gaining with the tradesman: Fr., degringoleur, and (the practice itself) degringoler h la carre. 3. A lie, a liar (1762). 4. Anything large of its kind, whopper, thumper, corker (1596). 5. Chucker-out (q.v.). 6. A prostitute's bully. 7. A gun that kicks when fired. Bouncing. Vigorous, lusty, ex- aggerated, excessive, big (1563). Bouncing Cheat. A bottle. Bounder. 1. A four-wheeled cab, growler (q.v.). 2. A student whose manners are not acceptable, one whose companionship is not cared for. 3. A dog - cart. 4. A vulgar, though well-dressed man, a superior kind of 'Arry, one whose dress and personal appearance are correct, but whose manners are of a questionable character. The term is very often used in connection with bally (q.v.). Boung. See Bung. Boung Nipper. See Bung-nipper. Bounty-jumper. A man who, receiving a bounty when enlisting, deserts, re-enlists, and receives a second bounty. The War of the Rebellion is responsible for this, as for many other colloquialisms ; as 65 Bounty -jumping. Box. the conflict lengthened out, men be- came in great request, and large bounties were offered by the North for volunteers. This bounty was found to be a direct incitement to bad faith and unfair dealing. Men would enlist, receive their bounty, join their regiment, and then decamp, to re- appear in another State, to go through the same performance, in some cases many times over. Bounty- jumping. Obtaining a bounty by enlisting and then deserting. Bourbon. 1. In American politics a Democrat of the straitest sect ; a fire-eater : applied, for the most part, to the Southern Democrats of the old school uncompromising adherents of political tradition be- hind the age, and unteachable. 2. A superior kind of whisky : originally that manufactured in Bourbon, Ken- tucky. Bouse, Bowse, Booze. 1. Drink or liquor of any kind (1667). 2. A drinking bout, carouse. As verb, to drink to excess, tipple, swill : both this and the substantive seem to have been known as early as 1300, but neither came into general use until the sixteenth century, from which period both forms have become more and more colloquial : see Lush. Hence, bouser, a toper ; bousing, hard drink- ing ; and bousy, intoxicated or screwed. To bouse the jib, to tipple, drink heavily : a different word from bouse, to haul with tackle, i.e. to make oneself tight : see Screwed. Bousing Ken. A tavern, inn, drinking den : now applied to a low public house : see Lush crib (1567). Bouzy. See Boozy. Bow. Two (or many) strings to one's bow, an alternative, more re- sources than one (1562). To draw the long bow, to exaggerate, gas, talk up (1819). To draw the bow up to the ear, to do a thing with alac- rity, put on full steam, exert oneself to the utmost. The bent of one's bow, one's intention, inclination, disposi- tion. To shoot in another's bow, to undertake another's work, practise an art or profession other than one's own. By the string rather than the bow, in a direct fashion, by the straightest way to an end. To bend (or bring) to one's bow, to control, compel to one's will or inclination. To come to one's bow, \ 66 to be complaisant, become com- pliant. B o w-c a t c h e r. A kiss-curl : see Aggerawator : a corruption of beau- catcher. Bowdlerize. To expurgate by removing words or phrases considered offensive or questionable from a book or writing : from Dr. T. Bowdler's method in editing an edition of Shakes- peare, in which, to use his own words, Those . . . expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family (1836). Bower. A prison : see Cage. Bowery Boy, Bowery Girl. The 'Any and 'Arriet of New York of some years ago : the Bowery was the farm of Governor Stuyvesant Bowlas. Round tarts made of sugar, apple, and bread (May hew). Bowled. Croppled(q.v.). Bowler. See Boler. Bowles. Shoes : see Trotter- Bowl Out To overcome, get the better of, defeat (1812). Bowl - the - hoop, subs, (rhyming slang). Soup. Bowman. All's Bowman, All's well! Bowse. See Booze. Bowsing Ken. See Bousing ken. Bowsprit. The nose. To have one's bowsprit in parenthesis, to have it pulled : cf. To have one's head in Coventry. Bow- window. A big belly, cor- poration (q.v.). Bow-windowed, big- bellied (1840). Bow-wow. 1. A childish name for a dog (1800). 2. A Bostonian : in contempt. 3. A cavalier, lover, spec. a petticoat-dangler : cf. Tame-cat. Bow-wow Mutton. Dog's flesh. Bow- wow- word. A term applied sarcastically by Max Mullerto words claimed as imitations of natural sounds. B o w y e r. One who draws a long bow, a dealer in the marvellous, a teller of improbable stories, a liar. Box. A prison cell. As verb (Westminster School), to take posses- sion of, bag. To be in a box, to be cornered, in a fix, stuck (or hung) up. To be in the wrong box, to be out of one's element, in a false position, mistaken (1555). On the box, a man when on strike and in receipt of strike pay is said to be on the box. To box Box Hat. Brain-crack. Harry (1) to take dinner and tea together ; (2) to dine out, i.e. to do without a meal at all. To box the compass, to repeat in succession, or irregularly, the thirty-two points of the compass ; beginners, on accom- plishing this feat, are said to be able to box the compass (1731). Box Hat. A silk hat : see Cady. Box-irons. Shoes : see Trotter- cases (1789). Box of Dominoes. The mouth. [From box + dominoes (q.v.), a slang term for the teeth.] For synonyms, see Potato-trap. Boy. 1. Champagne, fiz, Cham (q.v.) : Fr., champ. [A story, ben trovato, is told by the Sporting Times of June 30, 1882, as regards the origin of the phrase : At a shooting party in Norfolk once, a youth was told off to supply the company with cham- pagne. The day being hot and the sportsmen thirsty, cries of Boy I Boy ! Boy ! were heard all day long. This tickling the fancy of the royal and noble party, the term boy became applied to champagne.] 2. A hump on a man's back: itis common to speak of a humpbacked man as two persons him and his boy. 3. (Anglo- Indian and colonial). A servant of whatever age. Old boy (1) a familiar term of address : spec, a father, the guv' nor, the boss; (2) The devil. Yellow boy, a guinea ; also, one pound sterling : see Rhino. Angry (or roaring boys), a set of young bucks, bloods, or blades (q.v.), of noisy manners and fire- eating tastes : Nares says, like the Mohawks (q.v.) described by the Spectator, they delighted to commit outrages and get into quarrels ; early mention is made of such characters ; Wilson, in his Life of James I. (1653), gives an account of their origin : The king minding his sports, many riotous demeanours crept into the kingdom ; divers sects of vicious persons, going under the title of roar- ing boys, bravadoes, roysterers, etc., commit many insolencies ; the streets swarm, night and day, with bloody quarrels, private duels fomented, etc. (1599). Boys of the holy ground, for- merly [1800-25] bands of roughs in- festing a well - known region in St. Giles : see Holy-land. Boycott. To combine in refusing to hold relations of any kind, social or commercial, public or private, with a person, on account of political or other differences, so as to punish or coerce him. The word arose in the autumn of 1880 Capt. Boycott, an Irish land- lord, was the original victim to de- scribe the action instituted by the Irish LandLeague toward those who incurred its hostility. It was speedily adopted into every European language (0. E.D.) Brace. To get credit by swagger. To brace it through, to succeed by dint of sheer impudence. Bracelets. Handcuffs ; fetters for the wrist: Fr., alliances (properly wedding rings), also tartouve and lacets : see Darbies (1661). Brace of Shakes. A moment, jiffy, twinkling of an eye, etc. : see Shakes. Brace Up. 1. To pawn stolen goods to their utmost value. 2. To take a drink. Bracket- faced. Ugly, hard- featured (Grose). Bracket-mug. An ugly face. Brads. Generic for money : see Rhino (1812). To tip the brads, to pay, shell out. Brag. A usurer, Jew. Braggadocia. Three months' im- prisonment as a reputed thief. Brain. Cuteness, cleverness, nous (q.v.). Hence brainy, smart, clever, up-to-date. Phrases : To beat (break, busy, cudgel, drag, or puzzle) one's brains, to exert oneself to thought or contrivance. To crack one's brains, to become crazy. On the brain, crazy about (a matter). To turn one's brain, to bewilder, flummox. A dry brain, silly, stupid, barren brain. A hot brain an inventive fancy. Boiled brains, a hot-headed person. To bear a brain, to be cautious. To suck (or pick) a person's brains, to get and ap- propriate information. Of the same brain, identical in conception or doing. Brain-pan (or Box.) 1. The skull, or skull-cap : also Brain-canister ; the Scotch equivalent is Hani pan 2, The head (1520). A cunning devio . A wriggling dis- Brain- trick. Brain - worm, putant (1645). Brain - brat, fancy (1630), Brain-crack, bee (1851). A creature of the A craze, crotchet, 67 "Brain-worm. freak. Brain - worm. A wriggling dis- putant (1643). Bramble. A lawyer ; a tangle of the law. Bramble-gel der. An agricul- turist : a Suffolk term. Bran. A loaf. Branded Ticket A discharge given to an infamous man, on which his character is given, and the reason he is turned out of the service (Smyth). Brandy. Brandy is Latin for goose (or for fish), this punning vulgarism appears first in Swift's Polite Conversa- tion ; the pun is on the word answer. Anscr is the Latin for goose, which brandy follows as surely and quickly as an answer follows a question. Brandy Face. A tippler, drunkard : spec, one whose favourite drink is brandy: see Lushington (1687). Brandy-faced. Red-faced, bloated. Brandy Pawnee. Brandy and water (1816). Brandy Smash. An American drink of brandy and crushed ice. Bran-mash. Bread sopped in coffee or tea. Brass. 1. Impudence, effrontery, unblushing hardness, shamelessness, etc. (1594). 2. Generic for money: see Rhino (1526). Brass- basin. A barber, surgeon- barber (1599). Brass-face. An impudent person. Brass-bound and Copper Fast- ened. Said of a lad dressed in a midshipman's uniform (W. Clark Russell). Brass-bounder. A midshipman. Brasser (Christ's Hospital). A bully. Brass Farthing (or Farde). The lowest limit of value (1642). Brass Knocker. Broken victuals, the remains of a meal : specially ap- plied by beggars to the scraps often bestowed upon them in place of money. Brass-plate Merchant A dealer who merely procures orders for coal, gets some merchant who buys in the market to execute them in his name, and manages to make a living by the profits of these transactions (May hew). Brassy. Impudent, impertinent, shameless (1570). Brat 1. A child : almost invari- ably in contempt (1505). 2. A rag, shabby clothes, or other articles that arc mere rags. Brattery. A nursery ( 1 788). Bratful. An apronful. Brazen-faced. Shameless, impud- ent, unblushing, with a face as of brass, or as if rubbed with a brass candlestick (1571). Bread. Employment Out of bread, out of work. Phrases : To know on which side one's bread is buttered, to recognise one's interests. To take the oread out of one's mouth, to deprive of the means of livelihood. Bread buttered on both sides, the height of good fortune, the best of luck. No bread and butter of mine, no concern (or business) of mine (1764). Bread-artist One working merely to gain a living : cf. Potboiler. Bread and Butter Warehouse, phr. (old). Ranelagh Gardens. Bread-and-cheese. Plain living, needful food. Bread and Meat The commis- sariat Bread Bags. A nickname given in the army and navy to any one con- nected with the victualling depart- ment, as a purser or purveyor in the commissariat : at one time called muckers : Fr., riz-pain-sel. Bread-barge. The distributing basket or tray containing the rations of biscuits. Bread-basket The stomach. Eng- lish synonyms: bread-room, dumpling- depot, victualling-office, porridge- bowl (1735). Bread-picker (Winchester Col- lege). The four senior prefects used to appoint juniors to this office, which was nominal, but which carried with it exemption from fagging at meal times. No notion book states in what the office consisted, but it is supposed that it relates to times when juniors had to secure the bread, etc., served out for their masters. Bread-room. The stomach, bread- basket (1760) (q.v.). Bread -room Jack. A purser's servant Break. 1. A collection (of money) usually got up by a prisoner's friends, either to defray the expenses of his de- fence, or as a lift when leaving prison. 2. Formerly and more generally ap- plied to a pause in street performances to enable the hat to be passed round : cf. Lead. Tn l>rmk one's barl\ tobecome bankrupt (1601). To break one's egg: Break-down. Bridge. see Crack one's egg. Tobreak out all over (or in a fresh spot), expressions in com- mon use in the one case conveying an idea of completeness ; and, in the other, of commencing some new under- taking, or assuming a different posi- tion whether in an argument or action. To break shins, to borrow money. To break the balls, to commence play- ing. To break the molasses jug, to come to grief, to make a mistake. To break the neck or back of anything, to ac- complish the major portion of a task, be near the end of an undertaking, be past the middle of same. To break a straw with, to fall out with. To break a lance with, to enter into competition with. To break Priscian's head, to violate the laws of grammar. To break the neck of a thing (or matter), to get through the serious part of it. To break the ice, to commence, prepare the way. To break no squares, to do no harm. Break-down. 1. A measure of liquor. 2. A noisy dance, a convivial gather- ing : the term was, at first, specially applied to a negro dance, but is now in general use in England in a humor- ous sense. To break down, to dance riotously, be boisterous, spreeish. Break-o'-day Drum. A drinking saloon which keeps its doors open aU night. Breaky-leg. 1. Intoxicating drink ; see Drinks. 2. A shilling. Breast Fleet. Roman Catholics ; from their practice of crossing them- selves on the breast as an act of devo- tion (Grose). Breath. Change your breath, an injunction to adopt a different manner or bearing. An offensive, slang ex- pression which, originating in Cali- fornia, quickly ran its course through the Union. Breath-bubble. An empty thing, trifle (1835). Breath-seller. LA perfumer (1601). 2. A paid speaker. Breech. To flog : formerly in literary use, but now fallen into des- uetude (1557). Breeched. Well off, with plenty of money ; well breeched, in good circum- stances: cf. Ballasted. Fr., deculotte (= bankrupt, i.e. unbreeched). Breeches. Ironically applied to the Commonwealth coinage ; suggested by the arrangement of two shields on the reverse side of the coin. To wear the breeches, to usurp a husband's prerogative, be master (1450) : cf. the grey mare is the better horse of the two. Breeching. A flogging (q.v.), formerly in general use (1520). Breef. See Brief. Breeze. A row, quarrel, disturb- ance, coolness (Grose). Brekker. Breakfast. Brevet Hell. A battle : the term originated during the American Civil War. Brevet-wife. A woman who takes a man's name, and enjoys all the privileges of a wife. Brew (Marlborough School). To make afternoon tea. Brewer's Horse. A drunkard: see Lushington. Brian o' Linn. GUI : see Drinks. Briar, Brier. A brier-wood pipe. Brick. A good fellow ; one whose staunchness and loyalty commend him to his fellows : said to be of University origin, the simile being drawn from the classics (1835). As verb, to pun- ish a man by bringing the knees close up to the chin, and lashing the arms tightly to the knees a species of trussing. Like a brick (like bricks, or like a thousand of bricks), with energy, alacrity, thoroughly, vehemently and with much display. Brick in the hat, top - heavy, inability to preserve a steady gait: of drunken men. Brick- duster. See Brick-fielder. Brickdusts. The Fifty-third Regiment of Foot, now The King's (Shropshire Light Infantry), from its facings. Brickfielder (or Brickduster). In Sydney the name given to a dust or sand storm brought by southerly winds from sand hills locally known as the Brickfields hence the name : also the Buster or Southerly Burster. Bricklayer. A clergyman. Bricklayer's Clerk. A lubberly sailor. Bricks (Wellington College). A sort of pudding. BrickWall. To run one's head against a brick wall, to pursue a course obstinately to certain disaster, ruin, or death. Bridge. A cheating trick at cards, by which any particular card is cut by previously curving it by the 69 Bridle-cull. Broiled Crow. pressure of tho hand : Fr.,le pont gee. To throw a person over the bridge, to deceive him by betraying the con- fidence he has reposed in you. Betide the bridge, off the track, astray. A gold (or silver) bridge, an easy way of escape. Bridle-cull. A highwayman (1754). Bridport (or Brydport) Dagger. The hangman's rope. To be stabbed with a Bridport dagger, to be hanged (16881 Brief. 1. A ticket of any kind railway pass, pawnbroker's duplicate, raffle ticket 2. A pocket book. Hence briefless, ticketless. Briefs (or Breefs). Prepared cards ( 1 529 ). [Take a pack of cards and open them, then take out all the honours . . . and cut a little from the edges of the rest all alike, so as to make the honours broader than the rest, so that when your adversary cuts to you, you are certain of an honour. When you cut to your adversary cut at the ends, and then it is a chance if you cut him an honour, because the cards at the ends are all of a length. Thus you may make breefs end-ways as well as side-ways] (Hotten). Brief -snatcher. A pocket-book thief (q.v.). Brier (or Briar). In pi. difficulty, trouble, vexation. In the briars, in trouble (1509). Brigh. A pocket, cly, skyrocket. Bright Bright in the eye, tipsy : see Screwed. Brighton Tipper. A particular brew of ale. Brim. A prostitute : i.e. Brim- stone (q.v.) (1730). 2. An angry, violent woman, or a termagant, with- out reference to moral character. Brimstone. 1. A violent tempered woman, virago, spitfire (1712). 2. A prostitute. Briney (or Briny). The sea ( 1856). English synonyms, herring pond, big pond, big drink, the puddle, Davy's locker. Bring. To bring down the house, to elicit loud applause ; and, figur- atively, to be successful (1754). Brisket- beater. A Roman Catholic: cf. Breast-fleet, and Craw-thumper (Grose). Bristle. To set up one's bristles, to show temper. Bristle Dice or Bristles, subs. A method of cogging dice by inserting bristles into them, and thus influencing the position of the cubes when thrown (1562). Bristol Milk. Sherry : formerly a large import of the city of Bristol : see Drinks (1644). Broach. To broach claret, to draw blood. Broad. Knowing, cute, smart : cf. Wide. Phrases : In the broad or the long, in one way or another. It's as broad as it's long, there's no difference, there's not a pin to choose between them. Broad and Shallow. An epithet applied to the Broad Church party, in contradistinction to the High and Low Churches : see High and dry. Broadbottoms. A nickname of two Coalition Governments, one in the last century [1741], and the- other in 1807. Broadbrim. A Quaker : the origin of this expression is to be found in the hat once peculiar to the Society of Friends (1712). Broad - cooper. A person em- ployed by brewers to negotiate with publicans. Broad Cove. A card - sharper : FT., bremeur (1821). Broad-faking. Playing at cards : spec, work of the three card and kindred descriptions. Broad-fencer. A k'rect card vendor. Broads. Playing cards ( 1 789). Broadsman. A card-sharper. Broady 1. Cloth: a corruption of broadcloth (1851). 2. Anything worth stealing. Broady Worker. A man who goes round selling shoddy stuff under the pretence that it is excellent material, which has been got on the cross, i.e. stolen. Brock (Winchester College). To bully, tease, badger. Brockster (Winchester College). A bully. Brogues (Christ's Hospital). Breeches : in reality an obsolete old English term which has survived among the Blues. Broiled (or Boiled) Crow. To eat boiled crow, a newspaper editor, who is obliged by his party, or other outside influences, to advocate principles dif- ferent from those which he supported 70 Broke. Bruise. a short time before, is said to eat boiled crow. Broke. Dead broke (or stone broke), ruined, decayed, hard up of health or pecuniary circumstances : Fr., pas un radis. Broken Feather in One's Wing. A blot on one's character. Broken-kneed (or legged). Seduced. Brolly. An umbrella : first used at Winchester and subsequently adopted at both Oxford and Cam- bridge Universities. Broncho. Unruly, wild, savage : from the name of the native horse of California, a somewhat tricky and un- certain quadruped ; familiarly applied to horses that buck and show other signs of vice : the Spanish signification of the word is rough and crabbed little beast, and in truth he deserves this name. Broncho-buster. A breaker-in of bronchos, a flash-rider. Bronze John. A Texas name for yellow fever ; commonly called Yel- low Jack (q.v.). Broom, subs. (old). A warrant (1815). As verb, to runaway: see Bunk. Broomstick. A sort of rough cricket bat, very narrow in the blade : all of one piece of wood. To jump the broomstick (hop the broom, jump the besom), to go through a quasi marriage ceremony by jumping over a broomstick (1774). Broomsticks. Worthless bail, straw-bail (1812). Brosier (or Brozier) (Eton Col- lege). A boy when he had spent all his pocket money : brozier is Cheshire for bankrupt. Broziered, cleaned out, done up, mined, bankrupt (1796). Brozier-my-dame (Eton College), eat- ing one out of house and home : when a dame (q.v.) keeps an unusually bad table, the boys agree together on a day to eat, pocket, or waste every- thing eatable in the house. The censure is well understood, and the hint is generally effective (1850). Broth. Breath. To make white broth of, to boil to death. A broth of a boy, a downright good fellow. Brother - blade. A soldier : see Mudcrusher (Grose). Brother Chip. One of the same calling or trade : formerly a fellow- carpenter (1820). Brother of the Brush. An artist, a house- painter (1687). Brother of the Bung. A brewer ; one of the same trade. Brother of the Buskin. A player, actor one of the same profession. Brother of the Coif. A serjeant- at-law : the coif was a close-fitting cap worn by the serjeants-at-law (Grose). Brother of the Quill. An author (1754). Brother of the String. A fiddler. Brother of the Whip. A coachman (1756). Brother - smut A term of famili- arity : e.g. Ditto, brother or sister smut, tu quoque. Brpughtonian. A bruiser, boxer, pugilist : from Broughton, once the best boxer of his day. Brown. 1. A halfpenny : see Rhino (1812). 2. Porter: an ab- breviation of Brown Stout. As verb, (1) to do brown, to get the better of ; (2) to understand, comprehend. To do broum, to do well, take in, deceive, exceed bounds (1600). Brown Bess. 1. Yes. 2. The old regulation musket. 3. A prostitute (1631). To hug broum Bess, to serve as a private soldier. Brown George. 1. A wig, of the colour of over- baked ginger-bread : modish during the latter half of the last century. 2. A jug : generally of brown earthenware : cf. Black-jack. 3. A coarse brown loaf, or hard biscuit (1653). Brownie. The polar bear. Brown Janet. A knapsack. B r o w n J o e. No : cf. Brown Bess, Yes. Brown - paperman. A gambler in pence. Brown-paper warrant. A warrant given by a captain : this he can cancel (Smyth). Brown Stone. Beer : see Drinks. Brown-study. Mental abstraction, musing, thoughtful absentminded- ness, idle reverie. Brown Talk. Conversation of an exceedingly proper character : cf. Blue Browse. To idle, loll, take things easy. A browse morning, one in which there is little work. Bruise. To fight, box gen- erally with the idea of mauling. To bruise along, to pound along. 71 Bruiser. Buck. Bruiser. 1. A prize-fighter, boxer ( 1 744). 2. A prostitute's bully. S. One fond of fighting. 4. Generic for a rowdy or buDy : sometimes, how- ever, limited in its application to a particular band of ruffians, as once in Baltimore. Bruising. Prize - fighting, boxing (1767). B r u m. 1. A counterfeit com : contracted form of Brummagem (q.v.), spec, counterfeit groats (about 1691). 2. Anything counterfeit, not genuine. 3. Copper money struck by Boulton and Watt at their works at Soho, Birmingham (1787). 4. An inhabit- ant of Birmingham. As adj. (Win- chester College), mean, poor, stingy : the superlative is dead brum. Brumby. A wild horse : the Anti- podean counterpart of the American broncho. Brummagem. 1. Birmingham. 2. Base money of various denominations especially groats in 17th century hence anything spurious or unreal (1691). As adj., counterfeit, unreal, sham, showy, pretentious (1637). Brummagem Buttons. Counter- feit coin (1836). Brummish. Doubtful, counterfeit (1805). B r u m s. London and North Western Stock : formerly the London and Birmingham Railway. Brush. 1. See Brother of the Brush. 2. A hasty departure (1750). 3. A person who decamps hastily, or who evades his creditors (1748). As verb, (1) to flog, thrash : e.g. to brush one's jacket: cf. Dust; (2) to run away, decamp : also to brush off (1696). Brusher. 1. A full glass. 2. One that gets or steals away privately (Dyche). 3. A schoolmaster. As verb, to humbug by flattery. To brush tip a flat, to use mealy-mouthed words, lay it on thick, soft soap (q.v.). Brute. A man who has not yet matriculated : the play is evident A man, in college phrase, is a collegian ; and as matriculation is the sign and seal of acceptance, a scholar before that ceremony is not a man, only a biped brute. Brydport Dagger. See Bridport . T. I. An abbreviation of A big thing on ice : cf. P.D.Q., O.K., N.G., andQ.K. Bub. 1. Strong drink of any kind : usually applied to malt liquor. To take bub and grub, to eat and drink (1671). 2. A woman's breast: gen- erally in plural bubbles (q.v.). 3. A brother. 4. A term of affection applied to a little boy : also a familiar address. 5. An abbreviated form of bubble (q.v.). As verb, (1) to drink (1671) ; (2) to bribe, cheat: cf. Bub- ble (1719). Bubber. 1. A hard drinker, con- firmed tippler: see Lushington: FT., bibassier (1653). 2. A drinking bowl ( 1696). 3. A public-house thief (1 785). 4. An old woman with large pendulous breasts. Bubbies. A woman's breasts (1686). B u b b i n g. Drinking, tippling (1678). Bubble. A dupe, gull, caravan (q.v.); and rook (q.v.) (1598). As verb, to cheat, humbug, delude aa with bubbles, to overreach (1664). Bubbleable. That can be duped, gullible (1669). Bubble and Squeak. Cold meat fried up with potatoes and greens (Grose). Bubble-buff. A bailiff. Bubble Company. A swindling association, enterprise, or project : the South Sea Bubble will occur to mind (1754). Bubbled. Gulled, deceived, be- fooled (1683). Bubbling-squeak. Hot soup. Bubbly Jock. 1. A turkey cock, gobbler (Grose). 2. A stupid boaster. 3. A pert, conceited, pragmatical fellow ; a prig ; a cad. Bubby. See Bub and Bubbies. Bucco. A dandy, buck (q.v.). Buck, 1. In the first instance a man of spirit or gaiety of conduct ; later a fop, a dandy (1725). 2. An unlicensed cabdriver : also a sham fare (1851). 3. A sixpence : thought to be a corruption of fyebuck (q.v.) : rarely used by itself, but denotes the sixpence attached to shillings in reference to cost, aa, three and a buck, three shil- lings and sixpence : see Rhino. 4. A large marble. 5. A term used in poker. As adj., at Princeton College anything which is of an intensive degree, good, excellent, pleasant or agreeable, is called buck. As verb, (1) to oppose, run counter to ; (2) Ap- 72 Buck Bait. Bufe. plied to horses this term describes the action of plunging forward and throw- ing the head to the ground in an effort to unseat the rider. (3) To cook (q.v.) : of accounts. (4) To play against the bank, usually, to buck the tiger. (5) To put forth one's whole energy. To run a buck, to poll a bad vote at an election (Orose). To buck (or fight) the tiger, to gamble. To buck down (Winchester College), to be sorry, unhappy. To be bucked, to be tired. To buck up (Winchester Col- lege), to be glad, pleased : the usual expression is Oh, buck up, a phrase which at Westminster School would have a very different meaning, namely exert yourself ; at Uppingham to be bucked (q.v.) is to be tired. Buck Bait. Bail given by a con- federate. Buckeen. 1. A bully (Orose). 2. A younger son of the poorer aristocracy. Bucket. An anonymous letter. As verb, (1) to ride hard, not to spare one's beast ; (2) to cheat, ruin, deceive (1812) ; (3) to take the water unfairly with a scoop at the beginning of the stroke instead of a steady even pull throughout. To give the bucket, to dismiss from one's employment, send a person about his business : see Bag and Sack. To kick the bucket, to die : the bucket here is thought to refer to a Norfolk term for a pulley ; when pigs are killed they are hung by their hind legs on a bucket (Grose). Bucket-afloat. A coat. Bucket Shop. 1. A stock gambling den carried on in opposition to regular exchange business, and usually of a more than doubtful character. 2. A low groggery, lottery office, gambling den, etc. Buckeye. A native of Ohio. Buck-eye State, Ohio. Buck Face. A cuckold. Buck Fitch. An old rou6. Buckhara. A cattle-driver, cow- boy. Buckhorse. A smart blow, box on the ear : from the name of a cele- brated bruiser of that name ; Buck- horse was a man who either possessed or professed insensibility to pain, and who would for a small sum allow any- one to strike him with the utmost force on the side of the face ; his real name was John Smith, and he fought in public 1732-46. Buckish. Foppish, dandyish (1782). Buck - jump. A jump made in buck (q.v.) fashion. Buckle. 1. To marry (1693). 2. To buckle to, to undertake, grapple with, slip in, work vigorously (1557). To buckle down, to settle down, be- come reconciled to, knuckle down (q.v.). Buckle-beggar. A Fleet parson; also one who celebrated irregular marriages, a hedge priest, one who undertook similar offices for gipsies and tramps (1700). Buckle- bosom. A catchpoll, con- stable. Buckled. Arrested, scragged. Buckler. A collar. Bucklers. Fetters. See Darbies. Buckram. Men in buckram, non- existent persons : in allusion to Fal- staff's four men in buckram. Bucksome (Winchester College). Happy, in a state of buck-uppishness : see Buck-up. Bud. An endearment : of children or young persons. Budge. 1. A pick -pocket (1671). 2. An accomplice who gains access to a building during the day for the pur- pose of being locked in, so that he can, when night comes, admit his fellow thieves: also sneaking - budge (1752). 3. Drink, liquor : see Drinks. Budgy, drunk. Budging-ken, a public house. Cove of the budging-ken, a publican. Budger, a drunkard (1821). As verb, to move, to make tracks. B u d g e - a - beake. To run away (presumably from justice) : cf. to bilk the blues (q.v.) (1610). Budger. A drunkard: see Lush- ington. Budget. To open one's budget, to speak one's mind. Budging - ken. A public house : see Lush-crib (1821). Budgy. Drunk, intoxicated: see Screwed. Bud of Promise. A young un- married woman : see Rosebud and Bud. Buenos Ayres. The Royal Crescent at Margate at the extreme end of the town used to be so called : the houses remained unfinished for a very con- siderable time (H. J. Byron). Bufe. A dog: from the sound of its bark (1567). 73 Bufe-nabber. Bug-juice. Bufe - nabber (or napper). A dog thief (q.v.) (Grose). Buff. 1. The bare skin (1054). 2. A man, fellow: also Buffer (q.v.) (1708). 3. Foolish talk (1721). To buff it, (1) to swear to, adhere to a statement hard and fast, stand firm : also to buff it home (1812) ; (2) to strip, bare oneself to the buff or skin (1581). In buff, naked, in a state of nudity (1602). To stand buff, to stand the brunt, pay the piper, endure without flinching (1680). To say neither buff nor baff (not to say buff to a wolfs shadow, or to know neither buff nor stye), to say neither one thing nor another, to know nothing at all. B u ff a r d. A foolish fellow : cf. Buffle. Buff - coat. A soldier, one who wears a buff coat (1670). Buffer. 1. A dog: this term in varying forms from 1567 down to the present time Harman gives it as bufe (1567) and bufa (1573) ; Rowlands as buffa (1610) ; Head as bugher (1673) ; whilst in The Memorials of John Hall it first appears as buffer. 2. A man, fellow sometimes with a slightly contempt- uous meaning ; generally speaking a familiar mode of address, as in Old Buffer, although even this form may be used disparagingly (1749). 3. A boxer, one of the fancy (1819). 4. A rogue that kills good sound horses only for their skins (B. E.). 5. One who took a false oath for a considera- tion. 6. A pistol (1824). 7. A smuggler, rogue, cheat 8. A boatswain's mate, one of whose duties it is or was to administer the Cat. 9. A stammerer (1382). Buff Howards. The Third Regiment of Foot, now the East Kent Regiment ; also The Buffs : from its facings and Colonel from 1737 to 1749 ; also the Nut-crackers (q.v.) ; and the Resurrectionists (q.v.), from its re- appearing at the Battle of Albucra after being dispersed by the Polish Lancers ; also the Old Buffs, from its facings, and to distinguish it from the 31st, the Young Buffs ; but the most ancient Old Buffs were the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiments raised in 1664, and incorporated into the 2nd or Coldstream Guards in 1689. Buffle. A fool, a stupid person: Murray quotes it as occurring in 1655, but the term was in use in 1580. Buffle- head. An ignoramus, stupid, obtuse fellow (1659). Buffleheaded. Stupid.idiotic.foolish. Buffo. A comic actor, singer in comic opera (or burlesque) (1764). Buffs (The). The Third Regiment of Foot in the British army : see Buff Howards. Buff y. Intoxicated : see Screwed. Bug. 1. A breast-pin. 2. An Englishman (old Irish) : Grose says, because bugs were introduced into Ireland by Englishmen ! ! 3. In the United States bug is not confined, as in England, to the domestic pest, but is applied to all insects of the Coleoptera order, which includes what in this country are generally called beetles. 4. A person of assumed im- portance (1771) ; big bug (q.v.), a per- son of wealth or distinction ; thence cattle - bug, a wealthy stock - raiser ; gold -bug, a monied man. Fire-bug, an incendiary. That beats the bugs, a high mead of praise, that beata cock - fighting. As verb, ( 1 ) among journeymen hatters, to exchange dear materials for others of less value : Hats were composed of the furs and wools of diverse animals, among which is a small portion of bever's fur bugging is stealing the bever, and substituting in lieu thereof an equal weight of some cheaper ingredient (Qrose). (2) to bribe : bailiffs accept- ing money to delay service were said to bug the writ ; (3) to give, hand over, deliver (1812). Bugaboo. 1. A sheriffs officer (Grose). 2. A tally-man. 3. A weekly creditor. Bugaroch. Pretty, comely, hand- some (Grose). Bug- blinding. Whitewashing. Bugger. 1. A thief (q.v.), one who steals breast-pins from drunken men. 2. A man, a fellow : a coarse term of abuse with little reference to the legal meaning : the French has an exact equivalent : equivalent to bitch (q.v.), as applied to women (1719). Buggy. A leather bottle. Bugher. See Buffer. Bug-hunter. 1. A thief who plunders drunken men. 2. An upholsterer (Lexicon Balatronicum). B u g - j u i c e. 1. Ginger ale. 2. The Schlechter whisky of the Penn- sylvania Dutch a very inferior spirit : also bug-poison. 74 Bugle. Butt. Bugle. To bugle it. To abstain from going into class until the last moment, i.e. until the bugle sounds. Bug Walk. A bed. English synonyms : Bedfordshire, Sheet Alley, Blanket Fair, Land of Nod, doss, rip, Cloth Market. Bug-word. A word to cause terror, swaggering (or threatening) language ; i.e. Bugbear- word (1562). Build. Properly, to build is to construct, says Murray, for a dwell- ing and by extension of meaning ... to construct by fitting together of sepa- rate parts ; chiefly with reference to structures of considerable size . . . (not, e.g., a watch or a piano). Therefore, when build is applied to the make or style of dress, it is pure slang It's a tidy build, who made it ? A tailor is sometimes called a trousers builder. In the United States, as Fennimore Cooper puts it, everything is built. The priest builds up a flock, the specu- lator a fortune, thelawyerareputation, the landlord a town, and the tailor, as in England, builds up a suit of clothes ; a fire is built instead of made, and the expression is even extended to in- dividuals, to be built being used with the meaning of formed. I was not built that way ; and hence in a still more idiomatic sense to express un- willingness to adopt a specified course or carry out any inconvenient plan. To build a chapel, to steer badly, and so cause a ship to veer round. Not built that way, not to one's taste, in one's line a general expression of disapproval or dissent, whether said of persons or things. Bulgarian Atrocities. Varna and Rustchuk Ry. 3 per cent, obligations. Bulge. The legitimate meaning is extended in many odd ways. Bags (q.v.) bulge, but do not get baggy; and in a similar fashion when a man is all attention his eyes are said to bulge. To go (or be) on a bulge, to drink to excess : see Screwed. To get the bulge on one, to obtain an advan- tage over, to get the drop on one (1869). Bulger. Large buster (q.v.). Bulk. An assistant to a File or Pickpocket, who jostles a person up against the wall, while the other picks his pocket (B. E. ). Bulker. 1. A prostitute of a low type, one who slept on a bulk, a kind of sill projecting from a window (1691). 2. A thief (q.v.) : see Bulk (1669). Bulky. A police constable: said to be a northern term (1821). As adj. (Winchester College) ; rich, gener- ous (or both) : the opposite of brum (q.v.). Bull. 1. Formerly a blunder or mistake ; now generally understood as an inconsistent statement, a ludi- crous contradiction, often partaking largely of the nature of a pun : the term was current long before the form Irish bull is met with (1642). 2. A crown, five- shilling piece : formerly bull's-eye (q.v.) (1812). 3. Originally a speculative purchase for a rise ; i.e. a man would agree to buy stock at a future day at a stated price with no intention of taking it up, but trusting to the market advancing in value to make the transaction profitable : bull is the reverse of bear (q.v.) : the term is now more frequently applied to persons, i.e. to one who tries to en- hance the value of stocks by speculative purchases or otherwise ; also used as a verb and adjective (1671) : on the French Bourse a bull is haussier, in Berlin he is known as liebhaler ; and in Vienna contremine. 4. See Bull the cask (or barrel). 5. A teapot with the leaves left in for a second brew. 6. Prison rations of meat, an allusion to its toughness ; also generally used for meat without any reference to its being either tough or tender: Fr., bidoche. 7. A locomotive : sometimes buttgine. 8. (Winchester College). Cold beef : introduced at breakfast about 1873. As verb, at Dartmouth College, to recite badly, make a poor recitation. Stale bull, stock held over for a long period with profit. To bull the cask (or barrel), to pour water into a rum cask when empty, with a view to keeping the wood moist and preventing leakage ; the water after some time is very intoxi- cating, and the authorities, not looking with much favour upon wholesale brewing of grog hi this way, sometimes use salt water as a deterrant, though even this salt water bull, as it is called, when again poured out, has often proved too attractive for seamen to resist : again it is common to talk in the same way of Bulling a teapot, coffee- pot, etc. ; that is, after the first brew has been exhausted, by adding fresh 75 Bidlace. Bui!'/. water, and boiling over again, to make a second brew from the old materials. Be may bear a bull that hath borne a calf, after little, big things are possible. A bull in a china shop, a simile of reck- less destruction. To take the, butt by the horns, to meet a difficulty with resolution and courage. To show the butt horn, to make a show of resist- ance. Bullace. A black eye ( 1659). Bull-and-cow. A row. Bull-back. Pickaback (q.v.) (1600). Bull -bait. To bully, hector, badger. Bull -beef. Hard, stringy meat; hence, As ugly as bull-beef ; As big as bull-beef ; Go and sell yourself for bull- beef (1579). To bluster like butt-beef, to tear round like mad. Bull-calf (or dog). A great hulkey or clumsy fellow (Orose). Bull-chin. A fat, chubby child (Orose). Bull -dance. A dance in which only men take part: cf. Stag-dance, Gander-party, Hen-party, etc. Bull-dog. 1. A sheriffs officer, bailiff (1698). 2. A pistol; in the naval service a main-deck gun (1700). 3. A sugar-loaf. 4. A proctor's assist- ant or marshal (1823). 5. A member of Trinity College, Cambridge : ob- solete. Bull-dog Blazer. A revolver. Bull-dose. A severe castigation or flogging. As verb, to thrash, in- timidate, bully ; a term of Southern political origin, originally referring to an association of negroes formed to insure, by violent and unlawful means, the success of an election : now in general use, to signify the adoption and use of coercive measures (1876). Bull-doser. 1. A bully, braggart, swaggerer. 2. A pistol : spec, one carrying a bullet heavy enough to destroy human life with certainty. Bullet. To give the bullet, to dis- charge an employe, give the bag (or sack) (1841). Full bullet, full size. Every bullet has its billet (or lighting- place): see Billet. Bullet in mouth, ready for action. Bullet-head. 1. A person with a round head like a bullet 2. An obstinate fellow, pig-headed fool, dull silly fellow (B. E.). Bullfinch. 1. A stupid fellow. 2. A high thick hedge ; one difficult to jump or rush through: most authorities agree that this term is a corruption of bull-fence, i.e. a fence capable of pre- venting cattle from straying. As verb, to leap a horse through such a hedge (18201 Bull-flesh. Brag, swagger (1832). Bull -head. 1. Hair curled and frizzled, worn over the forehead (1672). 2. A fool, blockhead. Bull- headed, pig-headedly impetuous, block- headed. Bull-jine. A locomotive. Bull -nurse. A male attendant on the sick. Bullock. 1. A cheat. 2. A countryman or bushman : cf. Bullock- puncher. As verb, to bully, bounce over, intimidate (1716). Bullock's Heart. See Token. Bullock's-horn. To pawn. Bull Party. A party of men. Bull - puncher. A cow-puncher, (q.v.). Bull's Eye. 1. A sweetmeat of which peppermint is an important in- gredient (1825). 2. A five-shilling piece, a bull (q.v.) (1696). Bull's - eye Villas. A nickname given to the small open tents used by the Volunteers at their annual gather- ing. Bull's Feather. To give [or yet] the butt's feather, verbal phr. (old). To cuckold. Fr., planter des plumes de 6feu/(1600). Bull's -head. A signal of con- demnation, and prelude of immediate execution, said to have been anciently used in Scotland (Jamieson). Bull's-noon. Midnight (1839). Bull -trap. A sham police con- stable. Bully, subs. (old). 1. A fancy man (q.v.) (1706). 2. (Eton College). A melee at football ; the equivalent of the Rugby scrimmage and the Win- chester hot. 3. (nautical). A term of endearment : orig. of either sex sweetheart, darling : now of men only pal, mate. 4. A weapon formed by tying a stone or a piece of lead in a handkerchief: used knuckle- duster fashion. 5. A bravo, hector, swashbuckler ; now spec, a tyran- nical coward. As adj., fine, capital, crack, spiff (1681). That's butty for you, Grand, fine, all right, OK. 76 Bully Beef. Bum Fodder. Sully boy (or bully boy with tlie glass eye), a good fellow (1815). Bully Beef. Tinned meat: iron ration (q.v.) : in the navy, boiled salt meat. Bully-boss. The landlord of a brothel or thieves' den. Bully-cock. 1. One who foments quarrels in order to rob the persons quarrelling (Grose). 2. A low round hat with broad brim, billy-cock (q.v.). Bully-huff. A boasting bully. Bullyrag (or Ballyrag). To revile, abuse, scold vehemently usually in vulgar or obscene language ; also to swindle by means of intimidation. Bullyragging. Scolding, abuse, swindling. B u 1 1 y - r o o k (or Bully - rock). Originally boon-companion ; later, a swaggerer, bully, bravo (1596). Bully Ruffian. A footpad or highwayman, who, to robbery, added coarse invective. Bully-scribbler. A bullying journalist (1715). Bully Trap. A man of mild out- side demeanour who is a match for any ruffian who may attack him (Grose). Bulrush. A simile of delusive strength. To seek a knot in a bulrush, to cavil, find difficulties where there are none : also in sarcasm, to take away every knot in a bulrush. Bum. 1. The posteriors (1387). 2. Bum bailiff (q.v.). 3. A birching, hiding, tanning. As verb, to arrest. Cherry bums, the llth Hussars: the obvious reference is to the scarlet trousers worn by this branch of the service ; a similar nickname is given to the French Chasseurs, culs rouges. To say neither ba nor bum, to say not a word. Bum-bailiff (also Bum-baily). A bailiff or sheriff's officer (1602). Bum Bass. The violoncello. Bumbaste. To flog, thrash, beat soundly (1571). Bum - beating. Jostling, pushing others off the pavement (1616). Bumbee. A bailiff (1653). Bum-blade. A large sword (1632). Bumble. A beadle. Bum-card. A marked playing-card. Bumble-crew. Corporations, vestries, and other official bodies. Bumbledom. Petty officialism, red tape, fussiness, pomposity (1856). Bumble-bath (or broth). A mess, pickle, confusion ; as adj., clumsy, unwieldy (1595). Bumble-foot. A club-foot (1861). Bumble - puppy. Family whist, Le. unscientific whist. Also applied, says Hotten, to a game played in public houses on a large stone, placed in a slanting direction, on the lower end of which holes are made, and numbered like the holes in a bagatelle-table. The player rolls a stone ball, or marble, from the higher end, and according to the number of the hole it falls into the game is counted. It is undoubtedly the very ancient game of Trmde-in- madame. Bumbler. 1. An idle fellow. 2. A blunderer. 3. A Tyneside artillery- man. Bumbles. Coverings for the eyes of horses that shy in harness. Bumbo. A liquor composed of rum, sugar, water, and nutmeg (Smol- lett) ; brandy, water, and sugar (Grose). Bum-brusher, subs, (schoolboys'). A flogging schoolmaster, an usher. English synonyms, flaybottom, haber- dasher of pronouns (1704). Bum Charter. The name given to bread steeped in hot water by the first unfortunate inhabitants of the English Bastile, where this miserable fare was their daily breakfast, each man receiving with his scanty portion of bread a quart of boiled water from the cook's coppers (Vaux). Bum-court. The Ecclesiastical Court (1544). Bumclink. In the Midland counties inferior beer brewed for hay- makers and harvest labourers. Bum-creeper. One who walks bent almost double. Bum Curtain. An academical gown, worn scant and short ; especially applied to the short black gown worn till 1835 by members of Caius College. Bumf. Toilet paper. Bumfeague (Bumfeagle, Bumfeg). To flog, thrash (1589). Bumfhunt (Wellington College). A paper-chase. Bum Fiddle. The posteriors. Bum Fidget. A restless individual. Bum Fodder. 1. Low-class worth- less literature : once in literary use (1653). 2. Toilet paper, curl paper (q.v.) (Grose). 77 Bummaree. Bundling. Bummaree. A Billingsgate middle- man : these men, who are not recog- nised as regular salesmen by the trade, are speculative buyers of fish (1786). Bummed. Arrested. Bummer. 1. A bum-bailiff (q.v.) 2. A heavy loss, severe pecuniary reverse. 3. An idler, loafer, sponger, looter : the term came into general use at the time of the Civil War, when it was specially applied to a straggler, hanger-on, or free-lance, particularly in connection with General Sherman's famous march from Atlanta to the sea ; also a general term of reproach, as with rascal, black-leg, etc. Bumming (Wellington College). A thrashing, licking. Bump. When one boat touches another in a race it is said to make a bump, and technically beata its opponent : see Bumping race. As verb, to overtake and touch an op- posing boat, thus winning the heat or race (1849). Bumper. 1. Anything of super- lative size a big lie, horse, house, or woman. 2. A full or crowded house (1838). 3. (cards). When, in long whist, one side has scored eight before the other has scored a point, a bumper is the result. Bum - perisher (or Bum-shaver). A short- tailed coat, a jacket. Bumping Race. Eight-oared inter-Collegiate races, rowed in two divisions of fifteen and sixteen boats respectively, including a sandwich boat (q.v.), i.e. the top boat of the second division, which rows bottom of the first : the boats in each division start at a distance apart of 175 feet from stern to stern in the order at which they left off at the last preceding race, and any boat which overtakes, and bumps another (i.e. touches it in any part) before the winning post is reached, changes place with it for the next race. Bumpkin. The posteriors (1658). Bumpology. Phrenology. Bump- otopher, a phrenologist. Bump-supper. A supper to com- memorate the fact of the boat of the college having, in the annual races, bumped or touched the boat of another college immediately in front. Bumpsy. Drunk: see Screwed. Bumptious. Arrogant, self- sufficient, on good terms with oneself (1803). Bumptiousness. Self-assertiveness, arrogance, self-conceit. Bum-roll. A pad or cushion worn by women to extend the dress at the back the equivalent of the modern bustle or dress-improver (1601). Bumsquabbled. Discomfited, defeated, stupefied (1620). Bum-sucker. A sponger, toady, lick-spittle, hanger-on : Fr., lechc-cul. Bum-trap. A bailiff (1750). Bun. 1. A sponger, one who cannot be shaken off. 2. A knob of hair worn at the back of the head. 3. A term of endearment (1587). To take (or yank) the bun, to take first place, obtain first honours : a variant of take the cake. Bunce (Bunse or Bunt). Originally money : see Rhino. 2. Profit, gain, anything to the good. B u n c e r. One who sells on commission. Bunch-of-fives. The hand or fist (1845). Bunco (or Bunco-game). A swindling game played either with cards or dice, not unlike three card monte. As verb, to rob, cheat, or swindle by means of the bunco game ; or by what in England is known as the confidence trick, etc. Bunco-steerer (Bunko-steerer). A swindler, confidence-trick man : The bunco-steerer .... will find you out the morning after you land in Chicago or St. Louis. He will accost you very friendly, wonderfully friendly when you come out of your hotel, by your name, and he will remind you which is most surprising, considerin' you never set eyes on his face before now you have dined together in Cin- cinnati, or it may be Orleans, or per- haps Francisco, because he finds out where you came from last ; and he will shake hands with you ; and he will propose a drink ; and he will pay for that drink ; and presently he will take you somewhere else, among his pals, and he will strip you so clean, that there won't be felt the price of a four-cent paper to throw around your face and hide your blushes. In London . . . they do the confidence trick (Besant and Rice). Bundling (or Bundling up). Men and women sleeping on the same bed 78 Bung. Burn -crust. together without having removed their clothes. Bung (Bong, Boung). 1. A purse (1567). 2. A pickpocket: also Bung- nipper (1598). 3. A brewer, landlord of a public house. Hence as adj., tipsy, fuddled ; see Screwed. As verb, (1) generally bung up, i.e. to close or shut up the eyes by means of a blow that causes a swelling (1593); (2) to give, pass, hand over, drink, to per- form almost any action : Bung over the rag, hand over the money ; (3) to deceive one by a lie, to cram (q.v.). Bungay. Oo to Bungay I Go to the deuce ! Bung-eyed. 1. Drunk, fuddled: see Screwed (1858). 2. Cross-eyed, unable to see straight, boss-eyed, squinny-eyed (q.v.). Bung-hole. The anus (1611). Bungfunger. To startle, confuse : cf. Bumbsquabbled : also used as adj., confounded (1835). Bung- juice. Beer. Bung-knife (or Boung-knife). A cut-purse's knife (1592). Bung-nipper (or Boung-nipper). A cut- purse, sharper. Bung Upwards. Said of a person lying on his face. Bunk. Hasty departure. As verb, ( 1 ) to be off, decamp ; (2) (Wellington College), to expeL Bunker. Beer : see Drinks. Bunkum (Buncombe, Buncome). Talking for talking' s sake, claptrap, gas, tall talk : the employment of the word in its original sense of insincere political speaking or claptrap is ascribed to a member of Congress, Felix Walker, from Buncombe County, North Caro- lina, who explained that he was merely talking for Buncombe, when his fellow members could not understand why he was making a speech. That's oil buncombe, That's all nonsense, or, an absurdity. Also used attributively ; for example, a bunkum proclamation, bunkum logic, bunkum politicians, etc. (1841). Bunky (Christ's Hospital). Awk- ward, ill-finished. Bunnick. To settle, dispose of (1886). Bunny. An endearment : of women and children (1606). Bunny -grub (Cheltenham Col- lege). Green vegetables, such as cabbage, lettuce, and the like : at the Royal Military Academy and other schools, grass (q.v.). Bunse. See Bunce. Bun - struggle (or Bun - worry). A tea : see Tea-fight. Bunt. See Bunce. B u n t e r. A low vulgar woman, one who picks up rags and refuse in the street. 2. A woman who takes lodgings, and after staying some time, runs away without paying the rent. Bunting. An endearment to a child : as in Baby bunting. Burden's Hotel. Whitecross Street Prison, of which the Governor was a Mr. Burden : see Cage. Burick (or Burerk). A woman; spec, one showily dressed ; for- merly a thief's term for a prostitute (1819). Burke. 1. To murder by strangul- ation : as Burke did for the purpose of selling the bodies for dissection. 2. To hush up, smother a matter. 3. To dye the moustache and whiskers. Burn. To cheat, swindle. To be burned, to be infected with venereal disease. To burn the parade, to warn more men for a guard than necessary, and excusing the supernumeraries for money : this practice was formerly winked at in most garrisons, and was a considerable perquisite to the adju- tants and sergeant-majors ; the pre- tence for it was to purchase coal and candle for the guard, whence it was called burning the parade. Burn my breeches ! A mild kind of oath. To burn the ken, to live at an inn or tavern without paying for one's quarters. His money burns in his pocket, he is eager to spend (1740). To burn one's boats behind one, to cut off all chance of retreat. To burn the Thames, to perform some prodigy. To burn day- light, to burn candles in the daytime. To burn fine weather, to fail to turn it to advantage. To burn the candle at both ends : see Candle. To burn the planks, to remain long sitting. To burn one's fingers, to suffer through meddling. To b urn a stone, to displace by accident. Burnand. To pilfer plots of plays, novels, etc. ) : from the name of Mr. F. Burnand, the editor of Punch. Burn-crust. A baker : cf. Master of the mint, a gardener ; Bung, a brewer ; 79 Burner. Butcher. Ball of wax, a shoemaker; Quill-driver, a clerk ; Snip, a tailor, etc. Burner. A card-sharper. Burr. A hanger on, dependant, sponger. As verb (Marl borough Col- lego), to fight, scrimmage, rag. Burst. 1. A spree, drunken frolic, big feed, blow out (q.v.) : usually, On the burst. 2. A sudden and vigorous access (or display) of energy, a lively pace or spurt. Bursted. Hard up. Burster. 1. A heavy fall, cropper. 2. See Buster. Bury. Go bury yourself ! A Califoruianism which has more of the fortitcr than the auaviter in its com- position : equivalent to, Go ! hide your diminished head : cf. Carry me out and bury me decently. To bury (or dig up) the hatchet : amongst Indian tribes certain symbolic ceremonies are con- nected with the war- hatchet or toma- hawk, which are equivalent to a declaration of war, or a compact of peace : To bury the hatchet is the em- blem of the putting away of strife and enmity; on the other hand, the redskin, before he commences hostilities, digs up afresh the fateful symbol. To bury a moll, to desert a wife or mistress. To buryaQuaker,to evacuate, ease oneself. To bury a vrife, to feast and make merry : used in connection with the jollifications frequently indulged in by apprentices on the completion of their term of indenture, when they became full-blown craftsmen. Bus (or Buss). 1. Business (q.v.) : pronounced biz. 2. Omnibus ( 1 832). As verb, to punch one's head. Bush. 1. To camp out in the bush, get lost in the bush. Hence, 2. to be in a mental or a physical difficulty, to be muddled. To beat about the bush, to prevaricate, avoid coming to the point, go indirectly to one's object. Bushed. Hard up, without money, destitute (1812). Bushed On. Pleased, delighted. Bushwhacker. A free-lance: during the American Civil War deserters from the ranks of both armies infested the country, making raids upon defence- less houses and sacking whole towns. Bushy -park. A lark. To be in bushy park, to be poor. Business. Dramatic action, bye-play (1753). To do one's business for one, to kill, cause one's death. Business End [of a thing]. The practical part. Busk. To busk it, to sell songs, books, and other articles at bars and tap-rooms of public houses : also to work public houses and certain spota as an itinerant musician. Busker. See Busk. Busnapper. See Buz-napper. Buss Beggar. An old prostitute of the lowest type, a beggar's trull. Bust 1. A corrupted form of burst : also busting, busted. 2. A burglary. 3. A frolic, spree, drunken debauch : cf. to go on the bust. 4. A failure, fizzle. As verb, ( 1 ) to burst, explode, (2) to commit a burglary ; (3) to inform against an accomplice ; (4) to fail in business or transactions of any kind ; (5) to put out of breath, wind ; (6) to indulge in a drunken frolic, go on the spree ; (7) to destroy, commit suicide, set aside, expose. Bust me \ A mild oath Blow me ! Jigger me ! Buster. 1. A new loaf; also a coarse cake or bun of large size that fills or blows out the stomach ( 1821). 2. A burglar : see Thief. 3. Anything of superior size, that has unusual capa- city, that causes admiration, a spurt. To come a buster, to fall heavily, to come a cropper. In for a buster, prepared, ready (or determined) for a spree (1852). 4. A heavy storm from the south, brick-fielder (q.v.). Busting. Informing against ac- complices, turning King's evidence. Bustle. 1. A pad, roll, or wire contrivance worn by women at the back in order to extend the dress, and also with a view to setting off the smallness of the waist (1788). 2. Money : see Rhino. As verb, to con- fuse, confound, perplex. Busy-head. A busybody. Busy-idler. A person busy about trifles. Busy-sack. A carpet-bag: in America a grip-sack. Butch, To follow the trade of s butcher. Butcher. 1. The king in playing- cards : when card-playing in public houses was common, the kings were called butchers, the queens bitches, and the knaves jacks: Fr., boruf. 2. A peripatetic vendor of varieties and ' notions ' on railway cars at once a convenience and a terror. 3. A 80 Butcher' s-bUl. Buz. prison doctor. 4. A malevolent critic. As verb, to murder a reputation, to mangle an author's lines. To biitcher about (Wellington College), to make a great noise, humbug. Butcher's-bill. The list of those killed in battle. Butcher's Mourning. A white hat with a black mourning hat-band. Butteker. A shop. Butter. Fulsome flattery, unctuous praise, soft soap: Fr., cirage (1819). As verb, (1) to flatter fulsomely, indulge in rhodo- mantic praise: Fr., cirer (1700); (2) to increase the stakes every throw or every game (1696). To look as if butter would not melt in one's mouth, a contemptuous saying of persons of simple demeanour (1475). Will cut butter when it's hot, said of a knife when blunt. Butter and eggs, going down a slide on one foot and beating with the heel and toe of the other at short intervals. Butter-bag (or Butter-box). A Dutchman (1600). Butter-boat. To empty the butter-boat, to lavish praise, to butter (q.v.). Buttercup. A pet name for a child. Buttered. 1. Whipped. 2. Flat- tered. Butter-fingered. Apt to let things fall, greasy (or slippery) fingered. Butter-fingers, one who lets things slip easily from a hold (1615). Butter-flap. A light cart, i.e. a trap. Butterfly. 1. A river barge. 2. The guard for the reins affixed to the top of a hansom cab. Butternuts. The sympathisers with the South in the North and the Middle States during the American Civil War ; the term was derived from the colour of the uniforms worn in the early part of the war by Confederate soldiers in the West, which, being homespun, were dyed brown with the juice of the butternut. Butter-print. A child ; usually when illegitimate (1620). Buttock. A common prostitute (1674). Buttock - and - file. A prostitute and her companion ; sometimes bulk and file ; occasionally buttock and file is used of a single individual one who unites the roles of a thief and prostitute (1671). Buttock - and - tongue. A scold- ing woman, shrew. Buttock-and-twang. A common prostitute, but who is no thief. Button. 1. A shilling : formerly good currency, now only of counter- feit coin : see Rhino. 2. A decoy of any kind, whether the confederate of confidence- trick men, or a sham buyer at an auction. As verb, to decoy, act as confederate in swindles : Fr., aguicher. Not to care a button (or brass button), to care nothing. To have a button on, to have a fit of the blues (q.v.), despondent. To button up, when a broker has bought stock on speculation and it falls suddenly on his hands, whereby he is a loser, he keeps the matter to himself, and is reluctant to confess the ownership of a share : this is called buttoning up. Button-burster (or Button-buster). A low comedian. Button-catcher. A tailor. English synonyms: snip, cabbage contractor, steel - bar, driver, goose persuader, sufferer, ninth part of a man, etc. Buttoner. A card - sharper's decoy (1841). Button-pound. Money : generic : see Rhino. Buttons. A page ; sometimes boy in buttons ( 1860). Dash my buttons (wig, etc.) a mild oath; also employed to express vexation or surprise. Not to have all one's buttons, to be deficient in intellect, slightly cracky, to have a bee in one's bonnet. To have a soul above buttons, to be above one's work or duty, to think one's ability superior to one's position. To make buttons, to look sorry, sad, to be in great fear (1593). Butty. A comrade, partner. Buvare. Drink : generic. Buy. To buy a prop, a term used to signify that the market has gone flat, and that there is no one to support it. Buz (or Buzz). A parlour game which is thus described by Hotten, who, however, erroneously limited it to public-houses : The leader com- mences saying one, the next on the left hand two, the next three, and so on to seven, when buz must be said ; every seven and multiple of 7, as 14, 81 Buz-bloke. Cabbage Plant. 17, 21, 27, 28 etc., must not be mentioned bat buz instead ; whoever break the rule pays a fine. As verb, ( 1 ) some uncertainty exists as to whether to buz signifies to drain a bottle or decanter to the last drop, or whether it means to share equally the last of a bottle of wine, when there is not enough for a full glass to each of the party ; (2) to pick pockets ; (3) to search for, look about one. Buz-bloke, Buz-cove, Buz-gloak. See Buz-napper. Buz -man. 1. A pickpocket. 2. An informer. Buz-napper. A pickpocket: see Thief (1781). Buz-napper's Academy. A training school for thieves : figures were dressed up, and experienced tutors stood in various difficult atti- tudes for the boys to practise upon ; when clever enough they were sent on the streets : Dickens gives full par- ticulars of this old style of business in Oliver Twist. Buz-napper's Kinchin. A watch- man. Buzzing (or Buz-faking). Pocket- picking. By-blow. An illegitimate child : also By-chop and By-slip (1594). By Cracky! An ejaculation con- veying no idea beyond that of general surprise. Bye - drink. Liquid refreshment taken at other than meal - time (1766). By George! An ejaculation sig- nifying either surprise, or anger, or used without any special meaning (1731). By Goldami A semi - veiled oath. By Golly! Euphemistic for By God (1743). By Gorram ! See By Goldam ! By Gosh 1 A euphemistic oath. By Gum ! By Gummy ! intj. phr. Expletives from the great American Dictionary of Oaths and CUM Words, compiled by descendants of the Puri- tan Fathers. By hook or by crook. See Hook. By Hooky. A veiled oath. B y n g, B i n g. To go. Bynge- awaste, to go away (1567). By-scape (or slip). A bastard (1646). By the Ever - living Jumping Moses! An effective ejaculation and moral waste - pipe for interior passion or wrath is seen in the ex- clamation, By the ever-living jump- ing Moses ! a harmless phrase, that for its length expends a con- siderable quantity of fiery anger. HoUen. By the Living Jingo ! (or By Jingo !) See Jingo. By the Wind. Hard up, in diffi- culties. Cab. 1. An adventitious aid to study, a crib, a pony (q.v.). As verb, to use a crib; cf. cabbage (1853). 2. A brothel (1811). 3. A cavalier (17th century) ; cf. Sp., caballero. 4. A cabriolet : also any vehicle to seat two or four persons plying for hire. Whence, 5. A cabman (also Cabby): e.g. Call a cab ! As verb, to travel by cat) : cf. foot it, hoof it, tram it, train it, 'bus it. Hence cobber, a cab-horse : cf. Vanner, Wheeler, etc. Cabbage. 1. Pieces purloined by tailors ; hence any small profits in the shape of material. [Johnson : a cant- ing term.] As verb, to purloin material, to take toll (q.v.). Also, cold- slaw (American) : cf. Pigeon-skewings. Cabbage is stored in hell (q.v.) or one's eye (q.v.) (1638). 2. A tailor, also cabbager and cabbage - contractor (q.v.) (1690). 3. A style of dressing the hair : similar to the modern chignon: Fr., kilo (1690) 4. A translation, crib (q.v.) ; also cab (q.v.) 5. A cigar: Fr., feuille de platane, crapulos (or crapvlados) : see Weed. Cabbage - contractor. See Cab- bage. Cabbage - gelder. A greengrocer or market gardener. Cabbage-head. A fool, soft-head, go-along (q.v.) : see Buffle (1682). Cabbage-leaf. A bad cigar ; also cabbage. (A popular theory of material.] Fr., infectados. See Weed. Cabbage Plant An umbrella, gamp (q.v.), brolly (q.v.). Cabbager. Cody. Cabbager. A tailor. Cabbage-stumps. In pi., the legs : see Drumsticks. Cabbage - tree Mob. A larrikin (q.v.). [A low-crowned cabbage-palm hat is affected by this section of Aus- tralian society.] Also Cabbagites. Cabby. A cabman : Fr., hirondette and maraudeur (1852). Cable. To send a telegram by ocean (submarine) wire : cf. Wire. To slip or cut one's cable, to die ; see Hop the twig. Cable-hanger. An oyster dredger not free of the fishery. Cab-moll. A prostitute. Cabobbled. Confused, puzzled, perplexed. Caboodle. A crowd ; usually, the whole caboodle. [Boodle (q.v.) was frequently used in the same sense, which is indifferently applied] (1858). Caboose. Convivial quarters, a bachelor's snuggery, a den (q.v.), dig- gings (q.v.). The whole caboose, a variation of caboodle (q.v.). Cacafuego. A spitfire, braggart, bully (1625). Cachunk! An exclamation in- tended to convey an imitation of the Bound of a falling body : onomatopoeic the bow-wow word of Max Miiller. Variants are, Caswash, Cawhalux, Chewallop, Casouse, Cathump, Ker- plunk, Katouse, Katoose, Kelumpus, Kerchunk, Kerswosh, Kerslosh, Kerswollop, Kerblinkityblunk, and Kerblam. Cackle. 1. The dialogue of a play, spec, a clown's patter : whence cackle- chucker, a prompter ; cackle-merchant, a dramatist ; cockier (or cackling-cove), an actor, preacher, or lecturer ; cackle- tub, a pulpit. 2. Idle talk, inconse- quent chatter, a short spasmodic laugh ; and as verb, to talk idly, fussily, or loudly of petty things, as a hen after laying an egg : see Cackler (1676). Cackler. 1. A fowl : also cackling cheat (1672). English synonyms: beaker, cackler, margery prater, gal- eny, partlet, chickabiddy, rooster, chuck-chuck, chuckie. French syn- onyms : becquant, ornichon, pigue-en- terre (peck-the-ground), estable (or estaphle), bruantez (Breton). Whence cackling-fruit, an egg, and cackler's- ken, a fowl-house. 2. A noisy talker, blab (q.v.) (1400). Cackling - cove. An actor. Eng- lish synonyms : mummery- cove, mug- faker, mummer, mugger (properly an actor who makes free play with his face), tragedy or comedy merchant, pro, stroller, cackle - faker, barn- stormer, surf. Cad. A term of contempt : spec, an offensive or ill-bred person, irrespec- tive of social position, but formerly of underlings and others performing menial offices. [0. E. D. : apparently from cadet and the popular forms cadee and caddie; cadator suggests a collateral, if an independent origin.] The vocable has passed through a variety of meanings. 1. A passenger taken up by coach drivers for their own profit. 2. A chum or companion. 3. An assistant. 4. An omnibus con- ductor. 5. A messenger or errand boy. 6. A non-school or non-university man. At Cambridge, snob (q.v.), the word Thackeray used, has long been a common term for a townsman ; now the undergrad says Townee or Towner (q.v.) (1831). 7. A vulgar, ill-man- nered person, a blackguard, i.e. a person incapable of moral decency ( 1 849). Hence caddish, vulgar, offens- ively bred. Cadator. A beggar apeing a decayed gentleman (1703). Caddie. An attendant at golf. Cade. The Burlington Arcade : cf. Zoo, Proms, Pops, Cri. Cadge. The profession of cadging or begging. As verb, to obtain by begging, to beg in an artful wheedling manner. Here cadging (or on the cadge), on the make (q.v.) ; among intimates to cadge a dinner or supper is often used without implied re- proach: see Cadger (1811). English synonyms: to mump, pike, mouch, stand the pad, maund, tramp, mike. Cadge-cloak (or Gloak). A beggar (1791). Cadger. 1. Primarily a carrier, pedlar, or itinerant dealer. 2. A whin- ing beggar, sponger (q.v.), snide (q.v.). Eng. synonyms : Abram man, croaker, Abraham cove, Tom of Bedlam, Bed- lam beggar, maunderer, moucher, pikey, traveller, turnpike or dry- land sailor, scoldrum, shyster, shivering James, silver beggar, skipper-bird, mumper, paper-worker, goose-shearer, master of the black art, durrynacker. C a d y. A hat, also cadey and caddy : see Golgotha. 83 Caffan. Calf-country. Caffan. See Caasan. Caffre's Tightener. A full meal. Cage. 1. A petty prison, a country lock-up (1500). English synonyms (generic) : academy, boat, boarding- house, bower, block - house, bastille, bladhunk, stone-jug, jug, calaboose, cooler, coop, downs, clink, jigger, Irish theatre, quod, shop, stir, clinch, steel, sturrabin, mill, toll-shop, floating hell, floating academy, dry room, House that Jack Built, choakee. Special names for particular prisons : Bates' s Farm or Garden (Cold Bath Fields), Akerman's Hotel (Newgate), Castieu's Hotel (Mel- bourne Gaol, Burdon's Hotel (White Cross Street Prison), Ellenborough Lodge, Spike or Park (the King's Bench Prison, to which, as a matter of fact, every Chief-Justice stood god- father), Campbell's Academy (the Hulks), City College and Whittington's College (Newgate), Tench, Pen, and Smith's Hotel (Edinburgh). 2. A dress-improver, bustle : see Bird-cage 3. A bed ; also Breeding-cage. 4. The Ladies' Gallery in the House of Commons, also called the Chamber of Horrors, which, however, is properly the Peeresses' Gallery in the Upper House. Cagg. A term used by private soldiers, a solemn vow or resolution not to get drunk for a certain time ; or, as the term is, till their cagg is out, which vow is commonly observed with the strictest exactness : e.g. ' I have cagg'd myself for six months. Excuse me this time, and I will cagg myself for a year.' Common in Scotland, where the vow is performed with divers ceremonies (Groee). Cag - mag. 1. A tough old goose ; hence, 2. refuse, rubbish, scraps and ends (1769). Cain. To raise Cain, to be quarrel- some, make a disturbance : also to raise hate, hell (or hell and tommy), and to raise Ned (q.v.). To pay the cain, to pay the penalty. Cain and Abel. A table. Cainsham-smoke. The tears of a wife- beaten husband (Dunton) (1694). Cake (or Cakey). 1. A fool, a dullard : see Buffle (Grose), 2. A stupid policeman. 3. (Christ's Hospital). A stroke with a cane : also as verb, to take the cake, to rank highest, carry off honours, be the best of a kind, nil the bill (theatrical). In certain section! of the U.S.A. cake walks have long had a vogue among the coloured people. The young bucks ' get them- selves up regardless,' and walk from one end of a hall to the other, under the gaze of dusky beauty and the critical glance of judges. The marking is done on a scale of numbers, and ties are walked off with the utmost finish and rare attention to style. The prize is a cake, and the winner takes it.] Also to take (or yank) the bun, to slide away with the Banbury, to annex the whole confectioner's shop : cf. to take the kettle, to take the prize for lying. Hurry up the cakes 1 Look sharp ! [Buckwheat and other oat cakes form a staple dish at many American tables.] Like hot cakes, quickly, with energy ; a variant of like winking, or one o'clock. Phrases : You can't eat your cake and have it ; One's cake is dough, one's project has failed ; Every cake has its mate, make, or fellow. Cake -fiddler (or Fumbler). A parasite. Cakes and Ale. A good time : also Cakes and cheese. Cakey-pannum Fencer. See Pan- num-fencer. Calaboose. A common gaol. [From the Sp., calabozo, through the French.] Also as verb, to imprison (1840). Calculate. To think, expect, believe, intend : see Guess and Reckon. Sometimes (New England) cal'late (1830). Calends. See Greek Kalends. Caleys. Caledonian Railway Ordin- ary Stock. Calf. 1. An ignoramus, dolt, weak- ling : cf. Calf lolly (1653). For synonyms, see Buffle. 2. An endear- ment : cf. Puss, Ape, Monkey, etc. 3. See Essex calf. To eat the calf in the cow's belly, to anticipate, to count one's chickens before they are hatched ( 1 748). To slip the calf, to suffer abor- tion, to be brought to bed : properly of cattle. Calf-oed, a cow's matrix ; also parturition : cf. Child- bed and Bairn s-bed (q.v.). Calf - clinger. In pi., pantaloons, i.e. close-fitting trousers. Calf - country (land or ground). One's birthplace ; the scene of early life. Also Calf-time, the period of youth. 84 Calf. Camp-stool Brigade. Calf, Cow, and Bull Week. Before the passing of the Factory Acts it was customary in manufacturing dis- tricts to work very long hours for three weeks before Christmas. In the first, calf week, the ordinary hours were but slightly exceeded ; in the second, cow week, they were considerably aug- mented ; and in the third, or bull week, operatives spent the greater portion of the twenty-four in their orkshop. Calf's - head. A stupid, witless individual (1600). See Buffle. Calf-lick. See Cow-lick. Calf -lolly. An idle simpleton ; a generic reproach (1653). Calf-love. A youthful fancy, romantic attachment (1823). Calfskin-fiddle. A drum. Calf - sticking. Selling worthless rubbish, on the pretence that it is smuggled goods, to any foolish or unscrupulous person who can be in- veigled into purchasing it. Calibogus. A mixture of rum and spruce beer, an American beverage (Grose). Calico. Thin, wasted, attenuated (Bailey, 1725). Calico - bally. Somewhat fast ; one always on the look-out for amuse- ment. Californian. A red herring : see Glasgow Magistrate. In pi., generic for gold pieces. Californian - widow. A married woman whose husband is absent, a grass- widow (q.v.). The least offensive sense. [At the period of the Californian gold fever many men went West, leaving their wives and families behind them.] Calk (Eton). To throw. Call (Eton). The time when the masters do not call Absence (q.v. ). To have or get a call upon, to have a pre- ference, get the first chance. To call a go, to change one's stand, alter one's tactics, give in at any game or business. See Coals, Put, Spade, Wigging. Calle. A cloak or gown (Grose). Calp (or Kelp). A hat: see Gol- gotha. Cal vert's Entire. The Fourteenth Foot. [From its colonel's name ( 1 806- 1826) : three entire battalions were kept up for the good of Sir Harry, when adjutant-general, with an eye on Calvert's malt liquors. ] Calves. Calves gone to grass, thin legs, spindle-shanks. There are many ways of dressing calves' heads, many ways of saying or doing a foolish thing, a simpleton showing his folly, or, generally, if one way won't do, we must try another. Calves' heads are best hot, a sarcastic apology for sitting down to eat with one's hat on. Calx (Eton). The goal line at foot- ball. [From a Latin sense of calx, a goal, anciently marked with lime or chalk.] As Eton calx is a space so marked off at each end of wall (q.v.) ; good calx is the end at which there is a door for a goal ; bad calx the end where part of an elm tree serves the purpose. Cambridge - oak. A willow: of. Cotswold lion, Cambridgeshire night- ingale, etc. Cambridgeshire (or Fen Night- ingale). A frog. [The county is scored with canals and dykes.] Camd en-town. A halfpenny, brown (q.v.) : see Rhino. Camel. A great hulking fellow. Camel's Complaint. Low spirits, the hump (q.v.). Camese. A shirt, chemise, shimmy. [Sp. camisa, It. camicia.\ The word ap pears in various forms from the begin, ning of the seventeenth century, e.g. camisa, camiscia, kemesa, camise, and in a more genuinely English dress as commission, which in turn is shortened to mish. Camister. A clergyman, a blackgown (1851). Camp. To go to camp, to go to bed, take rest. [In early settler days a camp was formed whenever a halt for the night was called.] To take into camp, to kill. To camp, to surpass, floor. Campbell's Academy. The hulks, or lighters, on board which felons were condemned to hard labour. [Mr. Campbell was the first director.] Camp-candlestick. 1. An empty bottle, ; 2. a bayonet. Camp-fire. A military social gather- ing. Camp - follower. A prostitute, soldiers' trull. Camp-stool Brigade. People who wait outside a place of entertainment for hours in order to secure seats. [Camp-stools, now prohibited by police order, formed part of the outfit.] 85 Can. Canoe. Can. 1. A dollar piece: see Rhino. 2. A general servant, slavey (q.v.). Canack, Canuck, Kanuck, K'nuck. A Canadian : usually K'nuck. [Obscure, and limited in application : within the Canadian frontier a Canuck is understood to be a French Canadian, just as within the limits of the Union only New Englanders are termed Yankees ; elsewhere the appellation is used indiscriminately.] Canary (or Canary-bird). 1. A prisoner (1678). 2. A mistress. 3. A sovereign, 20s. : formerly a guinea. English synonyms : yellow boy, gold- finch, yellow hammer, shiner, gingleboy monarch, couter, bean, foont, James (from Jacobus), poona, portrait, quid, thick 'un, skin, skiv, dragon, goblin : a guinea was also called a ^ned. French synonyms (twenty franc piece) : jaunet sigue (sigle, sigotte or cig), bonnet jaune, bouion, mcdtaise, moule a boutons, me- daille for. 4. A female watcher or stall (q.v.), mollisher (q.v.) : cf. Crow, a male watcher : Fr. marque franche. 5. (Salvation Army), a written promise of a donation or subscription. [At some of the meetings of the Army, instead of sending round the plate, the officers distribute slips of paper on which those present are invited to record their in- tentions : the original colour of the slips was yellow.] Cancer. To catch or capture a cancer. See Crab. (1857). Candle. In pi., mucus at the nose. Phrases : To hold a candle to another, to help : see Devil ; not able (or fit) to hold a candle to, useless, nothing to be compared to; to sell (or let) by the candle (or by inch of candle), to sell by candle-auction: bids are received whilst a small piece of candle burns, the last bid before the candle goes out securing the article ; to smell of the candle, to show trace of study or night- work : cf. to smell of the lamp ; the game (play, etc.) is not worth the candle, the end (or result) does not justify the cost or labour expended ; to light (or burn) the candle at both ends, to consume (or waste) in two directions at once : cf. Fr., Le jeu ne veut pas la chandelle (Cotgrave). Also Proverbs and Pro- verbial sayings : Set forth the bright- ness of the sun with a candle ; He burns one candle to seek another : losing both time and labour ; To set a candle in the sunshine ; They grope in the dark that light not their candle at once ; To hold a farthing candle to the sun ; To hide one's candle under a bushel (Biblical : Matt. v. 15). Candle-end. In pi., a thing of little value (short duration, or small im- portance), trifle, fragment. To drink off (or eat) candle ends, a romantic extravagance in drinking a lady's health, by which gallants gave token of their devotion. Candle-keeper (Winchester). One of eight seniors in college by election who are not prefects. [Most of the privileges of prefects are enjoyed with- out their powers.] (1840). Candlestick. 1. (Winchester). A candidate (1840). 2. (London). In pi., the fountains in Trafalgar Square. Candle - waster. 1. A night-stu- dent : whence candle-icasting : cf. To smell of the candle, to show traces of study at night. 2. A small portion of burning wick that, falling on the candle, causes it to run. Candy. Drunk : see Screwed (Grose). Candyman. A bailiff, a process server. [In 1863, during a strike of miners at the collieries of Messrs. Strakers and Love, in Durham County, a hawker of candy and sweetmeats was employed to serve writs of ejectment.] Canister. 1. The head : see Crumpet (1811). 2. A hat: also canister-cap : see Golgotha. Cank. Dumb, silent. [Curiously enough, cank also signifies to chatter, cackle as a goose ; it only survives in this latter sense.] (1673). Cannibal (Cambridge). In Bump- ing races (q.v.) a college may be repre- sented by more than one boat, the best talent being put into the first ; but it has sometimes happened that the crew of the second have disappointed the prophets and bumped the first of ita own college. It is thus termed a cannibal, having eaten up its own kind, and a fine is exacted from it by the University Boat Club. Cannikin (or Canniken). The plague (1688). Cannis-cove. A dog-fancier. [Latin, canis, a dog.] Cannon. See Canon. Cannon - balL An irreconcilable opponent of free trade. Canoe. To paddle one's own canoe, to make one's own way in life, exhibit 86 Canon. Capetta. skill and energy, succeed unaided : of Western American origin, but now universal. Also to bail one's own boat ; Fr., il conduit or U mene bien sa barque (1845). Canon (or Cannon). Drunk : see Screwed. Canoodle. 1. To fondle, bill and coo. 2. (Oxford). To paddle a canoe. 3. To share profits. 4. To coax. Canoodler. See Canoodle. Canoodling. Endearments. Cant. 1. The secret speech or jargon of the vagrant classes gipsies, thieves, beggars, etc.; hence, contemptuously, the peculiar phraseology of a particular class of subject : see Thieves' Latin, St. Giles' Greek, Peddlars' French, etc. (q.v.). Also as verb, to whine, to speak the jargon of gipsies, beggars, and other vagrants, and (generic), to speak, to talk (1567). 2. A blow or toss. 3. Food : also Kant, but cf. sense 4. (1851). 4. A gift. Cantab. A student at Cambridge University : i.e. Cantabrigian (1750). Cantabank. A common ballad singer. Cantankerous. Cross-grained, ill- humoured, self - willed, productive of strife. Hence cantankerously, can- tankerousness, cantankerate (verb), and cantankersome (1773). Cante. See Canter. Canteen-medal. A stripe for the consumption of liquor. Canter. A vagrant, beggar, one who cants (q.v.) or uses the secret language otherwise called Peddlars' French, St. Giles' Greek, etc. Canterbury. In derisive allusion (old Puritan) to the see of Canterbury : e.g. Canterbury - tale (or story), a tedious yarn, friars' tale or fable, cock- and-bull story (q.v.); Canterbury- trick, mean dodge ; Canterbury pace (rack, rate, trot, gallop), the pace of a pilgrim on his way to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket, a half gallop. Canticle. A parish clerk (Grose). Canting. The jargon used by beggars, thieves, gipsies, and vagrants : see Cant (1547). Canting Crew. See Canter. Can't. See National Intelligencer, Hole, Ladder. Canuck. See Canack. Canvass. To receive the canvass, to be dismissed, to get the sack (q.v.) : see Bag (1652). Canvasseens. In pi., sailors' can- vas trousers : see Kicks. Canvas-town. The Volunteer Encampment, formerly at Wimbledon, now at Bisley, at the meeting of the National Rifle Association : also any camp or baby-city. Cap. 1. A false cover to a tossing coin ; also cover-down : the cap shows either head or tail as it is left on or taken off. 2. The proceeds of an im- provised collection : cf. to send round the cap or hat (1851). 3. (West- minster). The amount of the collec- tion at Play and Election dinners. [The College cap is passed round on the last night of Play for contribu- tions.] As verb, (1) To stand by a friend, take part in any undertaking, lend a hand. (2) To take off (or touch) one's hat in salutation ; also to cap to, and to cap it (1593). To cap one's lucky, to run away : see Bunk ; to cap (or cast) one's skin, to strip naked ; to set one's cap at, to set oneself to gain the affections : only of women (1773); to cap a quotation (anecdote, proverb, etc.), to fit with a second from the same, or another, author ; to go one better, in the way of anecdote or legend (1584) ; to pull caps, to wrangle in an unseemly way : only of women (1763) ; to cast one's cap at, to be indifferent, give up as a bad job ; to come (fall under, or lie) in one's cap, to occur to mind, run in the head ; to put on one's thinking (or considering) cap, to pass under review, think out ; the cap fits, the remark or description applies ; to have enough under one's cap, to be drunk : see Screwed ; to throw up one's cap, to manifest pleasure by throwing one's cap in the air ; to kiss caps with to drink out of the same vessel : hence kiss of a cap ; to drink cap out, to empty ; also (proverbial), If your cap be of wool ; As sure as your cap is of wool ; My cap is better at ease than my head ; Ready as a borrowed cap. Cape Cod Turkey. Salted cod : also Marblehead turkey : cf. Billings- gate pheasant, Yarmouth capon, and Albany beef (1865). Capella. A coat [Italian], English synonyms : benjamin, cover- me-decently, upper benjamin (a great- coat), Joseph, wrap-rascal, claw-ham- mer, swallow-tail, steel-pen (all three, a dress coat), M.B. coat, panupetaston, 87 Cape Nightingale. Card. rock-a-low, reliever, pygostole, ulster, monkey-jacket : see Caster. Cape Nightingale. A frog: cf. Cambridgeshire nightingale. Capeovi. Sick, seedy (q.v.). Caper. A device, idea, perform- ance, occupation ; in America, a racket (q.v.), e.g. the ' real estate racket' or ' caper' (1867). To cut a caper upon nothing, or to eat caper sauce, to be hanged : see Ladder. (1708). Caper-juice. Whisky. Caper-merchant. A dancing master, hop- merchant (q.v.) (Grose). Capital. To work capital, to com- mit an offence punishable with death. Capivi (or Capivvy). To cry capiwy, to be persecuted to the death, or very near it. Capon. 1. A red herring ; but applied to other kinds of fish ; herrings now receiving the distinctive cogno- men of Yarmouth capons (1640). 2. A term of reproach dullard, fool: Bee Buffle( 1542). 3. A eunuch (1594). 4. A billet-doux : cf. (Cotgrave) Fr., povlet, a chicken, also a love letter, or love message (1588). Capon-justice. A corrupt judge (1639). Cappadochio (Caperdochy, or Caperdewsie). A prison : see Cage. (1600). Capper. 1. A confederate ; at cards one who makes false bids in order to encourage a genuine player. 2. A dummy bidder whose function is either to start the bidding or to run up the price of articles for sale. 3. A per- son or thing who caps, or beats, all others ; a thing which beats one's comprehension (1790). Capper - clawing. See Clapper- clawing. Capsick, Drunk : see Screwed. Captain. 1. A familiar and jesting address : cf. Governor, Boss, etc. (1598). 2. A gaming or bawdy-house bully (1731). Captain is also a fancy title for a highwayman in a good way of business : Fletcher uses the term copper-captain, as also does Washing- ton Irving, for one who has no right to the title, and, in modern athletics, we have the captain of a club or crew, with the corresponding verb, to captain. 3. Money : see Rhino. 4. A glandered horse. Captain Armstrong. To come Captain Armstrong, to pull a horse and prevent him from winning. Also Captain Armstrong, a dishonest jockey. Captain Copperthorn's Crew. All officers : of a company where every- one wants to be first in command. Captain Cork. A man slow in passing the bottle. Captain Crank. The chief of a gang of highwaymen. Captain Grand. A haughty, blustering fellow : see Furioso. Captain Hackum. A hectoring bully (Grose). Captain Lieutenant Meat neither young enough for veal, nor old enough for beef. [Properly a brevet officer who, ranking aa captain, re- ceives lieutenant's pay (Grose).] Captain Queernabs. A shabby, ill-dressed man : see Guy. Captain Quiz. A mocker. Captain Sharp. A cheating bully, one whose office it is to bully a 'pigeon' refusing to pay up (Orose). Captain Tom. The leader of a mob ; also the mob itself (Grose). Caravan. 1. A dupe, gull, subject of plunder: see Bubble (1676). 2. A large sum of money (1690). 3. A train chartered to convey people to a prize fight. [Early in the present century caravan, now shortened to van, was applied to a third class covered railway carriage ; now a pleasure party is so described ; also a gipsy's cart ; also the wheeled cages of a travelling menagerie.] Caravansera. A railway station : thus : The scratch must be toed at sharp five, so the caravan will start at four from the caravansera (Hotten). Card. 1. A device, expedient, or undertaking : e.g. a good card, a strong card, a safe card, a likely, or a doubtful card (1537). 2. A character, odd fish, eccentric ; generally with knowing, old, queer, downy, rum, etc. : cf. Hamlet, v. ii. (from the card table, such expressions as, a sure card, a sound card, being of very ancient use. Osrio tells Hamlet that Laertes is the card and calendar of gentry) (1835). 3. The ticket (q.v.), the figure, the correct thing. Hence (American) a published note, short statement, request, explanation, or the like ( Webster). Phrases : To give one cards, to give one an advantage, to give points : Fr., fairt. un bauf ; 88 Cardinal. Carrion. on the cards, within the range of probability, liable to turn up : Dickens popularised the expression (1749) ; to pack (stock, or put up) the cards, to prepare cards for cheating purposes ; to speak by the card, to speak with precision, with the utmost accuracy (1569) ; to face (or brag) it out with a card of ten, to put on a bold front ; a cooling card, anything that damps one's ardour, a wet blanket (q.v.) ; a leading card, an example, precedent ; to play one's best card, to stake all, do one's best ; to throw (or fling) up one's cards, to abandon a pro- ject ; to show one's cards, to make a clean beast, full explanation, or to reveal the extent of one's resources ; to have (or go in) with good cards, to have good grounds for expecting success ; to cast (or count) one's cards, to take stack, reckon chances ; a house (or castle) of cards, an unsecure position, scheme, etc. Cardinal. 1. A red cloak : worn by ladies circa 1740 and later. 2. Mulled red wine (1861). 3. A shoeblack. Some London brigades wear red tunics : that stationed in the City is now better known as the City Reds. 4. A lobster : from its colour when cooked (Jules Janin once made a curious blunder and called the lobster le cardinal de la mer) ; whence cardinal hash, a lobster salad. 6. A new [1890] variety of red. Cardinal's - blessing. A bene- diction carrying with it no further advantage (1720). Care. Not to care or be worth a fig, pin, rap, button, cent, straw, rush, or hang, similes of indifference ; to care not even so much as the value of a fig, a pin, or a straw : FT., s 1 en battre Pceil : see Worth (1590). / don't care if I do, & street phrase of no parti- cular meaning ; also a form of accept- ing an invitation to drink : Will you peg ? I don't care if I do. Careaway. An exclamation of merriment or recklessness. Care begone ! Away with care ! Hence, a reckless fellow, roisterer, anything that drives away care (with a pun on caraway) (1440). Care-grinder. A treadmill, also vertical care-grinder (q.v.) : see Wheel of life. Cargo (Winchester). A hamper from home (1840) ; the word is still in use. Carter. A clerk : see Quill-driver. Carlicues. See Curlycues. Carney (or C a r n y). Seductive flattery, language covering a design ; as verb, to wheedle, coax, insinuate oneself, act in a cajoling manner ; hence carneying, wheedling, coaxing, insinuating. Carnish. Meat. [Ital., carne flesh: through the Lingua Franca.] Whence carnish-ken, a thieves' eating house, prog-shop. Caroon. A five-shilling piece : see Rhino. English synonyms : bull (or bull's eye), cartwheel, coachwheel (or simply wheel), tusheroon, dollar, thick 'un(alsoasovereign), case, caser,decus. Carpet. To reprimand, call over the coals, give a wigging (or ear- wigging), etc. : also to walk the carpet (1823). As adj., generic for luxury and effeminacy : e.g. carpet consideration, friend, gentry, toy, poet, soldier, knight (q.v.), etc. To bring on the carpet, to bring up or forward. Carpet-bagger. A political adven- turer. [After the Civil War, numbers of Northerners went south ; they were looked upon with suspicion. Originally a wild-cat banker (q.v.)]. Carpet-bag Recruit. A recruit of better than ordinary standing, i.e. one with more than he stands upright in. Carpet - knight. A stay-at-home soldier, a shirker of practical work, a petticoat dangler : also in such com- binations as carpet - captain, carpet- squire ; all in contempt. Carpet-swab. A carpet-bag (1837). Carrier. A rogue employed to look out, and watch upon the roads, at inns, etc., in order to carry information to their respective gangs, of a booty in prospect (B. E.). Carrier-pigeon. 1. A cheat, spec, a lottery office swindler (1781). [The sharper attended the drawing of a lot- lery in the Guildhall, and as soon as a number or two are drawn, wrote them on a card ; a confederate, ready mounted, rode full speed to some distant insurance office, where another of the gang, commonly a decent- looking woman, insured for a con- siderable sum, thus biting the biter (Grose).] 2. A peripatetic commission agent, a kind of tout. Carrion. The human body ; for- merly a corpse. 89 Carrion-case. ("Won. Carrion-case. A shirt, chemise: carrion, the human body: Bee Flesh- bag. Carrion Hunter. An undertaker (1785). Carrots. In pL, red hair: also a proper name (1685). Take a carrot I A contemptuous retort: originally obscene. Carry. To carry coals, to put up with insults, endure an affront or in- jury (1593) ; to carry boodle, see Boodle; to carry real estate, to neglect the finger nails ; to carry out one's bat, see Bat ; to carry corn, to bear success well and equably : of a man who breaks down under a sudden access of wealth, or who becomes affected and intolerant, it is said, He doesn't carry corn well ; to carry on, to make oneself conspicuous by a certain line of behaviour, conduct oneself wildly or recklessly, joke or frolic ; also, in a special sense, open to flirt openly : whence carryings on, frolicsome or questionable proceedings, a course of conduct that attracts atten- tion (1663); carry me out and bury me decently, a dovetail to an incredible story, or something displeasing ; varied by Let me die ! Good - night ! etc., as also by Carry me home ! Carry me upstairs ! Carry me out and leave me in the gutter ! (a writer in Notes and Queries (2 S., iii. 387) states it to have been in use circa 1780) ; to carry the stick : see Trip up. Carry-castle. An elephant (1598). C a r s e y. A house, den, or crib. [Lingua Franca casa, a house.] Cart To defeat : in a match, fight, examination, race, etc. : e.g. we carted them home, we gave them an awful licking. In the cart (or carted), an employee is said to put an owner in the cart, when, by trick or fraud, his horse is prevented from winning : also in the box ; 2. in the know, in the hunt ; 3. the lowest scorer at any point is said to be in the cart ; sometimes on the tailboard ; to walk the cart, to walk over a racecourse ; to cart off (out or away), to remove ; to set (or put) the cart before the horse, to reverse matters (1520) ; to be left out of the cart's tail, to suffer loss or injury through care- lessness (1541) ; to keep cart on wheels, to peg away, keep things going. Cart - grease. Butter, spec, bad butter. English synonyms: cow-grease, Thames mud, cow-oil, spread, scrape, smear, ointment, sluter. Carts. A pair of shoes : see Trotter- cases. Cart - wheel. 1. A five-shilling piece, also coach-wheel, and wheel : see Rhino. 2. A broad hint. 3. A continuous series of somersaults in which the hands and feet alternately touch the ground, the appearance pro- duced being similar to the spokes of a cart wheel in motion ; also Catharine wheel (1851). Carver and Gilder. A match- maker : cf. fingersmith, a midwife. Casa. See Case. Cascade. 1. Tasmania beer : be- cause manufactured from ' cascade ' water : cf. Artesian. 2. A trundling gymnastic performance in panto- mime. As verb, to vomit (1771). Case. 1. A certainty in fact, an accentuated or abnormal instance in character. When two persons fall in love, or are engaged to marry, it is said to be a case with them. An eccentric person is a case. 2. A bad five-shilling piece. Half a case, a bad half-crown, cf. Caser. 3. A house, respectable or otherwise : spec, a brothel, and, by transference, a water-closet (1678). 4. (Westminster School). The discus- sion by Seniors and Upper Election preceding a tanning (q.v.), and the tanning itself. A case of crabs, a failure ; a case of pickles, an incident, a bad breakdown, a break up ; a case of stump, impecuniosity. Caseine. A variant of The cheese (q.v.) : cf. Cassan. (1856). Caser. Five shillings : see Case and Caroon. (1879). Case-vrow. A dress-lodger (q.v.). Casey. Cheese : see Cassan. Cash. Equal to cash, of unquestion- able merit ; to cash a prescription, to get a prescription made up ; cash or pass in one's checks, to die (in poker, counters or checks, purchased at certain fixed rates, are equivalent to coin) ; to cash up, to liquidate a debt. C a s h e 1 s. Great Southern and Western of Ireland Railway Stock. [Said to be derived from the fact that the line originally had no station at Cashel] Cask. A brougham, pill-box (q.v.) : Fr., bagniole. Cass. See Cassan. Cassan. Cheese ; also cass, casson, 00 Cast. Catamount. cassam, cassom, and casey. The old- est form is cassan (1567). English synonyms : caz, sweaty - toe, choke - dog. Cast. See Accounts, Sheep's Eyes. Castell. To see, look (1610). Caster. 1. A cloak (1567). 2. A cast-off (1859). Castieu's Hotel. Melbourne gaol : so called from Mr. J. B. Castieu : see Cage. Castle -rag. A fourpenny piece, flag : see Joey. Cast-off. 1. In pi., landsmen's clothes : see Togs. 2. A discarded mistress : see Cast. Castor. A hat : Latin, castor, a beaver : hats were formerly made of beaver's fur: see Golgotha. (1640). Cat. 1. A prostitute (1401). 2. A shortened form of Cat-o' -nine-tails (q.v.) (1788). 3. A lady's muff. 4. A quart pot : pint pots are Kittens : cat and kitten sneaking, stealing pewter pots (1851). 5. See Tame cat. 6. A fanciful monster infesting lodging houses, which devours with equal readiness cold meat and coals, spirits and paraffin, etc., etc. (1827). Fly- ing cat, an owl (1690). To jerk, shoot, or whip the cat (or to cat), to vomit (1609). To whip the cat (or to draw through the water with a cat). 1. To indulge in practical jokes (1614): hence cat-whipping or whipping the cat : A trick often practised on ignorant country fellows, vain of their strength ; by laying a wager with them that they may be pulled through a pond by a cat ; the bet being made, a rope is fixed round the waist of the party to be catted, and the end thrown across the pond, to which the cat is also fastened by a pack-thread, and three or four sturdy fellows are appointed to lead and whip the cat ; these, on a given signal, seize the end of the cord, and pretending to whip the cat, haul the astonished booby through the water (Grose) 2. To work at private houses. Phrases : To see how the cat will jump, to watch events and act accordingly ; also (American) to sit on the fence (1827) ; you kill my cat and Ptt kill your dog. Ca' me, ca' thee, an exchange in the matter of scratch- ing backs : FT., passez moi la casse, et je t'envarrai la senne ; to let the cat out of the bag, to reveal a secret, to put one's foot in it (this and the kindred phrase, To buy a pig in a poke, are said to originate in the bumpkin's trick of substituting a cat for a young pig and bringing it to market in a bag : if the customer were wary the cat was let out of the bag, and there was no deal) ; who ate or stole the cat ? a gentleman whose larder was frequently broken by bargees, had a cat cooked and placed as a decoy : it was taken and eaten, and became a standing jest against the pilferers ; to lead a cat and dog life, to quarrel night and day ; to turn cat in the pan, to ' rat,' to reverse one's position through self-interest, to play the turncoat (the derivation is absolutely unknown : the one gener- ally received that cat is a corrup- tion of cate or cake, is historically untenable) (1559) ; to feel as though a cat had kittened in one's mouth, to have a mouth, after drunkenness. Many other phrases and proverbial sayings will occur to mind : A cat may look at a king, a retort on impertinent or ill - placed interference, there are certain things which an inferior may do in presence of a superior ; care kitted the cat, the strongest will ulti- mately break down, even though one had, like the proverbial cat, nine lives ; enough to make a cat speak (or laugh), of something very extraordin- ary or facetious (frequently of very good drink) ; to fight like Kilkenny cats, to engage in a mutually destruc- tive struggle ; to bell the cat : see Bell ; to grin like a Cheshire cat. Also pro- verbial sayings, Wisdom is great if the cat never touched milk ; The cat winks when her eye is out ; The cat likes (or will eat) fish, but she will not wet her feet to catch them ; In the dark (or when the candle is out) all cats are grey ; Cats are not to be caught with- out mittens ; The cat will after kind ; Evil will abide as long as a cat is tied to a pudding ; As like as a cat and a cart wheel ; Not room enough to swing a cat ; A cat and mouse game. Catabaptist A denier of the ortho- dox doctrine of baptism : 16th and 17th cent. [Coined by Gregory Naz- ianzen.] Catamarin. A vixenish old woman a cross-grained person of either sex (1833). Catamount (Catamountain, or Cat o' Mountain). A shrew. [Cf. Cata- marin and Beaumont and Fletcher's 91 Cat and Mouse. Cat-o > -nine-ta&8. use of the word for a wild man from the mountains, a transferred sense of catamount, a leopard or panther.] Cat and Mouse. A house. Catastrophe. The tail or latter end : cf. the Falstaffian I'll tickle your catastrophe. Catawampous (Catawamptiously). With aridity, fiercely, eagerly, or violently destructive ( 1843). As subs, pi., vermin, especially those that sting and bite. Catch. A man or woman matri- monially desirable ; formerly a prize or booty ( 1593). In combination anything that catches : e.g. catch-all, catch-bit, catch-cloak, catch-coin, catch-credit, catch - fish, catch - fool, catch - penny (guinea, shilling, etc.) and so forth. To catch (or cut) a crab. (1) To turn the blade of the oar, or feather, under water at the end of the stroke, and thus be unable to recover ; (2) to lose control of the oar at the middle of the stroke by digging too deeply ; or (3) to miss the water altogether, also to capture a cancer, and (American) to catch a lobster ; to catch a tartar, to unexpectedly meet with one's superior, to fall into one's own trap, having a design upon another, to be caught oneself : also to catch on a snag (q.v.) (1682); catch that catch may (catch as catch can, etc.), to help oneself, each as he can ; catch me I (or catch me at it !), an emphatic denial (1780) ; to catch it, to get a thrashing or scolding (1835); to catch on, to understand, grasp, apprehend, quickly seize an opportunity ; to catch the eye, to arrest attention ; to catch fire, to be- come inflamed with passion, inspired with zeal, etc. ; to catch on a snag, to catch a tartar (q.v.), meet with one's superior ; to catch on the hop, to catch or have on the hip, as Gratiano catches Shylock : see Hop ; to catch the wind of the world, to quickly understand the meaning of what is said. See Twig. Catch-'em-alive (or alivo). 1. A fly-paper. 2. A tooth comb. Catch-fart A footman, page-boy. Catch - pole. A warrant - officer, bum-bailiff : formerly in respectable use, but employed contemptuously from the sixteenth century (1377). Catchy. Vulgarly or cheaply at- tractive, of a quality to take the eye or ear, easily caught and remembered (as a tune) (1831). Caterpillar. A soldier: see Mud- crusher. Caterwaul. To make a noise like cats at rutting time, woo, make love (1899). Catever. A queer or singular affair, anything poor or bad. [Lingua Franca, and Ital., cattivo, bad.] Catfish death. Suicide by drown- ing. Catgut - scraper. A fiddler : also scraper or teaser of the catgut, rosin- tin-- how (1633). Cat - harping fashion. Drinking cross ways, and not as usual over the left thumb (Qrose). Cat - head. In pi., the paps : see Dairy. Cathedral (Winchester). A high hat : see Golgotha ; as adj., old- fashioned, antique (1690). [Because only worn when going to the Cathe- dral.] Catharine Puritan. A member of St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge. [A pun on Catharine and Kadoipuv, to purify.] Also Doves (q.v.) Catherine Hayes. A liquor con- sisting of claret, sugar, and nutmeg (1856). [The derivation may presum- ably be traced to the immense popu- larity of the Irish singer at the an- tipodes.] Cat's. St. Catharine's Hall : whence Cat's men, members of St. Catharine's Hall. Catherine Wheel. See Cartwheel Cat - lap. Thin potations of any sort, especially tea (1785). Cat-market. A number of people all talking at once : e.g. You make a row like a cat- market, a general cater- wauling. Cat - match. When a rook or cully is engaged amongst bad bowlers (Grose). Catoller (or Catolla). A noisy, prating fellow : a foolish betting man (Egan). Cat - o' - nine - tails (or cat). A nine-lashed scourge still occasionally used on criminals, but until 1881 the authorised means of punishment in the British army and navy. In prison par- lance the cat-o' -nine- tails is Number one, or the Nine- tailed bruiser (q.v.), the birch being Number two (q.v.) (1665). 92 Cat-party. Caz. Cat-party (Bitch - party). A gathering of women. Cats. Atlantic Seconds : for tele- graphic purposes. Cats and Dogs. To rain cats and dogs, and pitchforks and shovels, to rain heavily (1738). Cat's-foot. To live under the cafs foot, to be under petticoat gov- ernment, hen - pecked : cf. Apron- string. Cat's - head (Winchester). The end of a shoulder of mutton. Catskin - earls. The three senior earls in the House of Lords, viz. the Earls of Shrewsbury, Derby, and Huntingdon, the only three earldoms before the seventeenth century now existing, save those that (like Arundel, Rutland, etc.), are merged hi higher titles, and the anomalous earldom of Devon (1553), resuscitated in 1831. Cat's-meat. The lungs. Cat's - paw (or Cat's - foot). A dupe, tool. [A reference to the fable (Bertrand et Baton) of a monkey using the paw of a cat, dog, or fox, to pull roasted chestnuts off the fire, current in the sixteenth century, but varying considerably in details. ] ( 1 657 ). Cat-sticks. Thin legs (1785), Cat's-water. Gin. Cattie. An imperfect or smutty look on a printed sheet, caused by an oily or unclean roller. Cattle. A term of contempt : applied to human beings : e.g. queer cattle, kittle-cattle (1577). Cattle is often used of horses. Cattle-bug. See Bug. Caudge-pawed. Left-handed (Grose). Caught. Caught on the fly, caught hi the act, on the hop, or hip. Cauliflower. 1. A clerical wig supposed to resemble a cauliflower ; modish in the time of Queen Anne. 2. The foaming head of a tankard of beer. In Fr., linge or faux-col. 3. In pi. the Forty-seventh Regiment of Foot : from its white facings. Caulk. 1. Sleep ; as verb, to sleep : also subs., caulking (1836). 2. To cease ; shut up ; i.e. stop one's talk, or leave off talking. Caulker. 1. A dram, stiff glass of grog : generally a finishing bumper. When this happens to be sherry and follows the drinking of red wines, it is called a whitewash (q.v.) (1808). 2. A lie, anything surprising or in- credible : see Whopper. Caution. Anything out of the common, wonderful, staggering, to be avoided, that causes surprise, wonder, fear. At Oxford, in 1865, a guy or cure (1835). Whence cautionary, that which is a caution. Cavaulting - school. A house of ill-fame. Cave (or Cave in). To give way when opposition can no longer be maintained, break up, turn up. English synonyms : to knuckle under, knock under, give in, sing small, turn it up, chuck it up, jack up, climb down (q.v.), throw up the sponge, chuck it, go down, go out, cut it, cut the rope (pugilistic), etc. ( 1 877). Cave ! (Eton). Beware ! a byword among boys out of bounds when a master is in sight. Caviare. Obnoxious matter blacked out by the Russian press censor. Every foreign periodical entering Russia is examined for ob- jectionable references or irreligious matter, the removal whereof is accom- plished in two ways. If the items or articles are bulky, they are torn or cut out bodily. If they are brief, they are blacked out by means of a rect- angular stamp about as wide as an ordinary newspaper column, and cross-hatched in such a way that, when hiked and dabbed upon the paper, it makes a close network of white lines and black diamonds. The peculiar mottled or grained look of a page thus treated has suggested the attributive caviare : a memory of the look of the black salted caviare spread upon a slice of bread and butter. As verb, to black out. Cavort. To prance, frisk, run or ride in a heedless or purposeless manner. [Lingua Franca, cavolta, prancing on horseback.] (1848). Cawbawn. See Cobbon. Caw - handed (or Caw - pawed). Awkward, not dexterous, ready or nimble (Grose). Caxton. A wig. [A corruption of caxon.] C a y u s e. A nickname given by Mormon girls to young Latter Day Saints : the Yahoos of the Gentiles. [The cayuse is properly the common Indian pony.] Caz. Cheese: seeCassan. (1812). 93 Cedar. Cedar (Eton). 1. A pair -oared boat, inrigged, without canvas, and very crank. [From the material] 2. A pencil. Celestial- poultry. Angela. Celestial. 1. In pi., The Ninety- seventh Regiment of Foot. 2. A turn - up or pug nose : see Conk. 3. A Chinaman. [The Chinese Empire is spoken of as the Celestial Empire.] Cellier. An out-and-out, unmiti- gated lie : an echo of the Meal-tub plot (1682). Cf. Burke, Boycott, Bishop, and Salisbury. Cellar-flap. A step or dance performed within the compass of (say) a cellar-flap : the Whitechapel artist achieves as many changes of step as possible without shifting his ground : his action being restricted to the feet and legs : also to cut capers on a trencher : to double-shuffle. Cent. See Worth. Cent-per-cent. A usurer (Grose). Centurion. A batsman scoring a hundred runs. [From Centurion, the commander of a ' century,' in the Roman Army.] Century. A hundred pounds ; or at cricket, etc., a score of a hundred. [Originally a division of the Roman Army numbering 100 men. In Eng- lish it was and is in common use to signify a group of a hundred.] Cert. A certainty : also a dead (or moral) certainty, a dead 'un, and a moral (1859). Certainty. An infant of the female aex : see Uncertainties. Chafe. To thrash soundly, warm (1093). C h a ff . 1. Ironical or sarcastic banter, fooling, humbug, ridicule. As verb, to banter, jest, gammon, or quiz (1821). Chaffy, full of banter. 2. (Christ's Hospital). A small article or plaything, e.g. a pocket chaff ; as adj. (Christ's Hospital), pleasant, glad : sometimes chaffy. As intj. (Christ's Hospital), an exclamation signifying joy or pleasure. Also phrases and proverbs : neither corn nor chaff, nondescript, neither one thing nor another (1835) ; To sett corn and eat chaff, to deny oneself, play the miser (1579) ; A grain of wheat in a bushel of chaff, poverty of result, much cry and little wool. Chaff-cutter. A back-biter, slanderer. Chaffer. 1. A quizzer, banterer (q.v.). 2. The mouth, the tongue ( 1 v_' 1 ) ; to moisten one's chaffer, to drink : see Lush. Chaffing-crib. The place where a man receives his intimates ; a den, snuggery, diggings (1821). Chained (or Chain) Lightning. Whisky of the vilest description : warranted to kill at forty rods : also forty-rod lightning. Chain - gang. Jewellers ; watch- chain makers: Fr., boguiste and chain- iste. Chair. To put in the. chair, to commit to prison : of drivers neglect- ing to pay hire for their cabs. Chairmarking. Inserting the date in a cab-driver's licence in words in- stead of figures : or, endorsing it in an unusually bold, heavy hand : a hint to possible employers that the holder is undesirable. In other trades it is understood that an unexceptionable character, with the adjectives care- fully underlined, is to be read as imply- ing just the opposite of what' it appears to say. Ch'aldese. To trick, cheat, take in (1G84). Chalk. 1. A score, reckoning ; whence, by chalks, many chalks, long chalks, etc., i.e. degrees or marks ; also credit, tick (1529). 2. A scratch or scar (1846). As verb, (1) To score up, tick off. (2) To make one stand treat, or pay his footing ; an old hand succeeds in chalking the shoes of a green hand, the latter has to stand drinks all round. (3) To strike : cf. chalkers, sense 1 (1822). Phrases: To chalk up (or chalk it up), to credit, take credit, put to one's account ( 1 597) ; to beat by long (or many) chalks, to beat thoroughly, show appreciable superiority (1857) ; to icalk (or stump one's chalks), to move or run away, be off ; to be able to walk a chalk, to be sober (the ordeal on board ship of trying men suspected of drunkenness is to make them walk along a line chalked on the deck, without deviating to right or left) ; making chalks, a term connected with the punishment of boys on board ship, and in the Royal Naval School : two chalk lines are drawn wide apart on the deck or floor, and a boy to be punished places a foot on each of these lines, and stoops, thereby presenting a con- 04 Ckalker. Chappie. venient section of his person to the boatswain or master ; to chalk the lamp-post, to bribe : see grease the palm (1857). Other expressions connected with chalk are, to know chalk from cheese ; to chalk out, etc. Chalker. 1. In pi., Men of wit in Ireland, who in the night amuse themselves with cutting inoffensive passengers across the face with a knife. They are somewhat like those facetious gentlemen, some time ago known in England by the title of sweaters and mohocks (Grose). 2. A milkman. Chalk - farm. The arm. English synonyms: bender, hoop-stick, fin, daddle. Chalk - head. One with a good head for figures : spec, a waiter (1856). Cham (or Chammy). Champagne, (q.v.), boy. Chamber of Horrors. 1. The Peeresses' Gallery in the House of Lords : cf. Cage, sense 4. 2. In pi., sausages. Chance. To have an eye to the main chance, to keep in view that which will advantage (1609). To chance the ducks, to risk what one may, take every chance : also, to chance the arm. Chance r. A liar; also an in- competent workman : i.e. one who chances what he cannot do. Changery. In chancery, in pugil- ism, the head under the left arm of an opponent so that he can pound away at it with his right ; also fig., in a parlous case, an awkward fix : FT., chancetterie and coup de chan- cetterie, almost literal translations (1819). Chaney-eyed. One-eyed : cf. squinny-eyed. Change. To give change, to pay out, give one his deserts ; whence, to take one's change out of, to get even with, give tit for tat : see infra ; to have all one's change about one, to be clever, quick-witted, compos mentis, with twelve pence to the shilling about one ; to put the change on, to deceive mislead (1667); to ring the changes, to change better for worse ; also to pass counterfeit money, to pitch the snide (q.v.) : see Ring (1661) ; to take the change out of [a person or thing], to be revenged, take an equivalent, get quid pro quo : e.g. Take your change out of that ! with a blow or other rejoinder : cf. Put that in your pipe and smoke it ! (1829); quick change artiste, a per- former, male or female, who sings one song in one costume, retires for a few seconds and returns to sing another in another guise, and so on ; to change one's note (or tune), to pass from laughter to tears, from arrogance to humility, to alter one's mode of speech, behaviour, etc. : see Breath. (1578). Change-bags (Eton). Grey flannel trousers for cricket, and knicker- bockers for football. Chant (or Chaunt). 1. A song; to throw off a rum chaunt, to sing a good song (1882). 2. A cipher, initials, or mark of any kind, on a piece of plate, linen, or other article ; anything so marked is said to be chanted ; also an advertisement in a newspaper or handbill, etc. (1812). As verb, (1) to talk, sing praise, cry, crack up: FT., pousser la goualante: street patterers and vendors chant their songs and wares, oftentimes to an extent not warranted by their qual- ity. (2) To sell a horse by fraudulent representation: Fr., enrosser (1816). Hence chanter (generally horse-clianter, (1) a fraudulent horse-dealer ; and (2) a street patterer : commonly spelt chaunter (q-v-) ; chanting, selling unsound or vicious horses by a trick. Chantey (or Chanty). A song sung by sailors at their work. The music is to a certain extent tradi- tional, the words which are com- monly unfit for ears polite are traditional likewise. The words and music are divided into two parts the chanty proper, which is delivered by a single voice, with or without a fiddle obligato, and the refrain and chorus, which are sung with much straining and tugging, and with peculiar breaks and strange and melancholy stresses, by a number of men engaged in the actual performance of some piece of bodily labour. Chantie. A chamber-pot : see It. Chapel (or Chapel of ease). A water-closet : see Mrs. Jones. Chapel of little ease. The police cells : see Little ease. Chapped. Parched, dry, thirsty (1673). Chappie (or Chappy). The latest variety ( 1890) of a man about town, a dandy : a term of intimacy. 9o Character. Chaunter. Character. A man or woman exhibiting some prominent (and usually contemptible) trait, an eccen- tric, a case (q.v.) : generally with low, queer, comic, etc. (1773). Charactered. Burnt in the hand, lettered (q.v.) (1785). Charing-Cross. A hone ; see Prad. Chariot. An omnibus : in the sixteenth century a vehicle of any kind, and in the eighteenth a light four-wheeled carriage. Chariot- buzzing. Picking pockets in an omnibus. Charity. Cold as charity, lacking in feeling, perfunctory ; charity begins at home, ties of family, friendship, etc., come first. Charley (or Charlie). 1. A night-watchman. A popular name, prior to the introduction by Sir R. Peel, in 1829, of the present police force ; since fallen into desuetude. The Charlies were generally old men whose chief duty was crying the houron their rounds. Boxing a Charley was a favourite amusement with young bucks and bloods : when they found a night-watchman asleep in his box, they would overturn it, leaving the occupant to escape as best he might. Charles I. reorganised the watch system of the metropolis in 1640. 2. A small pointed beard, fashionable in the time of Charles I. : cf. Imperial, Goatee. 3. A fox. 4. A watch. 5. (tailors') The nap on glossy-surfaced cloth, also a round-shouldered figure. Charley Bates' farm (or garden). See Bates' farm. Charley - Lancaster. A hand- kerchief. Charley- pitcher. A sharper working the thimble-rig, three-card trick, prick the garter, etc. Charley-Prescot A waistcoat Charley-wag. To play the Charley-wag, to absent oneself from school without leave, play truant ; figuratively to disappear : Fr., tailler (or caler) Fecole. Charlies. 1. The paps : see Dairy. 2. (Winchester : obsolete). Thick gloves made of twine. [Intro- duced by a Mr. Charles Griffith.] Charm. 1. A picklock (1785). 2. In pi., the paps: Fr., lea appas: once in literary use, but now impos- sible except as slang. 3. In pi., generic for money : see Rhino. Charter. To charter the bar (or grocery). To buy all the liquor in stock and stand drinks round as long as it lasts : this freak was not infre- quent in the West In Australia a similar expression is to shout oneself hoarse (q.v.). Chasing. Exceeding a given average standard of production. Chasse. To dismiss: Fr., chaster (1847). Chat 1. A house. 2. The truth, real state of a case, proper words to use, correct card (1819). 3. Gabble, chatter, impudence ; e.g. None of your chat As verb, to hang : aeeChates. C hates. 1. The gallows: also Chattes and Chats (1567): see Nubbing-cheat. 2. In pi., lice. Eng- lish synonyms : active citizens, crabs, crumbs, friends in need, back friends, grey backs, black cattle, Scots Greys, gentleman's companions, creepers, gold - backed 'uns, German ducks, dicky-birds, familiars, saddle-backs, Yorkshire Greys. Chat-hole. A hole in a wall, made to carry on conversation (prison). Chats. 1. See Chates. 2. Seals, 3. London, Chatham, and Dover Rail- way Stock. Chatterbox. An incessant talker ; contemptuously of adults and play- fully of children. Also chatter-basket, chatter-bones, chatter-cart, chatter- bladder, chatter-bag, chatter-pie, etc. Chatter - broth (or water), tea, scandal broth (q.v.). Chitter chatter (or Chatter-chitter), small talk, gossip. Chatter-house, a resort for women (1611). Chatterer. A blow upon the mouth, or a blow that tells (1827). Chatterers. The teeth : see Grinders. Ch alter y. Cotton or linen goods (1821). Chatty. A filthy man : see Chat As adj., filthy, lousy. Chatty-feeder. A spoon. Chaunt See Chant To chaunt the play, to explain the tricks and manoeuvres of thieves. Chaunter. 1. A street ballad singer, reciter of dying speeches, etc. Rarely heard now except in the poor- est neighbourhoods. The practice is peculiar. One man gets as far as he can, and when his voice cracks a com- Chaunter -cove. Cheer. panion takes things up. 2. See Chanter, sense 1. Chaunter-cove. A reporter. Chaunter-cull. A writer of bal- lads and street literature for the use of chaunters (q.v.). They haunted cer- tain well - known public houses in London and Birmingham, and were open to write ballads to order on any subject, the rate of remuneration varying from half-a-crown to seven- and-sixpence. The chaunter having practically disappeared, his poet has gone with him (1781). Chaunter upon the Leer. An advertiser. Chauvering - donna (or - moll). A prostitute : see Tart. Chaw. 1. A countryman, yokel, bumpkin. In common use at publio schools (1856). 2. A mouthful, gob-, bet, what can be crammed in the mouth at once, e.g. a quid of tobacco, a dram of spirits, etc. : as verb, to eat, chew noisily, and roughly bite : once literary, now specifically to chew tobacco (1749). 3. A trick, device, sell ; also to deceive. Phrases : To chaw over, to create ridicule by repeat- ing one's words ; to chaw up, to get the better of, demolish, do for, smash or finish ; chawed up, utterly done for (1843) ; to chaw up one's words, to retract an assertion, to eat one's words. Chawbacon. A countryman, a bumpkin (q.v.). Other nicknames are bacon-slicer, clod-hopper, barn-door savage, clod-pole, cart-horse, Johnny, cabbage-gelder, turnip-sucker, joskin, jolterhead, yokel, clod - crusher, etc. (1811). Cheap. On the cheap, at a low rate [of money], economically, keeping up a showy appearance on small means ; cheap and nasty, of articles pleasing to the eye, but shoddy in fact : cf. Cheap and nasty, like Short's in the Strand, a proverb applied to the deceased founder of cheap dinners, now a well- known wine-bar ; to feel cheap, to have a mouth on, suffering from a night's debauch ; dirt cheap or dog chaep, in- expensive, as cheap as may be : dog cheap is the earliest form in which this colloquialism appears in English literature (1577), dirt cheap not being found earlier than 1837. Cheapside. He came home by way of Cheapside, i.e. he gave little or nothing for it, he got it cheap. Cheat. Generic for a thing, spec, the gallows ; also the Nubbing, Top- ping, or Treyning-cheat. The word is variously spelt chet, chete, cheate, cheit, chate, cheat. The following com- binations illustrate its use : Bdly- chete, an apron ; Ueting-chete, a sheep or calf ; cackling-chete, a fowl ; crashing- cheats, the teeth ; grunting-chete, a pig ; hearing -chetes, the ears ; low 1 ing -chete, a cow ; lullaby - chete, an infant ; mofling - chete, a napkin ; nubbing- cheat, the gallows ; prattling -chete, the tongue ; quacking -chete, a duck : smell- ing-chete, the nose ; topping-cheat, the gallows ; treyning-cheat, the gallows ; trundling - cheat, a cart or coach all of which see (1567). Cheats. Sham cuffs or wristbands, half sleeves : cf. Dicky and Sham (1688). Checks. Generic for money, cash [A poker term]. To pass (or hand) in one's checks, to die : see Hop the twig. Cheek. 1. Insolence, jaw ; e.g. None of your cheek, None of your jaw. Equivalents are lip, chat, imperance, mouth, chin, chirrup, and nine shillings (nonchalance) (1840). 2. Audacity, confidence, impudence, brass, face. Formerly brow was used in the same sense (1642). Also as verb in both senses. To one's own cheek, to one's own share, all to oneself (1841) ; to cheek up, to answer saucily. Cheek - ache. To have the cheek- ache, to blush, to be abashed. Cheekiness. Impudence, effront- ery, cool audacity (1847). Cheekish (or Cheeky). Audacious, impudent, saucy. Cheeks. 1. The posteriors. 2. An accomplice (1857). Cheeks and Ears. A kind of head-dress (1600). Cheeks the Marine. Mr. Nobody : popularised by Captain Marryat. Also a sarcastic rejoinder to a foolish or incredible story, Tell that to Cheeks the marine (1833). Cheer. To change cheer, to exhibit emotion, change countenance ; to make a cheer, to assume a look of anger, fear, shame, etc. ; what cheer ? how are you ? with good cheer, readily, gladly ; to be of good cJieer, to be hi good fettle, stout of heart, courageous ; the fewer the better cheer, the fewer there are, the more there is for each to eat. 97 Chic. Cheese. 1. The cheese, any thing first- rate or highly becoming ; the expres- sion runs up and down the whole gamut of cheese nomenclature, from the Stilton, Double Gloster, to the pure Limburger (1835). 2. An adept, one who takes the shine out of another : at Cambridge an overdressed dandy is a howling cheese. Hard cheese, what is barely endurable, hard lines, bad luck ; tip-cheese, probably Tip-cat (q.v.); cheese it I leave off! have done ! be off ! (1811). To make cheeses (Fr., faire des fromages), a schoolgirl's amusement : turning rapidly round and round, the figure- maker suddenly sinks to the floor, causing the petticoats to inflate some- what in the form of a cheese : also a deep curtsey (1867). See Bread, Chalk, Moon. Cheese-box. A Confederate nick- name for a vessel of the Monitor type (1860-65): cf. Tinclad. Cheese - cutter. 1. A prominent, aquiline nose : see Conk. 2. A large, square peak to a cap : Fr., Zouave abatjour. 3. In pi., bandy-legs : see Drumsticks. Cheese - knife. A sword : also Cheese-toaster. Cheesemongers. The First Life- guards. [Bestowed, it is said, on account of veterans declining to serve when the corps was remodelled in 1788, on the ground that the ranks were no longer composed of gentle- man, but of cheesemongers.] Also The cheeses. Cheeser. An eructation. Cheeses. See Cheesemongers. Cheese - toaster. A sword. Eng- lish synonyms : Toasting-fork, toast- ing iron, sharp, knitting-needle, iron, cheese-knife, tool, poker (1785). Cheesy. Fine, showy: the reverse of dusty (q.v.) (1858). Chemiloon. Chemise and drawers in one, a combination (q.v.). Chepemens. Cheapside Market (1610). Cheque. To have seen the cheque, to know positively, be possessed of exact knowledge concerning a matter. Cherrilet A nipple (1599). Cherry. A young girl : cf. cherry ripe and rosebud. Cherry-breeches. See Cherubims. Cherry - coloured. Either red or black ; in allusion to a cheating trick at cards. [When cards are being dealt, a knowing one offers to bet that he will tell the colour of the turn-up card. Done, says Mr. Green. The sum being named, Mr. Sharp affirms that it will be cherry - colour ; and as cherries are either black or red, he wins (Qrose). Cherry -coloured cat, one either black or white in colour (1785). Cherry- merry. 1. Convivial, slightly inebriated: see Screwed (1602). 2. A present of money. Cherry-merry-bamboo, a beating. Cherry-pickers. See Cherubims. Cherry-pie. A girl. Cherry-ripe. 1. A woman : also cherry-pipe. 2. A Redbreast (q.v.), Bow Street runner. A scarlet waist- coat formed part of the uniform. 3. A footman in red plush. 4. A pipe. Cherubims (vulgo, Cherry-bums). 1. The Eleventh Hussars. [From the crimson overalls.] Also Cherry- breeches and Cherry - pickers. 2. Peevish children : an allusion to the Te Deum, To Thee cherubin and seraphin continually do cry. 3. Chorister boys. To be in the cherubims, to be in good humour, in the clouds, unsubstantial, fanciful (1542). Cheshire - cat To grin lite a Cheshire cat [chewing gravel, eating cheese], to laugh broadly, all over one's face (1782). Chest. To chuck out one's chest, to pull oneself together, stand firm, keep a stiff upper lip. Chestnut. A stale joke or story, an old ' Joe,' something frequently said or done before. Chete. See Cheat Chew. A small portion of tobacco, a quid. To chew oneself, to get angry ; to chew the cud, to chew tobacco ; also to think, to turn over in one's mind to chew the rag (or fat), to grumble. Chewallop ! Onomatopoeia : re- presenting, it is thought, the sound of an object falling heavily to the ground or into water: see Cachunk (1835). Chewre. To steal. Chic. Finish, elegance, spirit, dash style any quality which marks a per- son or thing as superior. [Originally a French slang term of uncertain origin, Littre being inclined to trace it to chic- ane, tact or skill. The French chic originally signified subtlety, cunning, skill ; and, among English painters, to chic up a picture, or to do a thing from 98 Chickabiddy. Chippy. chic, to work without models and out of one's own head] (1856). As adj., stylish, elegant, up to Dick. Chickabiddy. A young girl : cf. Chick-woman (Much Ado, i. iii.). Chickaleary-cove (or bloke). An artful member, a downy cove (q.v.). Chicken. A pint pot : cf. hens and chickens, and cat and kittens (1851). No chicken, elderly (1720); to count one's chickens before they are hatched, to reckon beforehand upon a successful issue (the Latins said, Don't sing your song of triumph before you have won the victory ante victoriamcanere triumphum) (1579). Chicken - butcher. A poulterer ; also (sporting), any one shooting im- mature game (1811). Chicken-fixings. Properly a hash, stew, or fricassee of chicken, but the term is now applied to any fare out of the common ; also to show of any kind : Fr., gueulardise : cf. common doings. Chicken-flesh. Goose-flesh (q.v.). Chicken-pecked. Governed by a child : cf. hen-pecked. Chicken-thief. A petty thief. Chi-ike (or Chy-ack). A street salute, a word of praise (1869). Also as verb, to salute or hail, and (tailors') to chaff unmercifully. To give chi-ike with the chill off, to scold. Child. See This child. Also in Eroverbs and proverbial phrases, The urnt child dreads the fire (1400). The child unborn (a type of inno- cence. Children, drunkards, and fools cannot lie. Once an old man, twice a child. Many kiss the child for the nurse's sake. Child-crowing. Croup. Child-geared. Childish, silly. Child - queller. A severe discip- linarian. Children' s-shoes. See Make. Chill (or take the chill off). To warm. With the chill off, an ex- pression of (1) dissent, (2) depreciation, or (3) disbelief : cf. over the left (q.v.). Chime. To praise, extol, puff, canoodle (q.v.), especially with a view to personal advantage. To chime in, to agree, endorse, spec, to break into an argument with a note of approval : also to chime in with (1838). Chimney. A great smoker : Fr., locomotive. Chimney - chops. A negro : see Snowball. Chimney-pot. The silk hat worn by men, and sometimes by women on horseback : beaver, bell- topper, etc., but see Golgotha : Fr., cheminee (1861). Chimney - sweep. 1. A black draught : cf. custom - house officer. 2. A clergyman : vice versa sweep = clergyman. Chin. A child. As verb, to talk, chatter : spec, to talk loudly, impu- dently, or abusively. To hold up by the chin, to support, encourage, save from disaster (1562) ; of the first chin, with sprouting beard ; up to the chin, deeply engaged, involved, over head and ears. Chinas. Eastern Extension Aus- tralasian and China Telegraph Shares. Chin-chopper. A drive under the chin : see Dig. Chinese - compliment. Seeming deference to others, one's mind being already made up. Chink. Generic for money, ready cash : also chinkers, or jink : see Rhino (1557). Chinker. In pi., handcuffs : see Chink. Chin - music. Talk, chatter, ora- tory : also chin-wag : Fr., casser un mot. Chinning, talking, chatting ; chinny, talkative : see Chin. Chin qua soldi. Fivepence : Ital. Chinse (Winchester). A chance. Chip. 1. An item of news : spec, a local (q.v.). 2. A reporter who col- lects chips. 3. A sovereign : see Rhino. As verb, to understand : see Twig. To chip in, to contribute one's share in money or kind, join in an undertaking, interpose smartly ; not to care a chip, to care naught, not even the value of a counter : see Cent, Fig, Rap, Straw, etc. ; brother chip, brother smut, one of the same trade or profession ; chip of the same (or the same old) block, a person reproduc- ing certain familiar or striking char- acteristics ; chip in porridge, broth, a thing of no moment, nonentity (1686). Also Chip, & man or thing : a bloke, cove, cheat (1628). Chipper. Fit, active, ready to chip in. Chippy, unwell, seedy : usually of over-indulgence hi eating, drinking, etc. 99 Chips. Cftop. Chips. 1. A carpenter (1785). 2. Counters used in games of chance : cf. checks. 3. Cards. 4. Money. 5. ( Wellington College). A kind of grill : from its hardness. To hand in one't chips, to die. Chirp. To talk : spec, to inform (thieves). Chirper. 1. A singer. 2. A glass or tankard ( 1 802). 3. The mouth : see Potato trap. 4. A stage door black- mailer: if money be refused them, they go into the auditorium and hoot, hiss, and groan at the performer. Chirping-merry. Exhilarated with liquor (Grose). Chirpy. Cheerful, likely (1837). Chirrup, verb (music-hall). To cheer or applaud a public singer, speaker, etc., for a consideration : FT., daguer. Hence chirruper and chirrup- ing. Chisel (Chizzle, or Chuzzle). To cheat, defraud, swindle ( Jamieson) (1808). Hence, chiselling, cheating. To go full chisel, to go full speed, or full drive, show intense earnestness, use great force, go off brilliantly (1835). Chit 1. A letter (1785), corrup- tion of a Hindoo word. 2. An order for drinks : in clubs, etc. 3. A girl : under age and undersized. 4. Food eaten in the hand : aa a thumber (q.v.), a workman's lunch, and a child's piece (q.v.). Chit-chat Chatter, familiar con- versation : cf. tittle - tattle, bibble- babble, etc. [Johnson: only used in ludicrous conversation.] Chitterlings. Shirt frills : cf. Ger., Gekrose. Chitty. An assistant tailor's cutter or trimmer. Chitty - faced. Thin, weazened, baby-faced (1601). Chiv. See Chive. Chive (or Chiv). A knife. Eng- lish synonyms : Arkansas toothpick (a bowie knife), cabbage - bleeder, whittle, gully, jockteleg (a clasp knife : a corruption of Jacques de Liege) snickersnee (nautical), cuttle, cuttle- bung, pig-sticker (1674). As verb, to stab, to knife (q.v.) Chive - fencer. A street hawker of cutlery. C h i v e y (or Chivvy). A shout, greeting, cheer : cf. Chi-ike. As verb, to guy (q.v.), chase round, hunt about, throw or pitch about (1831). Chiving-lay. Cutting the braces of coaches behind, whereupon, the coach- man quitting the box, an accomplice broke and robbed the boot Also cutting through the back of the coach to snatch the large and costly wigs then fashionable (Grose). Chivy (or Chevy). The face. As verb, to scold, bullyrag. Choakee. See Chokey. Chock. To strike a person under the chin. Checker. A man : generally old checker, but not necessarily in con- tempt Chocolate. To give chocolate with- out sugar, to reprove (Grose). Choke- doe. Cheese ; especially hard cheese made in Devonshire. Choke. To choke off, to get rid of, put a stop to, run contrary to. English synonyms, to shut off, shunt, fub off, rump, cold shoulder (1818). Choker. 1. A cravat ; spec, the large neckerchief once worn high round the neck ; also white choker (q.v.), the neckgear peculiar to evening dress. English synonyms : neckinger, tie (now technical, but formerly slang), crum- pler (1845). 2. An all-round collar: cf. all-rounder. 3. A garotter ; see Wind-stopper. 4. Prison, lock up, quod : see Chokey. 5. The hangman s rope, squeezer, halter. White-choker, a parson. Chokey (Choky, Chokee, or Checker). 1. A prison. Queen's (or King's) Chokey, the Queen's (or King's) Bench Prison : obe. 2. A cell : spec, a punishment cell. Chonkey. A species of mince-meat cake (1851). Chop. 1. A blow : once (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries) literary, and still respectable in some senses: e.g. a chopping (i.e. beating) sea, 2. An exchange, barter, and as verb, to barter, buy and sell, change tactics, veer from one side to the other, vacillate : see Chop, verb (1485) ; e.g. to chop logic, to give argument for argument ; to chop stories, to cap one anecdote with another. 3. To change quarters : e.g. the wind chopped round to the north (1554). 4. To eat a chop (1841). Chop and change, ups and downs, vicissitudes, changes of fortune (1759) ; to chop the whiners, to 100 Chop-chop. Cinch. say prayers : FT., manger sa paillasse. See First chop, Second chop. Chop-chop. Immediately, quickly. Chopper. 1. A blow, struck on the face with the back of the hand. Men- doza claims the honour of its inven- tion, but unjustly ; he certainly re- vived, and considerably improved it. It was practised long before our time Brougham occasionally used it ; and Slack, it also appears, struck the chopper in giving the return in many of his battles. 2. A sausage maker. To have a chopper (or button) on, to be miserable, down in the dumps, in a fit of the blues. Chopping. Wanton, forward. Chopping - block. A man who takes an immense amount of punish- ment (q.v.) in fight without the science or the strength to return it. Chops. To lick the chops, to anti- cipate a matter with zest or relish (1655) ; down in the chops (or mouth), Bad, melancholy : see Chopper (1830). Chortle. To chuckle, laugh in one's sleeve, snort. [Introduced by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking Qlass.] Chosen Twelve. See Apostles. Chuck-farthing (Chuck, Chuck- and - toss, or Pitch - and - toss). A game played with money, which is pitched at a line, gathered, shaken in the hands, and tossed up into the air so as to fall heads and tails until the stakes are guessed away : a parish clerk was formerly named chuck-far- thing (1690). Chucking-out. Ejection. Chucks. A boy's signal on a master's approach. Fr., Vesse I Chuff it. Be off ! Take it away ! Chum. 1. A close companion, a bosom friend, intimate. Formerly a chamber-fellow or mate. [Johnson : a term used in the Universities.] (1684). English synonyms: gossip, pal, pard (American), marrow (north- country), cully (theatrical), cummer, ben cull, butty, bo' (nautical), mate or matey, ribstone, bloater. 2. A brother-in-arms. As verb, to occupy a joint lodging, or share expenses, on the closest terms of intimacy with another, to be ' thick as thieves,' or ' thick as hops ' : Fr., etre dans la chemise de quelqu'un, du dernier bien avec quelqu'un (1730). New chum, a new arrival in a colony, greenhorn, tenderfoot (q.v.) (1861). Chummage. Money procured by chumming together ; but various ex- tensions of meaning appear to have been in vogue at different periods. Thus (1) quartering two or more collegians in one room, and allowing the richest to pay his companions a stipulated sum to go out and find quarters elsewhere. (2) Money paid by the richer sort of prisoners in the Fleet and King's Bench to the poorer for their share of a room ... A prisoner who can pay for being alone, chooses two poor chums, who for a stipulated price, called chummage, give up their share of the room (Grose). Chummery. Chumhood ; also quarters occupied by chums. Chummy. 1. A chimney-sweep's climbing boy. [A corruption of chimney through chumley] (1635). 2. A diminutive form of chum (q.v.) 3. A low-crowned felt hat: see Golgotha. As adj., very inti- mate, friendly, sociable : Fr., chouette, chouettard, chouettaud. Chump. 1. A blockhead. 2. A variant of chum : Fr., vieitte branche. 3. The head : spec, in the phrase off one's chump (q.v.) : see Crumpet. Chump of wood, no good : also a block- head ; off one's chump, insane ; to get one's own chump, to earn one's own living. Chunk. 1. A thick piece, lump : of wood, bread, coaL etc. (1691). 2. school-board officer. Church. To take out the works of a watch and substitute another set, so that identification is impossible ( 1859). To talk church : see Talk ; to talk shop, see Shop ; to go to church, to get married. Churchwarden. A clay pipe with a long stem. English synonyms, alderman, steamer, yard of clay. Churl. To put a churl upon a gentleman : see Gentleman. Cider. Att talk and no cider, pur- poseless loquacity, much cry and little wool, much ado about nothing. Cider-and. Cider mixed with some other ingredient : cf. cold without, hot with, etc. (1742). Cig. A cigar : see Weed. Cinch. To get a grip on, corner, put the screw on : also, in the passive sense, to come out on the wrong side in speculations. 101 Cincinnati-olive. CJfcu. Cincinnati- olive. A pig. [A spurious olive oil is manufactured from lard, and Cincinnati is one of the largest centres of the pork - packing industry in America.] Cincinnati oyster, a pig's trotter. Cinder. 1. Any strong liquor, as brandy, whisky, sherry, etc., mixed with a weaker, as soda-water, lemon- ade, water, etc., to fortify it. 2. A running path or track. Cinder - gar bier. A female ser- vant (Grose). English synonyms : mar- chioness, slavey, cinder-grabber, cin- derella, can (Scots), piss-kitchen, Julia. Circle. To give the lie in circle, to lie indirectly, circuitous! y (1610). Circling- boy. A swindler, rook. [Nares : a species of roarer ; one who in some way drew a man into a snare, to cheat or rob him.] Circs. Circumstances. Circumbendibus. A roundabout, spec, a long-winded, story (1681). Circumlocution - office. A centre of red-tape, a roundabout way. A term invented by Charles Dickens and applied at first in ridicule to public offices, where everybody tries to shuffle off his responsibilities upon some one else.] Circumslogdologize. See Stock- dollagize. Circumstance. Not a circum- stance, etc., not to be compared with, a trifle, of no account unfavourable comparison. To whip [something] into a circumstance, to surpass. Circus- cuss. A circus-rider. Citizen. A wedge for prising open safes : used before the alderman (q.v.) or jemmy (q.v.) are brought into play. Whence citizen's- friend, a smaller wedge than the citizen. The order in which the tools are used is (1) citizen's friend, (2) citizen, (3) the alderman (i.e. a jemmy), and some- times (4) a Lord mayor. City College. Newgate ; in New York, The Tombs : see Cage. City-stage. The gallows : for- merly in front of Newgate : see Nub- bing cheat. Civil Reception. See House of Civil Reception. Civil-rig. A trick to obtain alms by a profuse show of civility and obsequiousness. Civvies. Civilian clothes, as opposed to regimentals. Clack. 1. Idle or loquacious talk, gossip, prattle (1440). As verb, to gabble. 2. The tongue. A more ancient form was clap, dating back to 1225. English synonyms: glib, red- rag, clapper, bubber, velvet, jibb, quail - pipe. Hence, clack - box, (1) the mouth : see Potato-trap. (2) A chatterbox. Clack-loft A pulpit Claim. To steal : see Prig. To jump a claim, to take forcible posses- sion, to defraud : specifically to seize land which had been taken up and occupied by another settler, or squat- ter (1846). Clam. 1. A blockhead : cf. Shakes- peare (Much Ado, ii. iii.), 'Love may transform me to an oyster ; but I'll take my oath on it, till he hath made an oyster of me, he shall never make me such a fool.' 2. The mouth or lips : also clam-shell : Shut your clam- shell, shut your mouth. The padlock now used on the United States mail- bags is called the clam-shell padlock. See Potato-trap. (1825). Clam- butcher. A man who opens clams ; the attendant at an oyster bar is an Oyster butcher. Clink. A pewter tankard : for- merly a silver one (1785). Clinker. 1. A great lie (Grose): see Whopper. 2. Silver plate : whence clink-napper, a thief whose speciality was silver plate. Clap (or Clapper). 1. The tongue ( 1225). 2. To dap eyes on, to get a sight of, spot (q.v.) ; to clap on, to apply oneself with energy, set to, peg away. Clapper - dudgeon. A whining beggar (1567). Clap-of-thunder. A glass of gin : see Flash of lightning (1821). Clap-shoulder. A sheriffs officer, bum-bailiff (1630). Claras. Caledonian Railway De- ferred and Ordinary Stock. Claret Blood : variants are bad- minton, bordeaux, and cochineal-dye : FT., vermeil (or vermois) (1604). To tap one's claret, to draw blood. Hence, claret jug, the nose. Clarian (Cambridge University). A member of Clare Hall, Cambridge : see Greyhound. Class. The highest quality or com- bination of highest qualities among athletes. He's not class enough, i.e. 102 Claw. Clip. not good enough. There's a deal of class about him, i.e. a deal of quality. Claw. A lash of the cat-o'-nine- tails : hence clawed off, severely beaten ; daws for breakfast, a bout of the cat (q.v.). Claw-hammer. A dress coat : also steel-pen coat and swallow-tail. Clay. A clay pipe : cf. Yard of clay. To moisten (soak or wet) one's day, to drink (1718). Clean. 1. Entirely, altogether, e.g. clean gone, clean broke, etc. 2. Expert, smart. To dean out, to exhaust, strip, rack, or ruin : Fr., se faire lessiver. Clean - potato. The right thing : of an action indiscreet or dishonest, it is said that It's not the clean potato. Clean-straw (Winchester College). Clean sheets. [Before 1540 the beds were bundles of straw on a stone floor. At that date Dean Fleshmonger put in oaken floors, and provided proper beds, such as existed in 1871 in Third, and later in the case of the Prefect of Hall's unused beds in Sixth. The term has never been used in reference to mattresses of any kind, straw or other.] Clean- wheat. Ifs the dean wheat, i.e. the best of its kind : see Al. Clear. (1) Thick with liquor. [Ap- parently on the lucus a non lucendo principle.] (1688). Clear as mud, not particularly lucid ; to dear out (or off), to depart (1825) ; (2) to rid of cash, ruin, clean out (1849). Clear - crystal. White spirits, as gin and whisky, but also extended to brandy and rum. Clear-grit. 1. (Canadian). A member of the colonial Liberal party. 2. (American). The right sort, having no lack of spirit, unalloyed, decided. Cleave. To wanton. Clegg. A horse-fly. Clencher. See Clincher. Clergyman. A chimney - sweep : see Chimney-sweep. St. Nicholas' derk (or dergyman), a highwayman (1589). Clerked. Imposed upon, sold (q.v.) (1785). Clerk's blood. Red ink : a com- mon expression of Charles Lamb's. Clever-shins. One who is sly to no purpose. Cleyme. An artificial sore : made by beggars to excite charity. Click. A blow : also a hold in wrestling (1819). As verb, to stand at a shop-door and invite customers in, as salesmen and shoemakers do (Dycke). To dick a nab, to snatch a hat. Clicker (or Klicker). 1. A shop- keeper's tout. [Formerly a shoe- maker's doorsman or barker (q.v.), but in this particular trade the term is nowadays appropriated to a fore- man who cuts out leather and dis- penses materials to workpeople ; a sense not altogether wanting from the very first] (1690). 2. A knock- down blow. 3. One who apportions the booty or ' regulars.' Clift. To steal : see Prig. Climb. To dimb down, to abandon a position : as subs., downward or re- trograde emotion, the act of surrender. Clinching. A prison cell : hence to get (or kiss) the dinch (or dink), to be imprisoned. Clincher (or Clencher). 1. That which decides a matter : spec, a retort which closes an argument, a finisher, settler, corker (1754). 2. An unsurpassed lie, stopper-up : see Whooper. Cling-rig. See Clink-rig. Clink. 1. A prison, lock-up ; spec, applied, it is thought, to a noted gaol in the borough of Southwark ; subse- quently to places like Alsatia, the Mint, etc. privileged from arrests ; and latterly, to a small dismal prison, or a military guard room (1525) : see Cage. 2. Silver plate : also Clinch (1781). 3. Money: cf. Chink (1724). 4. A very indifferent beer made from the gyle of malt and the sweepings of hop bins, and brewed especially for the benefit of agricultural labourers in harvest time : also barn - clink. To kiss the dink, to be imprisoned (1588). Clinker. 1. In pi., fetters (1690). 2. A crafty, designing man (1690). 3. A chain of any kind : fetter or watch chain. 4. A well - delivered blow, a hot-'un. 5. Any thing or person of first - rate and triumphant quality : also clincher, a settler (1733). 6. A lie : see Whooper. Clinkerum. See Clink. Clinking. First-rate, extra good, about the best possible : cf. clipping, thumping, whooping, rattling, etc. Clink-rig (or Cling-rig). Stealing silver tankards (1681). Clip. A smart blow : e.g. a clip 103 Clipe. Clumperton. in the eye. As verb, to move quickly (1833). Clipe. To tell tales, split, to preach (q.v.). Clipper. A triumph in horses, men, or women (1836). Clipping (or Clippingly). Excel- lent, very showy, first-rate. See Al. (1643). Cloak. A watch case. Cloak-twitcher. A cloak thief : Fr., tirelaine (i.e. wool-puller) : see Thief. (1785). Clobber. Primarily old, but now applied to clothes of any kind. As verb (or to clobber up) (1) to patch, revive, or ' translate ' clothes. Old clothes that are intended to remain in this country have to be tutored and transformed. The clobberer, the re- viver, and the translator lay hands upon them. The duty of the clob- berer is to patch, to sew up, and to restore as far as possible the gar- ments to their pristine appearance. (2) To dress smartly, rig oneself out pre- sentably (1879). To do clobber at a fence, to sell stolen clothes : Fr., laver let harnais. Clock. A watch. A red dock, a gold watch ; a while clock, a silver watch : usually red 'un and white 'un. To know who? a o'clock, to be on the alert, in full possession of one's senses, a downey cove : generally knowing (q.v.). Also to know the timeo' day (1835). Clod-crusher. 1. A clumsy boot. 2. A large foot. 3. A country yokel : see Clodhopper. Cloister - roush (Winchester Col- lege : obsolete). There were some singular customs at the commence- ment of Cloister time. Senior part and Cloisters, just before the entrance of the Masters into School, used to engage in a kind of general tournament ; this was called Cloister roush. Clootie. The DeviL Cloots. Hooves (1786). Close. Close as toax, miserly, niggardly, secretive. Close - file. A person secretive or close ; not open, or communica- tive. Cloth. The cloth, generic for clergymen, also the members of any particular profession. Clothes-line. Able to sleep upon a clothes -line, capable of sleeping any- where or in any position : of those able and willing to rest as well upon the roughest shake - down as upon the most comfortable bed. [Cf. Two- penny-rope and Plank-bed.] Also in a transferred sense, a synonym for general capacity and ability. Clothes - pin. That's the sort of clothes-pin I am, that's the sort of man I am : also of women : That's the tort of hair-pin (q.v.). Cloth-market. A bed : FT., haUe, aux drops (1710). Cloud. See Blow a cloud. Cloud-cleaner. An imaginary sail jokingly assumed to be carried by Yankee ships : cf. Angel's footstool Clout. 1. A blow, a kick, whence clouting, a beating, basting, tanning (q.v.) : see Bang, Dig, and Wipe (1783). 2. A pocket-handkerchief (1621). 3. A woman's under-clothes, from the waist downwards : also her complete wardrobe, on or off her person. 4. A woman's ' bandage,' diaper,' or ' sanitary.' As verb, ( 1) to strike : Fr., jeter une mandole (1576) ; (2) to patch, tinker. Clouter. A pickpocket : spec, a handkerchief thief. Also as verb, to prig a wipe (q.v.). Clover. In clover, well-off, com- fortable, like a horse at grass in a clover field. Clow (Winchester College). Pro- nounced do : a box on the ear. Also as verb, to box the ear : it was customary to preface the actiou by an injunction to Hold down. Clowe. A rogue (Grose). Cloy (Cligh, or Cly). To steal: see Prig (1610). As subs., a thief : cf. Clow. Cloying, stealing. Cloyer. A thief who intruded on the profits of young sharpers, by claiming a share (1611). Club. In manoeuvring troops, so to blunder the word of command that the soldiers get into a position from which they cannot extricate them- selves by ordinary tactics. Clump. A blow : spec, a thumper with the hand. As verb, to strike, give a heavy blow t Fr., faire du bi fleck. dumper. 1. A thick, heavy boot for walking : see Clump, verb, and Clumping. 2. One that clumps, a basher. Clumperton. A countryman. 104 Clumping. Cob. Clumping. Walking heavily and noisily : as in hobnails or in clogs. C 1 y. LA pocket, purse, sack, or basket (1714). 2. Money : old cant (1748). As verb, to take, have, re- ceive, pocket, to cop (q.v.) (1567). To dy off, to carry off : spec, in a sur- reptitious manner (1656). To dy the jerk (or gerke), to get a whipping ( 1567). Cly-faker. A pickpocket : see Cly and Fake. Clyster- pipe. An apothecary (1785). Co. 1. A man (Old Cant). 2. Short for Company, County. Coach. 1. A private tutor ; also in a transferred sense one who trains another in mental or physical ac- quirements, e.g. in Sanskrit, Shakes- peare, cricket, or rowing : analogous terms are crammer, feeder, grinder, etc. (1850). Also as verb, to prepare for an examination by private instruc- tion, to train : in general use both by coacher and coachee (1846). Coach- ing, special instruction, training, grinding (q.v.) : Fr., barbe. 2. The people in a coach. To drive a coach and four (or six) through an Act of Parliament, to make the law a dead letter, take the law into one's own hands (1700). Coachee. A coachman : cf. Cabby. See Coach. (1790). Coach - fellow. A companion, mate (1598). Coaching. 1. (Rugby School). A flogging : obsolete. 2. See Coach. 3. (commercial). Putting up to pretended auction, thereby hoping to receive fancy prices by fictitious bidders. Coachman. A fly-fisher's rod. Coach-wheel. A crown-piece, five shillings : also (B. E.)=2s. 6d. : see Cartwheel (1785). To turn coach wheels (see Cartwheels). Coach-whip. 1. A long thin strap. Also, 2. in pi., shreds, tatters. Coal. See Cole. To take in one's coals (or winter coals), to contract venereal disease. Precious coal I an obsolete exclamation (1596) ; to carry (or bear) coals, to do dirty work ; to haul over the coals, to reprimand ; to carry coals to Newcastle, to do the superfluous ; black as a coal, as black as may be (1000) ; to heap (cast, etc.) coals of fire, to produce remorse by returning good for evil (Rom. xli. 20) ; to blow the coals, to fan the passions ; to blow hot coals, to rage ; to stir coals, to excite strife ; to blow at a cold coal, to undertake a hopeless task. Coal - blower. An alchemist, or quack : in contempt. Coal - box. A chorus : obviously ' music-hally ' or ' circussy ' : a cross between rhyming slang and a clown's wheeze (q.v.) (1809). Coal- carrier. A low dependant (1565) ; cf. to carry coals. Coaley. A coal-heaver, or porter. Coaling (or Coally). Among ' pros,' a coally or coaling part is one that is acceptable to the player. Coal- scuttle. A poke bonnet : once modish, later reserved for old- fashioned Quakeresses, and now ob- solete except with Hallelujah Lasses (1838). Coarse-account. To make of coarse account, to slight (1579). Coat. Cloth (q.v.), profession, party : common hi seventeenth cen- tury. See Tread. To get the sun into a horse's coat, to improve its condition by feeding, exercise, etc. ; a trainer's term, to express fitness. Phrases, etc. : To baste (coil, or pay) one's coat, to thrash, tan (1530) ; to be in any one's coat, in any one's place, stand in one's shoes (1569) ; to cut the coat according to the doth, to adapt oneself to circum- stances ; to turn one's coat : see Turn- coat ; to wear the king's coat, to serve as a soldier. To sit on one's own coat- tail, to live or do anything at one's per- sonal expense ; Who'll tread on the tail of my coat ? (attributed to Irishmen at Donnybrook Fair), to purposely assume a position in which some one may intentionally or unintentionally afford a pretext for a quarrel, provoke attack so as to get up a row ; / would not be in some of (heir coats for (any definite or indefinite sum), proverbial : cf. (modern) I would not stand in So-and-so's shoes (1549) ; Near is my coat, but nearer is my shirt (or skin), proverbial (1539). Coax. 1. To dissemble in the shoes the soiled or ragged parts of a pair of stockings (Grose). 2. Orig. to befool, whence to gull by petting, wheedle, flatter. [Johnson : A low word.] As subs. (1) a wheedler : also coaxer ; (2) wheedling. Cob. 1. A punishment cell : see Clinch. 2. In pi., generic for money: spec, a Spanish coin formerly current 105 Cockalorum. in Ireland, worth about 4s. 8d : also the name still given at Gibraltar to a Spanish dollar (1805). 3. (Winchester College). A hard hit at cricket : of modern introduction : cf. Barter. 4. A chief, a leader. 5. A wealthy man : hence a miser. 6. A huge lumpish person. 7. A testicle. As verb, ( 1 ) to hit hard: cf. Cobb ; (2) To detect, catch, etc. (3) To humbug, deceive, gammon (q.v.) : whence, cobbled, caught, spotted (q.v.). Cobb. To spank, smack the pos- teriors with (say) a tailor's sleeve- board, fives- bat, etc. (1830). Cobber. A prodigious falsehood, a thumper, a whopper (q.v.). Cobble - colter. A turkey : Fr., orne de batte, J (suite (1785). Cobblcrs'-knock (or Knock at the Cobbler's Door). A sort of fancy sliding in which the artist raps the ice in triplets with one foot while pro- gressing swiftly on the other (1836). Co b biers' -marbles. A corrupt pronunciation of Cholera morbus, or Asiatic cholera. Cobbler's-thumb. The bull-head, a small fish which in England is called the Miller's thumb. Cobble-text. A prosy person, ignorant preacher. Coblative. Cobbled, patched up. Cobweb-morning. A misty morn- ing. Cobweb - throat. A dry parched throat, hence to have a cobweb in the throat, to feel thirsty. Cocard. An old fool, a simple- ton. Cocardy, folly. Cochineal-dye. Blood : see Claret (1853). Cock. 1. A chief or leader ; spec, in such phrases as Cock of the walk, school, etc. ; orig. a victor (1711). Hence, to cry cock, to acclaim a victor, acknowledge a chief, etc. 2. A familiar address : e.g. Old cock, or Jolly old cock: Fr., mon vieux zig, mon lapin ( 1 639). 3. A horse not intended to win the race for which it is put down, but kept in the lists to deceive the public. 4. A fictitious narrative in verse or prose of murders, fires, etc., produced for sale in the streets. [Famous manufactories of cocks were kept by ' Jemmy ' Catnach and Johnny Pitts, called the Colburn and Bentley of the paper trade : hence anything fictitious or incredible.] 6. Cockney (q.v.). 6. In gambling or playing with ' quads,' a cock is when one (or more) of the nine pieces does not fall flat, but lodges crosswise on another : the player is then given another chance. 7. A night watchman, and fig. a parson. 8. Good cock (or poor cock), a good (or bad) workman. As adj., chief, first and foremost (1676). As verb, to smoke. To cock the eye, to shut or wink one eye, leer, look in- credulous : Fr., cligner desceUlets: cf. Cock-eyed : also to cock the chin : Fr., a'aborgner (literally, to make oneself blind of one eye by closing it) (1751) ; to cock up one's toes, to die ; That cock won't light, that will not do (or, go down) ; of things problematical or doubtful ; knocked a cock, knocked ' all of a heap,' or ' out of time.' Also proverbs and proverbial phrases : Every cock is king on his own midden (1225); The young cock learneth to crow of the old (1509) : also, as the old cock crows so does the chick (1589). Cock-a-doodle-do. A conventional representation of the crow of the cock ; a name for this, and hence, a nursery or humorous name for the cock (also Cock-a-doodle). Also as verb. Cock-a-doodle Broth. Eggs beat up in brandy and a little water (1856). Cock-a-hoop (or Cock -on, or -in) a-hoop. Strutting ; triumphant ; high - spirited ; uppish. To set (the) cock on (the) hoop, cock a hoop, (1) to drink without stint, make good cheer with reckless prodigality ; also (2) as intj., an exclamation of reckless joy or elation, to abandon oneself to reck- less enjoyment, cast off restraint, become reckless, give a loose to all disorder, set all by the ears. Cockalare. A comic or ludicrous representation, a satire lampoon, a disconnected story, discourse, etc. Cockaloft. Affectedly lofty, stuck up. Cockall. One that beats all, the ' perfection.' Cockalorum or Cockylorum. 1. A contemptuous address of any- thing undersized and self-important. 2. A rough - and - tumble game : the players divide into two opposing bands of from twelve to fourteen each in fact, the more the merrier. One side ' goes down,' so as to constitute a long ' hogsback ' the last boy having a couple of pillows between himself and 108 Cock-and-breeches. Cockle. the wall, and each boy clasping his front-rank man, and carefully tucking his own ' cocoa-nut ' under his right arm, so as to prevent fracture of the vertebrae. When the hogsback is thus formed, the other side comes on, leap- frogging on to the backs of those who are down, the best and steadiest jumpers being sent first. Sometimes the passive line is broken quite easily by the ruse of a short high jump, coming with irresistible impulse on a back not expecting weight. Some- times a too ambitious leap-frogger ruins his party by overbalancing and falling off. It is, however, as the last two or three leap-froggers come on that the real excitement more gener- ally begins. There is absolutely no back - space belonging to the other party left to them ; and they are obliged to pile themselves one upon another Pelion on Ossa, as it is called. When the last man is up it is his duty to say, ' High cockalorum jig Jig jig nigh cockalorum jig jig ijg high cockalorum jig jig jig off, off, off,' and then alone is it permissible to fall in one indistinguishable heap to the ground. The repeater of the shibboleth often falls off himself as he is uttering the above incantation thus losing the victory for his side. Cock - and - breeches. A sturdy, under- sized man, or boy. Cock-and-bull-story, subs, (collo- quial). An idle or silly story. [Pre- sumably from some old legend of a cock and a bull, a propos to which it should be noted that the French equivalent is coq-d-l'dne, a cock-and- ass] (1603). Hence, disconnected, misleading talk, incredible story, a canard. Cock - and - hen - club, subs, (com- mon). 1. A free and easy (q.v.), a sing - song, where females are ad- mitted as well as males (1819). 2. A club for both sexes ; e.g. the Lyric. Cock-and- pinch. The old-fashioned beaver of forty years since. Cockapert. Impudent, saucy. As subs., a saucy fellow. Cockatoo - farmer (or Cockatoo). In Victoria and New South Wales a small farmer or selector : in contempt, and used by large holders of agri- cultural squatters with small capital (1865). Cockatrice. 1. A common pro- stitute ; also a mistress or ' keep ' (1600). 2. A baby. Cock-a-wax. 1. A cobbler : see Snob. 2. A familiar address. Cock- bawd. A male brothel keeper (Grose). Cock-brain. A lighthearted, foolish person. Also cock - brained, thoughtless, silly. Cockchafer. The treadmill : see Wheel of life. Cocked. Half - cocked, full-cocked, etc. Various degrees of drunken- ness : see Screwed. Cocked-hat. Knocked into a cocked hat. Limp enough to be doubled up and carried flat under the arm [like the cocked hat of an officer]. Also, fig. stupefied, speechless. Syno- nyms : doubled up ; knocked into the middle of next week ; spifflicated ; beaten to a jelly ; knocked a-cock ; wiped out ; sent all of a heap ; bottled up ; settled ; full of beans, or snuff ; sent, done, or smashed to smithereens. Cocker. A pugilist, quarrel- some, contentious man, wrangler. According to Cocker, according to rule ; properly, arithmetically, or correctly done. [Old Cocker was a famous writing master in Charles II. 's time, and the author of a treatise on arithmetic : probably popularised by Murphy's The Apprentice (1756), in which the strong point of the old merchant Wingate is his extreme reverence for Cocker and his arith- metic.] In America, according to Gunter (q.v.). Cockerel. A pert young man. Cockerer. A wanton. Cock-eye. A squinting eye. Cock- eyed, squinting, boss-eyed (q.v.). Cock-fighting. That beats cock- fighting, phr. (common). A general expression of approval up to the mark ; Al ; That surpasses everything else. [From the esteem in which the sport was held.] (1659). To live like fighting-cocks, to have the best food and plenty of it, be supplied with the best. Cock-horse. Triumphant; in full swing ; cock-a-hoop. Cock-laird (Scots). A small farmer or proprietor cultivating his own land, a yeoman. Cockle. Whimsical. Hence, cockle-brained (headed, etc.), flighty, fanciful, whimmy. 107 Cockles of the Heart. Cock-up. Cockles of the Heart. A jocose vulgarism encountered in a variety of combinations ; e.g. that will rejoice, or tickle, or warm, the cockles of your heart, etc. [It is suggested (N. and Q. , 7 8., iv. 26) that a hint as to its origin may be found in Lower, an eminent anatomist of the seventeenth century, who thus speaks in his Tractates de Corde (1669), p. 25, of the muscular fibres of the ventricles : ' Fibre quidem rectis hisce exteri oribus in dextro ventriculo proxime subject oblique dextrorsum ascendentes in basin cordis terminantur, et spirali suo ambitu helicein sive cochleam satis apte refcrunt.' The ventricles of the heart might, therefore, be called cochlea cordis, and this would easily be turned into Cockles of the heart.] Fr., Ifcheras la face (that'll rejoice the cockles of your heart) (1671). To cry cockles, to be hanged : see Ladder. Cockloche. A mean fellow, silly coxcomb: a generic reproach (1611). Cock-loft. The head: cf. old proverb, All his gear is in his cock- loft ; i.e. All his wealth, work, or worth is in his head (1642). Cock-mate. A familiar, intimate, best friend. Cockney, subs, (colloquial). One born within the sound of Bow- bells. [The origin of cockney has been much debated ; but, says Dr. Murray, in the course of an exhaustive statement (Academy, May 10, 1890, p. 320), the history of the word, so far as it means a person, is very clear and simple. We have the senses (1) ' cockered or pet child,' ' nestle-cock,' 1 mother's darling,' ' milksop,' the name being applicable primarily to the child, but continued to the squeamish and effeminate man into which he grows up. (2) A nickname applied by country people to the inhabitants of great towns, whom they considered milksops,' from their daintier habits and incapacity for rough work. York, London, Perugia, were, according to Harman, all nests of cockneys. (3) By about 1600 the name began to be attached especially to Londoners, as the representatives par excellence of the city milksop. One understands the disgust with which a cavalier in 1641 wrote that he was ' obliged to quit Oxford at the approach of Essex and Waller, with their pro- digious number of cockneys.'] Hence, Cockney-shire, London. Cockpecked. Masculine home- rule : spec, of a tyrannical kind : cf. Hen-pecked. Cock quean. A man who interest himself in women's affairs : a common form is cotquean. Cock-robin. A soft, easy fellow (Grose). Cock-robin Shop. A small printing office : a place where the cheapest work is done at the lowest price : cf. Slop shop. Cock's - comb. 1. A cap as worn by a buffoon or professional fool. 2. The head. 3. A fop, conceited fool Cock's-egg. To send one for a cock's egg. To send on a fool's errand ; to gammon (q.v.) : cf. pigeon's milk, oil of strappum, strap oil, the squad umbrella, etc. Cock - shy. 1. A mark, butt, or target ; any person or thing that is the centre of jaculation (1834). 2. The establishment of a strolling proprie- tor, where sticks may be thrown at coconuts or the like, for payment. Cocksure. Confidently certain ; arrogantly sure. [Probably a corrup- tion of cocky sure.' Shakespeare ( I Henry IV., n. L) employs the phrase in the sense of Sure as the cock of a firelock. We steal as in a castle, cocksure: and still earlier usages imply its derivation from the fact that the cock was much surer than the older - fashioned match.] (1549). Cocksy. Impudent, bumptious, saucy: cf. Cocky. Cocktail. 1. A prostitute ; a wanton. 2. A coward. 3. An up- start, one aping gentility. 4. (Ameri- can). A drink composed of spirits (gin, brandy, whisky, etc.), bitters, crushed ice, sugar, etc., the whole whisked briskly until foaming, and then drunk 'hot.' As adj., (1) under- bred, wanting in 'form' (chiefly of horses). (2) Fresh, foaming: of beer (see subs. 4). (3) (army). Unsoldier- like; anything) unworthy of the regular army, e.g. at one time the Volunteer auxiliaries were described as a cocktailed crew. Cock-up (printers'). A superior ; e.g. the smaller letters in the following examples : Y c Limt- 108 Cocky. Cold-cco"k. Compy- ; J no - Smith, Sen'- ; N ; London' : also a large - type initial letter. Cocky (or Cocking). 1. Pert, saucy, forward, coolly audacious, over con- fident, 'botty' (1711). 2. (Stock Exchange). Brisk, active. As subs, (old), a term of endearment : see also Cockatoo-farmer. Cockyolly-bird. A nursery endear- ment : of birds ; cf. dickey - bird, chickabiddy. Cocoa-nut. The head : Fr., coco : see Crumpet (1834). That accounts for the milk in the cocoa-nut, a rejoinder upon having a thing explained. No milk in the cocoa nut, insane, silly, cracked. Cocum (Kocum). 1. Shrewdness, ability, luck, cleverness. [Yiddish.] 2. (publishers'). A sliding scale of Cfit. [Publishers sometimes issue ks without fixing the published price, leaving the retailer to make what he can.] To fight or play cocum, to play double, be wary, cunning, artful (1857). Cod. 1. Apparently orig. generic for a man : cf. bloke, cove, fellow, etc. Hence in several specialised senses : e.g. 2. A fool, a humbug, an imposi- tion (B. E.), and as verb, to hoax, chaff, take a rise out of. 3. A pal, or friend ; generally prefixed to a sur- name ; at Charterhouse, a pensioner (see Thackeray, Newcomes, ii. 333). [Here cod probably = ' codUn,' an old endearment.] 4. A purse ; a cod of money, a large sum of money. [A.S. cod or codd, a small bag.] Coddam (or Coddom). A game played three, four, or more a side. The only ' property ' required is a coin, a button, or anything which can be hidden in the clenched hand. The principle is simplicity itself ' Guess whose hand it's in.' If the guesser ' brings it home,' his side takes the S'eoe, and the centre man works it. the guess be wrong, a chalk is taken to the holders, who go on again. Codding. Nonsense, humbug, chaff : see Cod. Codger. A familiar address, especially old codger, a curious old fellow, odd fish, rum character ; a precise, and sometimes mean or miserly man (1760). C o d 1 a n d. Newfoundland : cf. Cod-preserves. Codling. A raw youth. Cod- preserves. The Atlantic. Cod's-head. A stupid fellow, a fool : see Buffle (1675). Cofe. See Cove. C o ff e e. Beans. Greased coffee, pork and beans. Coffee - house (or Coffee - shop). 1. A water-closet. 2. In India, a place at which the residents of a station (esp. in Upper India) meet to talk over a light breakfast of coffee, toast, etc., at an earlier hour than the regular breakfast of the day ; the name is also applied to the gathering, and so the halt of a regiment for refreshment on an early march, etc. Coffee-mill. The mouth ; a grinder itself, and furnished with grinders. Coffee-milling Grinding (q.v.); working hard. Also taking a ' sight ' by putting the thumb of one hand to the nose and grinding the little finger with the other, as if working an imag- inary coffee mill (1837). C o ffi n s. 1. A piece of live ooal thrown out explosively from a fire, and supposed to represent a coffin and presage death : cf. Winding-sheet, Thief, etc. 2. An ill-found unsea- worthy vessel. 3. In pi. (Stock Ex- change), the Funeral Furnishing Company's Shares. A nail in one's coffin : see Nail. Cog. A tooth. Coke. Qo and eat coke, a contemp- tuous retort. Coker. A lie (Grose) : see Whopper. Colchester-clock. A large oyster. Cold. To leave out in the cold, to neglect, shut out, abandon. Cold- blood. A house licensed for the sale of beer, not to be drunk on the premises. Cold-coffee. 1. A sell, hoax, trumpery affair. 2. Misfortune, ill- luck : also cold gruel ; to have one's comb cut, to experience a run of ill- luck : Fr., etre abonne au guignon. 3. A snub for proffered kindness. Cold- comfort. An article sent out on approval and returned. Cold-cook. An undertaker. English synonyms : carrion hunter, body snatcher, death hunter, black worker (see Black work). Hence, cold-cookshop, an undertaker's work- shop. Cold meat, a corpse : cf. pickles (q.v.), specimens direct from 109 ObU-ctak Colt. the subject. To make cold meat of one, to kill. Cold - meat box, a coffin. Cold-meat cart, a hearse. Cold-meat train, a funeral train to Brook wood and other cemeteries : but specifically a late night train to reach Aldershot in time for morning duty : properly a goods train, but a carriage is attached which is known as the Larky Sub- altern ' : this particular train carries nothing more dreadful than a portion of the beef and mutton for the morning ration to the troops in camp ; and, as stated, a few belated officers. Cold-deck. A prepared pack of cards: also a good hand obtained on first dealing, and without drawing fresh cards. Cold Pig. To give cold pig, to waken a sleeper by sluicing him with cold water, or by suddenly stripping him of bed-clothes (1818). As subs., 1. A person robbed of his clothing. 2. A corpse. 3. The empty re- turns sent back by rail to wholesale houses. Cold - shivers. The effect of ill- ness, intense fear, or violent emotion : also cold shake, which may refer alike to a period of cold weather, or an attack of fever and ague. Cold Shoulder. Studied coldness, neglect, or contempt (1816). Cold- tea. Brandy (1690). Cold-water Army. The world of total abstainers. Cold - without. Spirits and cold water without sugar : cf. Cider and, Hot with, etc. (1837). Cole (or Coal). Money : generic : see Rhino (1671). To post or tip the cole, to hand over money, shell or fork out. Colfabias (or Colfabis). A Latinized Irish phrase signifying the closet of decency, applied as a slang term to a B'ace of resort in Trinity College, ublin (Hotten). C o 1 i a n d e r (or Coliander Seeds). Money : generic (Orose) : see Rhino. Collar. To seize, appropriate, steal. To cottar the bun (cake, Ban- bury, or confectioner' a shop), to be easily first, to surpass. Out of cottar, out of work, of cash, training. Con- versely, in collar, in work, comfort- able circumstances, fit or in form. Against collar, uphill, working against difficulties, against the grain. To be put to the pin of the cottar, to be driven to extremities, come to the end of one's resources. To wear the cottar, to be subject to control not altogether to one's liking : the antithesis of, to have the whip hand, and, to wear the breeches ; etc. Collar. See Big Bird. Collar-and-elbow. A peculiar style of wrestling the Cornwall and Devon style. Collar - day. Hanging day : also Wry-neck-day (q.v.) : Fr., jour de la St. Jean Baptiste. Collared. Unable to play one's usual game owing to temper, funk, or other causes. Collared Up. Kept close to busi- ness : cf. Out of collar. Collar-work. Laborious work. Collector. A highwayman or footpad. College. A prison ; the inmates are called Collegians or Collegiates (q.v.) ; Newgate was formerly called the City College (1703). Ladies' College, a brothel : see Nanny-shop. Colleger. A square cap, a mortar- board (q.v.) : see Golgotha. Collogue. To confer confidenti- ally and secretly, conspire, wheedle, flatter (1596). Colly-molly. Melancholy : cf. Solemoncholy and (Dr. Marigold's Prescriptions) Lemonjolly. Colly-wobbles. The stomach- ache, flatulency. Colour. 1. A handkerchief worn as a badge by prize-fighters and other professional athletes. Each man chose his own, and it was once a practice to sell them to backers to be worn at the ring-side : see Billy. In racing circles the colours are the owner's, and are shown in the jockeys' caps and jackets. 2. Payment : e.g. I have not seen the colour of his money = I have not received payment Coloured on the card, having the colours in which a jockey is to ride inserted on the card of the race. Off colour, exhausted, run down, seedy. To colour one's meerschaum, to get brandy- faced, to drink one's nose into a state of pimples and scarlet. Colquarron. The neck: see Scrag. Colt. 1. One new to the office, the exercise of any art, etc. : e.g. a pro- fessional cricketer during his first season, a first- time juryman, a thief in his novitiate. 2. A rope, knotted at UO Colt's Tooth. Come-down. one end, and whipped at the other. 3. A thief's billy (q.v.). 4. A burglar's livery - stable keeper : a colt - man (Grose). 5. An attendant on a ser- jeant at his making. As verb, (1) to thrash : colting, a thrashing. (2) To cause a person to stand treat by way of being made free of a new place, to make one pay one's footing. Hence, collage, the footing paid by colts on their first appearance. Colt's Tooth. To have a colt (or coifs tooth), to be fond of youthful pleasures ; in the case of elderly persons, to have juvenile tastes ; to be of wanton disposition and capacity. [In allusion to a supposed desire to shed the teeth and see life over again.] (1500). Columbine. A prostitute. Columbus. Failure. A regular Columbus, an utter failure, a ' dead frost' : Fr., II pleut/=the play is a failure. Comb. To comb one's hair, to take to task, scold, keep in order. Some- times to thrash, and generally ill-treat : also to comb down, to comb one's noddle with a three-legged (or joint) stool ( 1593). Comb - brush. A lady's maid (1750). Combie. A Combination room, the parlour in which college dons drink wine after Hall : also see Com- bination. Combination. A woman's under- garment, shift and drawers in one. Also Combie, and (American) Chemi- loon (chemise and pantaloon). Come. 1. To practise, understand, act the part of : cf. Come over and Come tricks. 2. To lend : e.g. Has he come it ? To make drunk come, to become intoxicated : see Screwed. To come about one, to circumvent : cf. Come over and Come round. To come down from the walls, to abandon a position. To come it, (1) to proceed at a great rate, to make a splash and dash (in extravagance), to cut a figure. (2) To inform; (3) to show fear ; (4) to succeed : spec, in You can't come it, i.e. you cannot succeed. To come it strong, to exaggerate, lay it on thick, carry to extremes. To come John (or Lord Audley), see John Audley. To come off, to happen, occur, result from (1609). Come off the grass (or the tall grass), None of your airs ! Don't put it on so 1 Don't tell any more lies ! Fr., As-tu fini tes manieres (or magnes) ? ne fais done pas ta Sophie, and ne fais done pas ton fendart. To come out (1) to make -an appearance, display oneself, express oneself vigorously, make an impress- sion : sometimes in an intensified form. to come out strong : cf. Come it strong (1637); (2) to turn out, result: e.g. How did it come out ? (3) to make a first appearance in society. To come out of the little end of the horn, to fare badly. To come over, to influence, overreach, cheat. To come the old soldier (or any person or thing) over one, to imitate, overbear, wheedle, rule by an assumption of authority : Fr., essay -er de monter un bateau d quelqu'un ; or monter le coup or un battage (1713). To come round, to influence, circumvent, persuade : cf. Come over and come about, sense 1. To come the gum game, to over-reach by concealment. To come through a side door, to be born illegitimately. To come to stay, to be endowed with permanent qualities. To come to (or up to) time, to answer the call of ' Time ! ' after the thirty seconds' rest between round and round, hence by analogy, to be on the alert, ready. To come up smiling, to laugh (or grin) at punishment ; hence (generally) to be superior to rebuff or disaster, face defeat without flinching. To come up to the chalk : see Scratch. To come the artful, to essay to deceive ; To come the heavy, to affect a vastly superior position ; To come the ugly, to threaten ; To come the nob (or the don), to put on airs ; To come the lardy-dardy, to dress for the public and ' look up to your clobber ' ; To come the serjeant, to issue peremptory orders ; To come the spoon, to make love ; To come the gipsy, to try to defraud ; To come the Rothschild to pretend to be rich ; and To come the Traviata (prostitutes, now obsolete), to feign consumption, to put on ' the Traviata cough ' (q-v.) with a view to beguiling charitable males. Come-down. A fall, whether of pride or worldly prospects, an aban- donment of something for something else of less value or moment. As verb, used either independently or in com- bination : e.g. To come down, to come down handsome, or to come down with the dust, dues, dibs, ready, oof, shiners, blunt, needful, (1) to pay, i.e. to 111 Comedy-merchant. Condog. part ; or to lay down (as in pay- ment) ; to fork out : see Shell out (1701) ; (2) to abate prices. Comedy-merchant. An actor : see Cackling-cove. Comflogisticate. To embarrass, put out of countenance, confuse, hoax, of. Bamblustercate. Comf oozled. Overcome, exhausted (1836). Comfortable-importance (or Com- fortable-impudence). A wife ; also a mistress in a wife's position : Fr., gouvernement : see Dutch. Comical. A napkin. To be struck comical, to be astonished. Coming. Wanton, forward, sexual (1750). Commercial. 1. A tramping rogue or vagabond : cf. Traveller. 2. A commercial traveller. Commission (or Mish). A shirt. [From the Italian.] Commister. A clergyman : also camister (q.v.). Common-doings. Every-day fare: cf. chicken-fixings. [A phrase of Western origin, at first restricted in its meaning, but now including ordi- nary transactions as compared to those either large or peculiarly profit- able ; applied to men, actions, and things. What shall we do ? ' says a poor frontiersman's wife, when she hears of a Federal officer who is to take up his quarters at her cabin for a day ; ' I can't give him common- doings.'] Commoner-grub (Winchester Col- lege). A dinner formerly given by Commoners to College after cricket matches. [Commoners are boys not on the foundation.] Commoney. A clay marble : cf. Alley. Common- jack. A prostitute. Common plug. An ordinary member of society. Commonsensical. Marked with common sense. Common- sewer. A drink, dram ; or ' go.' [From common sewer, a drain.] Communicator. To agitate the communicator, to ring the bell. C o m p. A compositor. [An ab- breviated form of companion now peculiar to compositors, but originally applied to pressmen who work in couples, as well as to compositors who work in a companionship, or ship (q.v.).] Company. To tee company, to live by prostitution. Competition - wallah. One who enters the Indian Civil Service by examination. C o m p o. A sailor's monthly ad- vance of wages. Compy - shop. A truck shop. [Probably a corruption of company- shop : workmen, before the passing of certain Truck Acts (q.v.), having been frequently compelled to make their weekly purchases at shops either kept by, or worked to the profit of, their employer.] don (Winchester College). A rap on the head with the knuckles, or anything hard, such as a cricket ball. As verb, to rap with the knuckles. [The derivation formerly accepted at Winchester was from Kovlv\ov=s knuckle, but the editors of the Wyke- hamist suggest its origin in the North Country con, ' to fillip," with which the French se cogner exactly corresponds.] Concaves and Convexes. Cards prepared for cheating. All from the eight to the king are cut convex, and all from the deuce to the seven, con- cave ; so that by cutting the pack broadwise you cut convex, and by cutting them lengthwise you cut concave. Sometimes they are shaped the reverse way, so that, if suspicion arises, a pack so treated may be sub- stituted for the other to the same effect In this trick the sharper has less in his favour than in others, be- cause the intended victim may cut in the usual way, and so cut a low card to the dealer. But the certainty of being able to cut or deal a high or low card at pleasure, gives him an advan- tage against which skill is of none avail. Other modes of sharping are by means of Reflectors (q.v.) ; Longs and shorts, (q.v.); Pricked Cards (q.v.); The Bridge (q.v.) ; Skinning (q.v.) ; Weaving (q.v.) ; The Gradus (or Step) (q.v.); Palming (q.v.); and The Telegraph (q.v.). Concerned. Drunk : see Screwed. (1686). Concher. A tame or quiet beast. Condiddle. To purloin or steal (1825). Condog. To agree with : of. concur. 112 Confab. Continental. Confab. Familiar talk (1778). As verb, to talk in a familiar manner, to chat. Confectionery. A drinking bar : cf . Grocery, and Lush-crib. Confidence Trick (Dodge, or Buck). A process of swindling, obtaining trust with the deliberate intention of betraying it to one's own advantage. A greenhorn meets (or rather is picked up by) a stranger who invites him to drink. The stranger admires him openly, protests his confidence in him, and to prove his sincerity hands him over a large sum of money [snide, q.v.)] or valuables [bogus, q.v.] with which to walk off and return. The greenhorn does both, whereupon the stranger suggests that it is his turn next, and being favoured with certain proofs of confidence, which in this case are real, decamps, and is no more seen. This is the sim- plest form of the trick, but the confid- ence man is inexhaustible in devices. In many cases the subject's idiosyn- crasy takes the form of an idiotic desire to overreach his fellows ; i.e. he is only a knave, wrong side out, and it is upon this idiosyncrasy that the operator works. He offers a sham gold watch at the price of a nickel one ; he calls with presents from nowhere where none are expected ; he writes letters announcing huge legacies to persons absolutely kinless ; and as his appeal is addressed to the sister pas- sions of greed and dishonesty, he seldom fails of his reward. FT., mener en bateau un pante pour le re- fair e=to stick a jay and flap him. Conflab berated. Bothered, up- set, flummoxed (q.v.). Conflabberation. A confused wrangle, a hullabaloo. Confounded. Excessive, odious, detestable, e.g. a confounded nuisance, lie, humbug, etc. : cf. Awful, Beastly, and other ' strumpets of speech ' (1767). Confubuscate. To confuse, perplex, astonish : cf. Confusticate. Coniacker. A counterfeiter, smasher, (q.v.), 'queer -bit' faker. [Obviously a play upon coin, money, and hack, to mutilate.] Fr., un tnornifteur tarte. Conish. Genteel (1830). Conk. The nose. English syno- nyms: boko (or boco), proboscis, smeller, bowsprit, claret- jug, gig, muzzle, cheese-cutter, beak, snuff- box, snorter, post-horn, paste-horn, handle, snout, nozzle, smelling-cheat, snotter, candlestick, celestial, snottle- box, snuffler, trumpet, snorer, peak. Conoodle. See Canoodle. Conscience. A kind of association in a small theatrical company for the allotment of shares in the profits, etc. The man who is lucky enough to have a concern of his own, generally a very small affair, however badly he may act, must be the leading man or first low comedian, perhaps both. He becomes the manager, of course, and thus has one share for ' fit-up,' one for scenery, one and a half for manage- ment, one for wardrobe, one and a half as leading man ; and the same is given to the wife, who, of course, will not play anything but the juvenile lead, but who at any other time would be glad to play first old woman. Considerable Bend. To go on the considerable bend, to go in for a bout of dissipation. Consonant- choker. One that clips his G's and muffles his R's. Constable. To out- (or over-run) the constable, to live beyond one's means and get into debt ; also, in a figurative sense, to escape from a bad argument, to change the subject, to talk about what is not understood (1663). Constician. A member of an orchestra. Constitutional. A walk undertaken for the sake of health and exercise [i.e. for the benefit of the constitu- tion] : Fr., tronchiner (1850). Contango (Stock Exchange). A fine paid by the buyer to the seller of stock for carrying over the en- gagement to another settling day, and representing a kind of interest for a fourteen days' extension. [Thought to be a corruption of continuation.] (1853.) Content. Dead : see Hop the twig. Continent (Winchester College). Ill ; on the sick list. [From continent cameram vel lectum, keeping one's room or bed.] See Abroad. Continental. To care (or be worth) not a continental or continental damn, to be worthless ; to care not in the least degree. 113 Continuations. Cop. Continuations. Trousers: see Kick. [Of analogous derivation to inexpres- sibles ; unmentionables ; mustn't- men- tion' ems ; untalkabou tables, etc.] (1841). Contraptions. Small articles, tools, and so forth (1838). Convenience. A water-closet or chamber-pot. Convenient A mistress (1676). Convexes. See Concaves, Convey. To steal (1596). Hence conveyance, a theft (1592). Convey- ancer, a thief : also conveyer. Con- veyancing, thieving. Cony (or Tom Cony). A simpleton. Conycatch. To cheat, deceive, trick, bite (q.v.) (1593). Hence, cony-catcher, a cheat, sharper, trick- ster. Cony-catching, cheating, trickery, swindling after the manner of Cony- catchers (q.v.). Coo-e-e-e or Coo-ey. A signal cry of the Australian blackfellow, adopted by the invading whites. The final ' e ' is a very high note, a sort of pro- longed screech, that resounds for miles through the bush, and thus enables parties that have lost each other to ascertain their relative positions. Cook. 1. To tamper with, garble, or falsify : accounts are cooked when so altered as to look better than they are ; pictures are cooked when dodged-up for sale ; painters say that a picture will not cook when it is so excellent as to be beyond imitation (1751). 2. To swelter with heat and sweat. To cook one 1 8 goose, to settle, worst, kill, ruin. English synonyms : to anodyne, to put to oed, to snuff out, to give (or cook) one's gruel, to corpse, to cooper up, to wipe out, to spiflicate, to settle (or settle one's hash), to squash, to shut up, to send to pot, to smash, to finish, to do for, to put one's light out, to stop one's little game, to stop one's galloping, to put on an extinguisher, to clap a stopper on, to bottle up, to squelch, to play hell with, to rot, to squash up, to stash, to give a croaker. For synonyms in the sense of circum- vention : see Floored. Cookeyshine. An afternoon meal at which cookies form a staple dish : cf. Tea-fight, Muffin-worry. Cook-ruffian. A bad or indifferent cook, one ' who would cook the devil in his feathers.' Cool. 1. Impertinent, audacious, calmly impudent 2. (In refer- ence to money ; e.g. a cool hun- dred, thousand, etc.). Commonly expletive ; but sometimes used to cover a sum a little above the figure stated (1750). As verb (Eton Col- lege). To kick hard. Hence, Cool- kick, when a Behind (q.v.), or back, gets a kick with no one up to him. Cool as a cucumber, without heat ; also, metaphorically, calm and composed. To cool one's coppers, to allay the morning's thirst after a night of drink. Cool-crape. A shroud, or winding sheet (Grose) (1742). Cooler. 1. A woman (1742). 2. A prison : see Cage. 3. Ale or stout after spirits and water : some- times called Putting the beggar on the gentleman ; also Damper (q.v.) (1821). Cool-lady. A female camp fol- lower who sells brandy (Grose). Cool-nantz. Brandy: see Drinks. Coon. 1. A man. 2. A nigger, e.g. a coons' bawdy house, house where none are kept but girls of colour. Oone coon, one in a senous or hopeless difficulty. To go the whole coon, to go the whole hog. Coon's - age. A long time, a blue moon. Coop. A prison: see Cage. Hence, Cooped up, imprisoned. Cooper (or Cooper up). 1. To destroy, spoil, settle, or finish. 2. To forge. 3. To understand. Hence, Coopered, hocussed, spoiled, ruined, e.g. a house is said to be coopered when the importunity of many tramps has caused its inmates to cold-shoul- der the whole fraternity ; a coopered horse is a horse that has been ' got at ' with a view to prevent its running. Coored. Whipped (D. Haggart, Life, Glossary, p. 171 [1821].) Coot A stupid fellow ; generally a silly, or mad, old coot : stupid as a coot is a common English pro- vincialism : see Buffle. Cooter. See Couter. Cop. A policeman. As verb. 1. To seize, steal, catch, take an unfair advantage in a bet or bargain. [Cop has been associated with the root of the Latin cap-io, to seize, to snatch ; also with the Gipsy tap or top = to take ; Scotch kep ; and Gallic ceapan. Probably, however, its true radix ia 1U Copbusy. Corner. to be found in the Hebrew eop=a hand or palm. Low-class Jews em- ploy the term, and understand it to refer to the act of snatching.] Cop like Chuck (q.v.), is a sort of general utility verb : thus to cop the needle, to get angry ; to cop the bullet (or the door), to get the sack ; and to cop the brewer, to be drunk. 2. To arrest, imprison, betray, ensnare. English synonyms : to give the clinch, to make one kiss the clink, to accommodate, to nobble, to bag, to box, to fist (old), to scoop, to take up, to victimize, to run in, to give (or get) one the boat, to buckle, to smug, to nab, to collar, to pinch, to nail, to rope in, to snake, to pull up. Copbusy. To hand over booty to a confederate. Copper. A policeman. Copperheads. A nickname applied to different sections of the American nation ; first to the Indian ; then to the Dutch colonist (see Irving, Knicker- bocker) ; lastly, during the Civil War, to certain Northern Democrats who sympathised with the South. Copperman. A policeman. Copper-nose. A swollen, pimply nose, a jolly or bottle nose ; Fr., bette-rave, piton passe d I 'encaustiqw : of. Grogblossom (1822). Copper's-nark. A police spy, one in the pay of the police. C o p u s. A wine or beer cup : commonly imposed as a fine upon those who talked Latin in hall or com- mitted other breaches of etiquette. Dr. Johnson derives it from episcopus, and if this be correct it is doubtless the same as bishop. Copy- of - countenance. A sham, humbug, pretence (1579). Core (C o r e i n g). Picking up small articles in shops (1821). Corinth. A brothel (1609). Hence, Corinthian. 1. A rake, loose liver, sometimes specifically, a fashion- able whore. Shakespeare has it, ' a lad of mettle,' but in another place he uses Corinth as above. 2. A dandy, specifically applied in the early part of the present century to a man of fashion ; e.g. Corinthian Tom, hi Pierce Egan's Life in London. Cork. 1. A bankrupt. 2. A general name in Glasgow and neigh- bourhood for the head of an establish- ment, e.g. of a factory, or the like. To draw a cork, to draw blood ; to tap one's claret (1818). Cork-brained. Light headed, foolish. Corker. 1. That which closes an argument, or puts an end to a course of action ; a settler ; a finisher (q.v.) ; specifically a lie : cf. Whopper. 2, Anything unusually large, or of first- rate quality ; remarkable in some respect or another ; e.g. a heavy blow ; a monstrous lie. To play the corker, to indulge in the uncommon, exhibit exaggerated peculiarities of demeanour : specifically in school and university slang to make oneself ob- jectionable to one's fellows. Corks. 1. A butler: cf. Burn- crust, a baker ; Master of the mint, a gardener; Cinder-garbler, a maid-of- all-work, etc. 2. (nautical). Money : see Rhino. Corkscrewing. The straggling, spiral walk of tipsiness. Corkscrews. Very stiff and formal curls, once called Bottle-screws. Corky. Sprightly, lively. Shakes- peare uses it in King Lear, m. vii. Com., Bind fast his corky arms ; but with him (1605) it = withered. Corn. 1. Food, sustenance, grub (q.v.). 2. An abbreviated form of corn -juice (q.v.), i.e. whisky (1843). To acknowledge the corn : see Acknow- ledge. Corned. 1. Drunk : see Screwed (1785). 2. (sailors'), pleased. Corner. 1. Tattersall's Subscrip- tion Rooms, once situate at the top of Grosvenor Place, near Hyde Park Corner ; now removed to Albert Gate, but still known by the old nickname. 2. Short for Tattenham Corner, a point on the Derby course on Epsom Downs. 3. A share ; an opportunity of standing in for the proceeds of a robbery. As verb, to get control of a stock or commodity and so mono- polize the market ; applied to persons, to drive or force into a position of difficulty or surrender, e.g. in an argument ; also as subs., a monopoly, a controlling interest. Fr., etre en fine pfgr&ne, and se mettre sur les fonts de bapteme. Tailors speak of a man as cornered who has pawned work en- trusted to him, and cannot redeem it. To be round the corner, to get round or ahead of one's fellows by dishonest cuts, doublings, twists, and turns. To 115 Corner-man. Counter-jumper. turn the corner, to get over the worst, begin to mend in health and fortune. To be cornered, to be in a fix : Fr., etre dans le lac, Corner-man (or Cove). 1. A loafer; literally a lounger at corners (1851). 2. The ' Bones ' and ' Tambourine ' in a band of negro minstrels. Corn-in- Egypt Plenty of all kinds. [Biblical.] Cornish-duck. A pilchard: cf. Yarmouth capon. Corn- juice. Whisky : see Drinks. Cornstalk. Generic (Australian) for persons of European descent, but especially applied to girls. The children of Anglo - Australians are generally taller and slighter in build than their parents. Originally a native of New South Wales ; now general. Cf. Bananalander. Cornstealers. The hands. Corny-faced. Red and pimply with drink Coroner. A severe fall. Corporation. A protuberant stomach : see Bread-basket (1785). Corpse. A horse in the betting for market purposes alone ; otherwise a stiff un. Verb, 1. To confuse, queer, blunder, and so put out one's fellows, to spoil a scene. 2. To kill (literally to make a corpse of one). Fr., parier sur quelqu'un. Corps e- provider. A doctor or physician : see Crocus. Corpse-reviver. A mixed drink. Correct (or K'rect Card). See Card. Corroboree. A disturbance. [Properly a tremendous native dance.] Verb, to boiL Gorsican. Something out of the common ; a buster. [A Burnand- ism.] Corybungus. The posteriors. Cosh. A ' neddy,' a life-preserver ; a short, loaded bludgeon. Also a policeman's truncheon. Cossack. A policeman. Costard. The head. [Properly an apple.] See Crumpet (1534). Cotch. To catch. [A corruption.] Also ppL adj., Co tohed. Cot (Christ's Hospital). A shoe- itring. Cotsold (or Cotswold Lion). A iheep : see Wool-bird (1615). Cotton. To take a fancy to, unite with, agree with. In the last sense it is found occasionally in the Elizabethan writers, and is American by survival" To die with cotton in one's tars : Many of the most hardened and desperate offenders, from the kindness, attention, and soothing conduct of the Rev. Mr. Cotton [the chaplain at Newgate, 1821], who is indefatigable in admin- istering consolation to their troubled minds, have become the most sincere penitent (Egan, Tom and Jerry). This was by no means the only instance of a popular punning allusion to the name of Cotton. The Jesuit Father Coton, having obtained a great ascendency over Henri IV., it was remarked by that monarch's subject that, unfortunately, hi ears were stuffed with cotton. Cotton-lord (or king). A wealthy cotton manufacturer. Cottonopolis. Manchester : cf. Albertopolis, Cubitopolis, Hygeia- polis. Cottons (Stock Exchange). Con- federate Bonds. [From the staple of the Southern States.] Cotton - top. A woman loose in fact, but keeping up some sort of appearance. [In allusion to cotton stockings with silk feet.] Couch. To couch a hogshead, to lie down and sleep (1569). Councillor of the Pipowder Court. A pettifogging lawyer. [The Pi- powder Court was one held at fairs where justice was done to any injured person before the dust of the fair was off his feet ; the name being derived from the French pie poudrf. Some, however, think that it had its origin in pied-poiddreux, a pedlar, and signifies a pedlars' court. Council-of-ten. The toes of a man who walks Duck- footed (q.v.) : cf. Ten commandments : Fr., arpiom. Counsellor. A barrister: Fr., gerbier. Count. A man of fashion, a swell. Counter. To strike while parry- ing. Figuratively, to oppose, to cir- cumvent. Another lie nailed to the counter : see Another. Counterfeit-cranke. ' These that do coimterfet the cranke be yong knavea and yonge harlots, that deeply dis- semble the falling sickness ' (Harmon). Hence, a cheat. Counter-jumper (or skipper). A draper's assistant, a shopman : Fr., chevalier du metre : see Knight of the 116 Count. Cows-and-kisses. yard : also Counter- jump, to act as a shop-assistant, and Counter- jumping, verbal subs. (1855). Count. See Noses. Country. That part of the ground at a great distance from the wicket ; thus, a fielder at deep-long-off, or long-on is said to be in the country, and a ball bit to the far boundary, is hit into the country. Country- put. An ignorant, country fellow: see Joskin. (1717). County-crop. The hair cut close to the skull ; a mode once common to all prisoners, but now to convicts only : also prison-crop. Couple (or Buckle) beggar. A celebrant of irregular marriages as the Chaplain of the Fleet ; a hedge priest (1737). Coupling- house. A brothel. Couranne. See Caroon. Court-card. A beau, swell. Court Holy Water (or Court Pro- mises). Fair speeches without per- formance. Cousin Betty. A half-witted person : see Buffle. Cousin-trumps. One of a kind, Brother smut, Brother chip. Couter (or Cooter). A sovereign : see Rhino. Cove (Covey, Cofe, Cuffing, and, in the feminine, Covess). 1. A person ; a companion. Cove enters into many combinations : e.g. Cross- cove, a robber ; Flash-cove, a thief or swindler ; Kinchin-cove, a little man ; Flogging-cove, a beadle ; Smacking- cove, a coachman ; Narry - cove, a drunkard ; Topping-cove, a highway- man ; Abram-cove, a beggar ; Queer- cove, a rogue ; Nubbing-cove, the hangman ; Gentry-cove, a gentleman ; Downy-cove, shrewd man ; Rum-cove, a doubtful character ; Nib - cove, a gentleman, etc., etc., etc., all which see. English synonyms : boy, chap, cull, cully, customer, kiddy, homo (or omee), fish, put, bloke, gloak, party, cuss, codger, buffer, gaffer, damber, duck, chip. [For examples of the use of Covey and Covess, see same.] 2. In up - country Australian, the master, boss, or gaffer of a sheep station. Cove of dossing-ken, the land- lord of a common lodging-house : Fr., marchand de sommeti. Covent Garden. A ' farden ' or farthing. Covent - garden Abbess. A pro- curess. [Covent Garden at one time teemed with brothels : as Fielding's Covent Garden Tragedy (1751-2) sug- Covent-garden Ague. A venereal Covent - garden Nun. A pro- stitute. Coventry. To send one to (or to be in) Coventry, to exclude from social intercourse, or notice; to be in dis- grace. Cover. A pickpocket's confed- erate : one who ' fronts,' i.e. distracts the attention of, the victim ; a stall (q.v.). As verb, 1. To act as a pick- pocket's confederate. 2. To drink : see Lush. Cover-arse Gown. A gown with- out sleeves (1803). Cover-down. An obsolete term for a false tossing coin : see Cap. Cover- me -decently. A coat (1821). Covess. A woman : see Cove. (1789). Covey. A man : a diminutive of cove (q.v.). Cow. 1. A woman. The term is now opprobrious ; but in its primary and natural sense the usage is ancient. Howell [1659] says : ' There are some proverbs that carry a kind of authority with them, as that which began in Henrie the Fourth's time. " He that bulls the cow must keep the calf." ' 2. A prostitute. 3. A thousand pounds : see Rhino. To talk the hind leg off a cow (or dog) : see Talk. Tune the cow died of : see Tune. Cowan. A sneak, a Paul Pry. Cow- and- calf. To laugh. Coward's- castle (or Corner). A pulpit. Cowcumber. A corruption of cucumber. Cow-grease (or Cow-oil). Butter : see Cart-grease. Cow- juice. Milk. Cow-lick. A lock of hair, greased, curled, brought forward from the ear, and plastered on the cheek : once common amongst costermongers and tramps : see Aggerawators. Cow-oil. Cow-grease. Cow-puncher. A cowboy or herds- man. Cow- quake. The roar of a bull. Cows-and-kisses. The missus, or mistress ; also women generally. 117 Cow'a-baby. Cracksman. Cow's - baby (or babe) A calf, Bleating-cheat (q.v.). Cow-shooter (Winchester College). A deerstalker hat : only worn by prse- fecte and candle-keepers. Cow's-spouse. A bull (Orose). Cow - with - the - iron - tail. A pump ; the source of the ' cooling medium ' for ' regulating ' milk : also Black - cow, One - armed man, and Simpson's oow (q.v.). Coxy. Stuck up, conceited, im- pudent (1856). Coyduck. To decoy. [A blend of conduct nd decoy.] (1829). Cozza. Pork. Crab. 1. The same as bonnet (q.v.) subs., sense 1. 2. In pi., the feet. 3. A pair of aces, or deuce-ace the lowest throw at hazard ( 1 768). Verb, to expose, inform, offend, insult ; and especially to interrupt, to get in the way of, to spoil. To turn out crabs (or a case of crabs), a matter turns out crabs when it is brought to a dis- agreeable conclusion. To catch a crab (to cut a crab, to catch or cut a cancer or lobster), there are various ways of catching a crab, as, for ex- ample ( 1 ) to turn the blade of the oar or feather ' under water at the end of the stroke, and thus be unable to recover ; (2) to lose control of the oar at the middle of the stroke by dig- ging too deeply ; or (3) to miss the water altogether. Crab-louse. The pulex pubis, the male whereof is called a cock, the female a hen (Grose). Crabshells. Shoes. Crack. 1. A crazy person : soft- head : see Buffle (1609). 2. A pro- stitute (1698). 3. A lie : also Cracker. 4. A burglary. 5. A burglar (1749). 6. An approach to perfection (1825). 7. A racehorse eminent for speed, and (hunting), a famous ' mount.' 8. Dry firewood. Adj., approaching perfection : used in a multitude of combinations. A crack hand is an adept or dabster; a crack corps, a brilliant regiment ; a crack whip, good coachman; etc. (1836). Verb, 1. To talk to, boast. [The verb was once good English, and in the sense of to talk or gossip is still good Scots. The modern form to crack up, is well within the borderland between literary and colloquial English (1597). 2. To force open, to commit a burglary. 3. To forge or utter worthless paper. 4. To fall to ruin, to be impaired (1631). 5. To inform ; to peach (q.v.). To crack a bottle (or a quart), to drink (1598). To crack a crib (sway, or ken), to commit a burglary ; to break into a house. English synonyms : to stamp a ken or crib, to work a panny, to jump a house (also applied to simple robbery without burglary), to do a crack, to practise the black art, to screw, to bust a crib, to flimp, to buz, to tool, to wire, to do a ken-crack-lay. To crack a crust, to rub along in the world: a superlative fordoing very well is, to crack a tidy crust. To crack a whid, to talk. To crack on, to put on speed, increase one s pace. To crack up, to praise, eulogize : a superlative is to crack up to the nines : Fr., faire F article, and faire son boniment (or son petit boniment). The crack (or all the crack), the go (q.v.), the thing, the kick, the general craze of the moment. In a crack, instantaneously, in the twink- ling of an eye (1725). Cracked (or Cracked-up). 1. Ruined, bust up, gone to smash (or to pot). 2. Crazy. 3. Deflowered : also Cracked in the ring. Cracker. Anything approaching perfection : used in both a good and bad sense ; e.g. a rattling pace, a large sum of money, a bad fall, an enormous lie, a dandy (male or female) of the first magnitude, and so forth. Cracky. See Crickey. Crack - halter (or Crack - rope). A vagabond ; an old equivalent of jail-bird: cf. Hemp-seed (1566). Cracking. House-breaking. Crackish. Wanton, said only of women : cf. Coming. Crack-jaw Words (Names, etc.). Long words difficult to pronounce. Crackle (or Crackling). The velvet bars on the gowns of the Johnian 'hogs' (q.v.). Crackmans (or Cragmans). A hedge (1610). Crack for Break) One's Egg (or Duck. To begin to score. [To make no run is to lay, or make, a duck's egg ; to make none in either innings is to get a double-duck, or to come off with a pair of spectacles.] Crack- pot. A pretentious, worth- less person. Crack-rope. See Crack-halter. Cracksman. A housebreaker. 118 Cradle. Creeper. Cradle, Altar, and Tomb Column. The births, marriages, and deaths column in a newspaper: also Hatch, Match, and Dispatch column. Crag. See Scrag. Cram. 1. A lie ; also Crammer. 2. Hard, forced study. 3. One who prepares another for an examination, a coach, a grindstone. 4. An adven- titious aid to study, a translation, a crib. Verb, 1. To study at high pressure for an examination : also to prepare one for examination (1803). 2. To lie, deceive (1794). Crammer. 1. A liar, one who tells Crams (q.v.). 2. A lie ; the same as cram. 3. One who prepares men for examination, a coach, grinder (q.v.) (1812). Cramming. The act of studying hard for an examination. Cramped (or Crapped). Hanged ; also killed. Cramping-cull. The hangman. Cramp in the Hand. Meanness, stinginess. Cramp - rings. Bolts, shackles, fetters. [Properly a ring of gold or silver, which after being blessed by the sovereign, was held a specific for cramp and f ailing-sickness. ] (1 609 ). Cramp - words. 1. Hard, unpro- nounceable vocables, Crackjaw words (q.v.) (1748). 2. Sentence of death (1748). Cranberry-eye. A blood-shot eye ; the result of alcoholism. Crank. 1. ' These that do coun- terfet the cranke be yong knaues and yonge harlots, that deeply dissemble the falling sicknes. For the crank in their language is the fallinge evill ' (Harmari). Also Cranke and Crank- cuffin. 2. Gin and water (Orose). 3. An eccentric, a crotcheteer. Adj., Easily upset : e.g. The skiff is very crank. Crank- cuffin. One of the canting- crew whose specialty was to feign sickness : see Crank. Cranky. Crotchetty, whimsical, ricketty, not to be depended upon, crazy. English synonyms : dicky, maggotty, dead-alive, yappy, touched, chumpish, comical, dotty, rocketty, queer, faddy, fadmongering, twisted, funny. Crao. 1. Money; sometimes crop : see Rhino. 2. The gallows : see Nubbing Cheat. 3. Type that has got 119 mixed ; technically known as ' pi.' Verb, 1. To hang ; to be cropped, to be hanged. 2. To ease oneself by evacuation : see Mrs. Jones. Crapping - casa (case, castle, or ken). A water-closet. Crapping - castle. A night stool : see previous entry. Crash. 1. Entertainment: prob- ably a cant word (Nares). 2. The machine used to suggest the roar of thunder ; a noise of desperate (and unseen) conflict ; an effect of ' alarums excursions' generally. Verb, to kill. Crashing - cheats (or chetes). 1. The teeth (1567). 2. ' Appels, peares, or any other fruit ' (Harmon). Crater (Cratur, or Creature). Formerly, any kind of liquor, now, Irish whisky. [Fuller speaks of water as ' a creature so common and needful,' and Bacon describes light as ' God's first creature.' Transition is easy.] The skin of the creature, the bottle : see Drinks (1598). Crawl. A workman who curries favour with a foreman or emp )oyer, a lickspittle. Crawler. 1. A cab that leaves the rank and ' crawls ' the street in search of fares. 2. A term of contempt, lickspittle. Crawthumper. 1. Roman Catholic, ' the Pope's cockrels ' (1629) : also Brisket-beaters and, col- lectively, the Breast - fleet. 2. In America an Irishman or Dick, i.e. an Irish Catholic (1782). Cream Cheese. To make believe the moon is made of cream (or green) cheese, to humbug, to deceive, to impose upon. Cream - jugs (Stock Exchange). 1. Charkof - Krementschug Railway Bonds. 2. The paps. Cream - of - the - valley, (also Cold Cream). Gin : cf. Mountain Dew, whisky. Creamy. Excellent, first-rate : see Al. Creation. To beat (or lick) creation, to overpower, excel, surpass, be in- comparable. Creeme. To slip or slide anything into the hands of another (Orose). Creeper. One who cringes and curries favour, a skunk, a snide (q.v.). Creepers. 1. The feet. English syn- onyms: dew-beaters, beetle-crushers, understandings, trotters, tootsies, stumps (also the legs), everlasting Creeps. Crocus. hoes, hocks, boot-trees, pasterns, arda (Old Cant now used as an adj. = hot), double- breasters, daisy-beaters, kickers, crabs, trampers, hockles, hoofs, pudseys. 2. Lice : see Chates. Creeps. The peculiar thrill re- sulting from an undefinable sense of dread : Goose - flesh, Cold shivers, Cold water down the back (1836). Crevecosur. See Heart - breaker. Cxi. The Criterion, theatre and restaurant, at Piccadilly Circus. Crib. 1. The stomach (1656). 2. Generic for a place ; e.g. a house, place of abode, apartments, lodgings, shop, warehouse, den, diggings, or snuggery (1598). 3. A situation, place, or berth. 4. A literal translation sur- reptitiously used by students ; also a theft of any kind ; specifically, any- thing copied without acknowledg- ment (1841). 5. A bed. Verb, (1) to steal, pilfer ; used specifically of petty thefts : see Prig (1748). (2) To use a translation ; to cheat at an examination ; to plagiarise. To crack a crib, see Crack. Cribbage - face (and Cribbage- faced). Pock - marked and like a cribbage-board, Colander-faced, Crum- pet - faced, Pikelet - faced, Mockered (q.v.) (1785). Crib her. A grumbler. Cribbeys (or Cribby - Islands). Blind alleys, courts, and bye-ways. Cribbing. 1. Food and drink, grub and booze (1656). 2. Stealing, pur- loining, using a translation. Crib- biter. An inveterate grum- bler. [Properly a horse that worries his crib, rack, manger, or groom, and at the same time draws in his breath so as to make the peculiar noise called wind-sucking.] FT. gourgousseur, un rcme, rendcleur, and renaudeur. Crib-cracker. A housebreaker. Crib-cracking Housebrcaking. Crikey! (Cracky! or Cry!) For- merly, a profane oath ; now a mere expression of astonishment. [A cor- ruption of ' Christ.'] Crimini (Criminey, or Crimes!) See Crikey. [Possibly influenced by crimen meum, my fault] (1700). Crimson. To make things look crimson, to go on a drunken frolic, paint the town red (q.v.). Crincle - pouch. A sixpence : see Bender (1593). Crinkums. A venereal disease. Crinoline. A woman. Cripple. 1. A ' snid ' (Scots) or sixpence: see Rhino (1785). 2. An awkward oaf, a dullard : Fr., mala- patte. Go it, you cripple I A sarcastic comment on strenuous effort ; fre- quently used without much sense of fitness ; e.g. when the person ad- dressed is a capable athlete. Wooden legs are cheap, is sometimes added as an intensitive. Crisp. A banknote : see Rhino. Crispin. A shoemaker. [From Saints Crispin and Crispianus, the patrons of the ' gentle craft,' Le. shoe- making.] 8t. Crispin's lance, an awL Crispin's holiday, Monday : spec. 25th of October, being the anniversary of Crispinus and Crispianus. Croak. A dying speech, especially the confession of a murderer. Also the same as printed for sale in the streets by a flying stationer (q.v.). Verb, to die : see Hop the Twig. Croaker. 1. A sixpence : see Rhino. 2. A beggar. 3. A dying person. 4. A corpse. 6. The flesh of an animal which has died a natural death. 6. A doctor. 7. A person who sees everything en noir, and whose con- versation is likened to that of the raven, the bird of ill-omen : see Gold- smith's Good Natured Man. Fr., glas. Croakumshire. Northumberland. [Grose : from the particular croaking in the pronunciation of the people of that county, especially about New- castle and Morpeth, where they are said to be born with a burr in their throats, which prevents their pro- nouncing the letter ' r.'] Crock. A worthless animal, a fool, rotter. Crocketts (Winchester College). A kind of bastard cricket, sometimes called ' small crochette.' Five stumps are used and a fives ball, with a bat of plain deal about two inches broad, or a broomstick. To get crocketts, to fail to score at cricket, to make a duck's egg. Crocodile. A girl's school walk- ing two and two. Crocus (Crocu s- metallorum or Croakus). A doctor ; specifically, a quack. English synonyms: pill, squirt, butcher, croaker, corpse-pro- vider, bolus, clyster, gallipot. [Several of these terms also=an apothecary.] (1785). 120 Crocus-chovey. Crow. Crocus-chovey. A doctor's shop. Crocus- pitcher. A quack ambulant. Crocussing-rig, subs. (old). Travelling from place to place as a quack doctor. Crone. A clown or buffoon. Crook. 1. A sixpence : see Rhino. 2. A thief, swindler, one who gets things on the crook. On the crook, the antithesis of on the straight (q.v.) : cf. Cross. To crook (or cock) the elbow (or the little finger), to drink. [Fr., lever le coude ; a hard drinker is un adroit du coude.} See Lush. Crook-back. A sixpenny piece, many of the slang names of which suggest a bashed and battered ap- pearance ; e.g. bender, cripple, crook : see Rhino. Crooked. Disappointing, the reverse of straight (q.v.), pertaining to the habits, ways, and customs of thieves. Crooked as a Virginia (or snake) fence, uneven, zig-zag, said of matters or persons difficult to keep straight. To make a Virginia fence, to walk unsteadily, as a drunkard. Virginia fences zigzag with the soil. Crooky. To hang on to, lead, walk arm-in-arm, court, or pay addresses to a girL Crop. See Crap. Cropped. Hanged : see Ladder, and Topped (1781). Cropper. A heavy fall or failure of any kind ; generally ' to come a cropper.' [Originally hunting.] Croppie (or Croppy). Originally applied to a criminal cropped in ears and nose by the public executioner ; subsequently to convicts, in allusion to closely cropped hair ; hence any person with hair cut close to the head ; e.g. the Puritans and the Irish Rebels of 1789. Croppled. To be croppled (Winches- ter College), to fail in an examination ; to be sent down at a lesson. Croppy. See Croppie. Crops. To go and look at the crops, to consult Mrs. Jones (q.v.). Cross. 1. A pre-arranged swindle. In its special sporting signification a cross is an arrangement to lose on the part of one of the principals in a fight, or any kind of match. When both principals conspire that one shall win, it is called a Double cross (q.v.). [Obviously a shortened form of Cross- bite. 2. A thief; also Cross -man, Cross-cove, Cross-chap, squire (knight, or lad) of the cross, etc. Literally a man on the cross (see sense 1).] As verb, to play false in a match of any kind. Hence to thwart, baffle, spoil (1709). Cross in the air, a rifle carried butt-end upwards. To shake the cross, to quit the cross (sense 1) and go on the square (q.v.). To be crossed, thus explained in a University Guide : For not paying term bills to the bur- sar (treasurer), or for cutting chapels, or lectures, or other offences, an undergrad can be crossed at the but- tery, or kitchen, or both, i.e. a cross is put against his name by the Don, who wishes to see him, or to punish him. On the cross, the opposite of on the square (q.v.): cf. On the crook. Cross- belts. The Eighth Hussars. [The regiment wears the sword belt over the right shoulder in memory of the battle of Saragossa, where it took the belts of the Spanish cavalry. This privilege was confirmed by the King's Regulations of 1768. Cross- bite. See Cross- biting. As verb, to cheat, scold, hoax. [Nares thinks it a compound of cross and bite. It has suffered a double ab- breviation, both its components being used substantively and verbally in the same sense.] See Stiff (1581). Cross - biter. A cheat, swindler, hoaxer : Fr., goureur (1592). Cross- biting. A deception, cheat, hoax (1576). Cross- buttock. A throw in wrest- ling. Also as verb and verbal subs. (1690). Cross - crib. A thieves' dossing- ken (q.v.) : or Lush-crib (q.v.) : also Cross-drum. Cross- fan (or Cross- f am). Robbery from the person done with one hand (fam) across, dissembling the action of the other. As verb, to rob from the person. Cross - kid (or Cross- quid). To question, cross-examine : Fr., faire la jactance, also faire saigner du nez. Cross-patch, subs, (colloquial). An ill-natured, ill-tempered person : cf. old nursery rhyme : ' Cross-patch, draw the latch, Sit by the fire and spin' (1785). Crow. 1. A confederate on watch whilst another steals : generally a man, but occasionally a woman : the latter is also called a Canary (q.v.). 121 Crou-<L Cry. 2. A piece of unexpected luck ; a duke : generally a regular crow. [Originally billiards, in which it<=a hazard not played for, i.e. a fluke ; no doubt a corruption of the Fr., raccroc.] 3. A parson. To eat crow : see Broiled crow. A crow to pluck (putt, or pick) with one, something demanding ex- planation : a misunderstanding to clear ; a disagreeable matter to settle : sometimes, a bone to pick (1593). Crowd. A fiddle. Crowder. 1. A large audience. 2. A fiddler. Crow-eater. A lazybones who pre- fers subsisting upon what he can pick up, as crows do, to putting himself to the trouble of working for it. Crow- fair. A gathering of clergy- men. Crown. To inspect a window with a view to burglary. Crown-office. The head (1785). Crow's - foot. The Government broad arrow ; also (in pi.) wrinkles at the outside corners of the eyes. Cruel (or Cruelly). Extremely, very, great (1662). Cruelty - van for Booby - hutch). A four-wheeled chaise. Crug (Christ's Hospital). 1. At Hertford, a crust ; in the London school, crust and crumb alike (1820). Hence, 2. a Blue (q.v.): especially an old boy. Cruganaler (Christ's Hospital). A biscuit given on St. Matthew's Day. [Orthography dubious. Blanch in- clines to the following derivation : ' The biscuit had once something to do with those nights when bread and beer, with cheese, were substituted for bread-and-butter and milk. Thence the term " crug and aler." The only argument against this is the fact that the liquid was never dignified with the name of ale, but was invariably called " the swipes." By another deriva- tion=" hard as nails." It is then spelt Cruggy-nailer.'] C r u g g y (Christ's Hospital). Hungry. Cruisers. 1. Beggars, or highway spies : those who traversed the road (Grose) to give intelligence of a booty ; also, rogues ready to snap up any booty that may offer. 2. In sing., a street- walker. Crumb. A pretty woman: cf. Crummy. Crumb-and-crust Man. A baker: cf. Burn-crust and Master of the rolls : FT., marchand de larton. Crummy. 1. Fat, plump, well- developed : especially said of high- bosomed and full - figured women : e.g. a crummy piece of goods. Fr., fort en mie (an almost literal translation) (1748). 2. (American), comely. 3. Lousy. Hence, Crummy- dost, a lousy bed. 4. (thieves'). Plump in the pockets. Crump (Winchester College). A hard hit, a fall : as a verb, to cob (q.v.). Crumpet. The head. English synonyms : brain-pan, nut, chump, jazey, steeple, tib or tibby, weather- cock, turnip, upper extremity, top end, twopenny, upper storey, canister, attic, garret, costard, sconce, bonce, nob, lolly, lobb, knowledge-box, block, cocoa-nut, Crown - Office, calabash, top-knot, crust, chimney-pot, onion, chevy, cockloft, top-fiat, gable, pump- kin, hat-peg, billiard ball, upper-orust, mazzard, cabaza, dome. Balmy in one's crumpet : see Balmy. Crumpet-face. A pock-pitted face, a cribbage-face (q.v.). Crumpet- scramble. A tea party, tea-fight, muffin-worry, muffin-fight, bitch-party, or cooky-shine (q.v.). C rum pier. 1. A cravat 2. A falL Crush. A large social gathering (1854). As verb, to run away, de- camp: see Bunk. To crush down sides, to keep tryst, also to run to a place of safety. To crush (or burst) a pot (cup, or bottle) to drink in com- pany. Crusher. 1. A policeman : cf. Crush ! once a favourite signal of the pea, thimble, and other race-course sharps warning of the approach of the police. 2. Anything large, fine, or extraordinary : cf. Whopper, Stinger, Corker, Bouncer, etc. (q.v.). Crushing. Excellent, first-rate. Crust (or Upper Crust). The head : see Crumpet. Upper-crust (q.v.). Crusty- beau. One that uses paint and cosmetics to obtain a fine com- plexion (Grose). Cry. A large number, a quantity. [From cry, a pack of dogs.] Great cry and little wool, much ado about nothing. The original text of the proverb was, Great cry and little wool, as the devil said when he sheared the 122 C.T.A. Curbstone- sailor. hogs. Hudibras alters it into All cry and no wool. To cry carrots and turnips, a term which rogues use for whipping at the cart's arse (Johnson, 1747). To cry (or call) a go, to give in, as one unable to proceed. An ex- pression borrowed from cribbage signi- fying that the player who makes use of it has nothing playable in his hand, and is compelled to cry a go. To cry cupboard, to be famished, hungry, banded (q.v.) : FT., rien dans le cornet, le buffet vide, and danser devant le buffet. Cry matches ! an exclamation of surprise. [Variously derived: (1) a corruption of ' Crime hatches ' ; (2) cry=XPI or Christ, no suggestion being offered to account for ' matches' ; and (3) a conversion of the FT. ere matin, presumably Canadian : cf. Crimini.] To cry off, to retreat, back out from an engagement. See Stink- ing fish. C.T.A. (Circus and showmen's). The police. Cub (or Unlicked-cub). An awk- ward, e^lky girl; a mannerless, uncouth lout of a boy. [In allusion to the supposed shapelessness of bear cubs till their dam has ' licked them into shape.'] Cubitopolis. The Warwick and Eccleston Square districts. [From the name of the builders.] Cf. Alberto- polis, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, The New Jerusalem, Slopers' Island, etc. (q.v.). Cuckoo. 1. A fool: see Buffle. (1598). 2. A cuckold (1594). 3. In pi., generic for money : see Rhino. (1612). Cucumber-time. The dull season. [A correspondent of Notes and Queries says it is of German origin, and originated among London tailors of German nationality. The German phrase is die saure Ourken Zeit (pickled gherkin-time). Hence, it is said, the expression ' Tailors are vegetarians,' because they live now on ' cucumber ' and now on ' cabbage'] (Orose). Cud. A chew of tobacco, a quid. As adj., (Winchester College). 1. Pretty, handsome. 2. (Christ's Hos- pital), severe : see Cuddy. Cuddie. A donkey. Cuddling. Wrestling. Cuddy (Christ's Hospital). Hard, difficult, said of a lesson. Also Hertfordic6 for Passy (q.v.). Cue. To swindle on credit. Cuff. 1. A foolish old man. Prob- ably a contraction of Cuffin (q.v.) (1678). 2. (tailors'). A religious man. To cuff Anthony : see Anthony. To beat or cuff Jonas : see Beat. Cuff er. 1. A lie, an exaggerated and improbable story. Hence, to spin cuffers, to yarn, draw the long bow (q.v.). 2. A man : see Cove. C u ffi n (C u ff e n, or Cuffing). A man (Harmon, 1567). Queer-cuffin, a magistrate (1609). Cuff - shooter. A beginner, one who gives himself airs ; literally one who shoots his cuffs : having a greater regard for the display of his linen than for his work. Cule (Cull, Culing, Culling). To purloin : eepec. from the seats of carriages ; the act of snatching hand- bags and other articles. [Probably an abbreviation of reticule.] Cull (or Cully). A man, com panion, partner. Specifically, a fool, one tricked or imposed upon. Grose seems to make a distinction, for he quotes cull = ' a man honest or other- wise,' and cuDy = ' a fop, fool, or dupe to women,' in which sense it was cur- rent in the seventeenth century. Hum cull, the manager of a theatre ; also a Cully-gorger. Culls. The testes ( 1 600). Culminate. To mount a coach-bol (1803). Cummer. An intimate. Cup-and-saucer Player. A term of derision applied to players of the late T. W. Robertson's comedies. Cupboard-love. Interested affec- tion : cf. old saw, The way to a man's heart is through his stomach (1661). Cups. In one's cups, drunk : cf. Cup-shot and Screwed (1593). Cup-tosser. A juggler. Curate. A small poker, or tickler (q.v.), used to save a better one ; also a pocket-handkerchief in actual use as against a flimsy one worn for show. The better article is a Rector. Similarly when a tea-cake is split and buttered, the bottom half, which gets the more butter, is the Rector, and the upper half the Curate. Curb. To steal : see Prig. (1615). Curbstone - broker. See Gutter- snipe. Curbstone- sailor. A prostitute : see Tart. 123 Cure. Cut. Cure, subs, (common). An eccen- tric, fool, funny fellow. Originally applied in many connections, we Punch, xzxL 201 (1856). Curious. To do curious, to act strangely. Curl. Out of curl, out of aorta ; out of condition. To curl up, to be silent, ' shut up.' To curl one's Jiair, to administer chastisement, ' go for ' one. To curl one's liver (or to have one's liver curled), to make one feel intensely. Curie. Clippings of money (Grow). Curl-paper. Paper for the W.C., toilet paper, ' wipe - bummatory ' (Urquhart), or ' sanitary ' paper, bumfodder, bumf, ammunition. Curly cues (or Carlicues). Fantastic ornaments worn on the person or used in architecture ; also, by implication, a strange line of conduct. Currants - and - plums. A three- penny bit, thrums (q.v.). Currency. A colonist born in Australia, those of English birth being sterling (q.v.). Curse. Not to care (or be worth) a curse, to care (or be worth) little or nothing at all (1362). Curse-of-God. A cockade (Lexicon Balatronicum). Curse of Scotland. The nine of diamonds. The suggested derivations are inconclusive. [The locution has nothing to do with Culloden and the Duke of Cumberland, for the card was nicknamed the Justice-Clerk, in al- lusion to the Lord Justice-Clerk Ormistone, who, for his severity in suppressing the Rebellion of 1715, was called the Curse of Scotland. Other suggestions are : ( 1 ) That it is derived from the game of Pope Joan, the nine of diamonds there (being called the 'pope,' of which the Scotch have always stood in horror. (2) The word ' curse ' is a corruption of cross, and the nine of diamonds is so ar- ranged as to form a St. Andrew's Cross. (3) That it refers to the arms of Dalrymple, Earl of Stair (viz. or, on saltire azure, nine lozenges of the field), who was held in abhorrence for the massacre of Glencoe ; or to Colonel Packer, who attended Charles I. on the scaffold, and had for his arms nine lozenges conjoined, or in the heraldic language, gules, a cross of lozenges. These conflicting views were discussed at length in Notes and Queries, 1 8., L 61, 90 ; iii. 22, 253, 423, 483 ; v. 619 ; 3 S., xii. 24, 96 ; 4 S., vi. 194, 289 ; also, see Chambers' Encyclopaedia.] Cursitor (or Cursetor). A tramp or vagabond. Curtain - raiser. A short ' piece ' to bring up the curtain : Fr., lever de rideau. Curtail (or Curtail). A vagabond or thief : ' A curtail is much like to the Vpright man, but hys authority is not fully so great. He vseth commonly to go with a short cloke, like to grey Friars, and his woman with him in like liuery, which he calleth his altham if she be hys ' (Awddey, 1560). ' Thieves who cut off pieces of stuff hanging out of shop windows ; the tails of women's gowns, etc. ; also thieves wearing short jackets ' (Grose, 1785). As verb, to cut off. Cuse (Winchester College). A book in which a record is kept of the ' marks ' in each division : its name to dons is ' classicus paper ' ; also used for the weekly order. Cushion. To hide, conceal, Stall off (q.v.), Stow (q.v.), Slum (q.v.). To deserve the cushion, on the birth of a child a man was said to deserve the cushion ; i.e. the symbol of rest from labour. Cushion - smiter (or - thumper). A clergyman. Cuss. A man, Cove (q.v.), or Cull (q.v.) : generally, but not necessarily, disparaging. To cuss out, to talk down, flummox by the lip (q.v.). Cussedness. Generally in such phrases as, pure cussedness, the cus- sednees of things, etc. Mischievous- ness, or resolution, or courage may be implied ; but in the Coventry plays cursyanesse signified sheer wickedness and malignity. Customer. A man, fellow, cove, cuss, or chap : with a certain qualifi- cation, e.g. an ugly customer = a dangerous opponent ; a queer customer =a suspicious person, one to be sus- pected ; a rum customet = an odd fish. Custom-house Officer. An aperient piU : cf. Chimney-sweep. Cut. 1. A stage or degree : e.g. a cut above one. 2. A refusal to acknowledge acquaintance, or to associate with another person ; a snub. 124 Cut. Cutting. A cut direct (or dead cut) is a conspicu- ous non-acknowledgment of an ac- quaintance. 3. Mutilation of the book of a play, opera, etc. (1779). As adj., tipsy ; on the cut, on the spree : see Screwed (1748). As verb, 1. To talk (1567): To cut benle, to speake gentle ; to cut bene whydds, to speake or give good words ; to cutte quyer whyddes, to geue euil words or evil language. 2. To disown, ignore, or avoid associating with, a person : sometimes cut dead. An article in the Monthly Magazine for 1798 cites cut as a current peculiarity of ex- pression, and says that some had tried to change it into ' spear,' but had failed. 3. To depart more or less hurriedly and perforce. Also to cut and run, cut it, cut one's lucky, cut one's stick, cut off, cut away, etc. [Originally nautical to cut the cable and run before the wind.] (1570). 4. To compete in business ; to under- sell. A cutting trade is one where profits are reduced to a minimum. Also cut under. 5. To excel. Also cut out. 6. To strike out portions of a dramatic production, so as to shorten it for representation. 7. To avoid, absent oneself from. Thus, to cut lecture, to cut chapel, to cut hall, to cut gates (1794) are common phrases. To cut a caper or capers, to play a trick or prank, behave boisterously or fan- tastically ( 1 692). To cut a dash, splash (or shine), to make a show, attract at- tention through some idiosyncrasy of manner, appearance, or conduct. In the United States to cut a splurge (or a swathe), Fr., flamber, faire du flafla, and faire flouer (1771). To cut a figure, to make an appearance, good or bad (1759). To cut and come again, to have plenty : i.e. if one cut does not suffice, plenty remains to come at again (1738). To cut (or cut up) didoes (shindies, shines, etc.), to play pranks or tricks, to cut capers. To cut dirt (or cut one's stick, lucky), to make off, escape. To cut fine, to narrow down to a minimum. To cut in, to join in suddenly and without ceremony, intrude, chip in (q.v.). Also substantively (1819). To cut into (Winchester College), originally to hit one with a ' ground ash.' The office was exercised by Bible-clerks upon a ' man ' kicking up a row when ' up to books.' Now generally used in the sense of to correct in a less formal manner than Tunding (q.v.). To cut it, to move off quickly, run away, cut dirt (q.v.). As intj., Cease ! Stow it! Stash it! A forcible injunction to desist and be off. Also cut that ! or simply cut I To cut it fat, to show off, make a display, come it strong, put on side, cut a dash (q.v.). To cut mutton, to partake of one's hospitality, to break bread with one. To cut off one's head (American polit- ical) used of an official when his term of office has come to an end through change of Government, or superces- sion in other ways. The cut of one's jib, the general appearance. To cut one's cart, to expose a trick. To cut one's comb, to snub, lower conceit (1593). To cut one's eyes, to get suspicious. To cut one's eye (or wis- dom) teeth, to learn what's what. To cut one's own grass, to get one's own living, paddle one's own canoe. To cut out, to debar, deprive of advan- tage, supersede (1779). To cut out of, to do out of. To cut saucy : see Saucy. To cut short (generally cut it short !) a common injunction not to be prolix, Stow it ! To cut the line (rope, or string), to cut a story short, stop yarning. To cut the painter (1) to decamp, make off secretly and sud- denly. (2) To die : see Hop the twig. To cut up, to run down, to mortify (1759). (2) To come up, turn up, become, show up. (3) To divide plunder, to share, to nap the regulars (1779). (4) To behave. To cut up fat, to leave a large fortune ( 1 824). To cut up rough (rusty, savage, stiff, ugly), to become quarrelsome or dangerous. To be cut up, to be vexed, hurt, de- jected : sometimes simply cut. For- merly, to be in embarrassed circum- stances (1821). Cut-away. A morning coat. [As compared with a frock coat.] Cute. Sharp, clever, ' fly to wot's wot.' Fr., avoir le nez creux (1748). Cuts. Scissors. 8matt-cuts=s button-hole scissors. Cutter. A thief, bully. This ancient cant word now survives in the phrase, to swear like a cutter (1589). Cutting. 1. The process of under- selling ; competition of the keenest kind. 2. Disowning or ignoring a person. 125 Cutde. Daisy-cutter. Cuttle A knife (1692). Cutty - eyed. leering. (or Cuttle- bung), used by cut - purses Suspicious looking, Cutty. A short pipe, a nose- warmer (q.v.). C u z. A workman free of the chapel.' Cymbal. A watch. D. 1. A penny, or (in pi.) pence ; e.g. two d, three d, etc.,=two-pence, three- pence, etc. 2. A detective ; among thieves, any policeman. To use a big d, to swear ; the d stands for damned. The two fa, army regula- tions enact that a soldier's pay must not be so docked in fines as to leave him less than two - pence a day. Hence, if a man, from any cause, is put on short pay, he is said to be on the tun fs. Dab. 1. An expert, a dabster. [Thought to be a corruption of adept (Latin odeptus) a dep ; a dap ; a dab.] Cf. dabbler, one who meddles without mastery ; a superficial med- dler. Fr., dob, dobe, or dode (1733). 2. A bed, bug-walk, kip. 3. The drowned corpse of an outcast woman. 4. A trifle (1745). As adj., 1. Clever, skilled, expert. 2. Bad. A dobheno, a bad market, day, or sale. Doogheno =a good day, etc. ; dob frcw=.bad sort. JRum-dobe, the same as doh, subs., sense 1 : see Rum. To dob down, to pay, hand over, poet, shell out. To dob it up, to pair off ; to agree to cohabitation. Dabster. An ex pert or ddb( q.v.). Dace. Two-pence ; in America, two cents. [From deuce.] Dacha-saltee. A franc; ortenpence English. [From the Italian died MML] Dad binged (also - blamed, -fetched) , gasted, -goned, -rotted, or -snatched (American), half-veiled oaths, ' whips to beat the devil round the stump. Dad-dad, (Mum-mum or Daddy- mammy). A beginner's practice on the drum. Daddle. The hand ; or fist. To tip the doddle, to shake hands. English synonyms : chalk-farm, claw, clutch, cornstealer, duke, fam, famble, feeler, fin, flapper, flipper, forceps, forefoot, fork, grappling-iron (or hook), goll (old), oar, paddle, palette, paw, pber, shaker, wing, Yarmouth mitten. Daddy. 1. The superintendent of a casual ward ; generally an old pauper. 2. A stage manager. 3. A confederate of workers of mock raffles, lotteries, etc. ; generally the person selected to receive the prize. Daddyism. (American). Pride of birth. Daffy (or Daffy's Elixir). Gin. [From a popular medicine sold as early as the beginning of the eighteenth century. Daffy - down - dilly. A dandy, one ' got up regardless.' Dagen. An artful member. Dagger - cheap. Dirt cheap. [From an ordinary of low repute in Holborn, notorious for the coarseness of its entertainment (see Johnson's Alchemist, v. 2, and Devil is an Ass, i. 1). Dags. A feat, performance, work, e.g. 1 11 do your dags=.&r\ incitement to emulation. Daily Levy (The}. The Daily Tde- graph. [This London daily is the property of Mr. Edward LevyLawson.] Dairy. The paps. To air the dairy=to expose the breast. Eng- lish synonyms: bubs (or bubbles), charlies, blubber, butter-boxes, but- ter-bags, berkeleys, cat-heads, diddies, globes, dugs, milk-walk, milk-shop, milky way, dumplings, udder (Brown- ing), ' Nature's founts ', feeding bot- tles, charms, hemispheres, apple- dumpling shop, meat market, poonts, titties, cabman's rests (rhyming), baby's bottom. Daisies. Boots : also Daisy- roots. To turn up one's toes to the daisies, to die : see Hop the twig. Daisy. A man or thing first-rate of a kind. As adj., first-rate, Al. Daisy- beat. See Beat Daisy- beaters. See Creepers. Daisy-cutter. 1. A horse, good or bad : also daisy-kicker : Fr., rase tapis (1785). 2. A ball bowled to travel more than half the pitch along the 126 Daisy -kicker. Dandy. ground without rising, a sneak, and (Wykehamice), a ramrod. Daisy-kicker. 1. A horse. 2. An ostler (1781). Daisy - roots. Boots. To pick a lisy, to evacuate in the open. Daisyville. The country, the monkery : also Deuseaville (1622). Dakma. To silence. Darn. To care or be worth not a dam, to care or be worth nothing. Damage. The cost of anything, the sum total in the sense of recom- pense. What's the damage (or swindle) ? What's to pay ? (1800). Damaged. Drunk, Screwed (q.v.). Damber. A man, Cove, or Cull, in the fraternity of vagabonds. Damme (Dammy or Dammy-boy). A sixteenth and seventeenth century roysterer, a blusterer. Dam - nasty Oath (American). A corruption of amnesty oath. [South- erners, at the close of the Civil War, were required, as an outward sign of submission to the Union, to subscribe to certain conditions, upon which a free pardon was granted. The terms were deemed unpalatable.] Damned - soul. A Custom House clearing clerk. [To avoid perjury he was alleged to have taken a general oath never to swear truly in making declarations.] (Lexicon Balatroni- cum, 1811). Damp (generally Something damp). A drink, go (q.v.). To damp one's mug, to drink : see Lush. To damp the sawdust, to crack a bottle with friends for luck on starting a new house. Damper. 1. A till, Lob (q.v.). Drawing a damper, robbing a till, Lob-sneaking. 2. A sweater ; one who takes as much as possible out of work- men for a minimum of pay. 3. He or that which damps, chills, or dis- courages. 4. Ale or stout after spirits and water, a Cooler (q.v.). 5. A snack between meals. 6. A suet pudding served before meat. 7. Un- leavened bread made of flour and water and baked in thin cakes, in a frying pan or on a flat stone in wood ashes (Australian). Damp- pot. The sea ; specifically the Atlantic. Damson-pie. A Birmingham and ' black country ' term for ' Bil- Ungsgatry.' Dance. A staircase, flight of steps : a contraction of the older form Dancers. As verb, 1. To be hanged : also to dance upon nothing, and to dance the Paddington frisk : see Ladder. 2. Type dances if letters drop out when the forme is lifted. To dance Barnaby, see Barnaby. Dance of Death. Hanging. Dancers. 1. Stairs, flight of steps: Fr., les grimpants (1671). 2. (sing.) Also dancing master. A thief whose speciality is prowling about the roofs of houses and effecting an entrance through attic and upper storey windows ; a garreteer (q.v.) : also dancing -master. Dancing-master. 1. A species of Mohock or dandy, temp. Queen Anne. [Who made his victims caper by running his sword through the legs ; for detailed description, see Spectator (1712), No. 324.] 2. See Dancers, sense 2. 3. The hangman, Jack Ketch (q.v.). D-and-D. Drunk and disorderly. Dander. Anger. To raise one's dander (or get one's dander up, or riz), to make or get angry. Hence Dan- dered, angry, mad. D a n d o. A great eater, glutton, wolfer ; specifically a sharper who sub- sits at the expense of hotels, restaur- ants, or oyster bars. [From one Dando, a bouncing, seedy swell, hero of a hundred ballads, notorious for being charged at least twice a month with bilking.] Dandy (formerly slang, now re- cognized). 1. A fop, coxcomb, man who pays excessive attention to dress. The feminine forms, ' dandilly ' and ' dandizette,' did not catch on. Dandy was first applied half in admira- tion, half in derision to a fop about the year 1816. John Bee (Slang Diet., 1823) says that Lord Petersham was the chief of these successors to the departed Macaronis, and gives, as their peculiarities, ' French gait, lispings, wrinkled foreheads, killing king's English, wearing immense plaited pantaloons, coat cut away, small waistcoat, cravat and chitter- lings immense, hat small, hair frizzled and protruding.' In common English dandy has come to be applied to such as are neat and careful in dress- ing according to fashion. English synonyms : beau, blade, blood, buck, 127 Dandy-matter. Davy. chappie, corinthian, count, court-card, cheese, daffy-down-dilly, dancing- master, dude, dundreary, exquisite, flasher, fop, gallant, gommy, gorger, Jemmy Jessamy, Johnny, lounger, macaroni, masher, mohawk, nerve, nicker, nizzie, nob, oatmeal, scourer, smart, spark, sweater, swell, toff, tip- topper, tumbler, yum-yum. 2. A base gold coin. [In allusion to its careful make and composition, this coin containing a certain proportion of pure gold.] 3. A ' small whisky.' 4. Anything first-rate; a Daisy (q.v.). Also used adjectively. The Dandy, all right, your sort, the ticket : a north- country song has the line, ' The South Shields lasses are The Dandy 1 ' Dandy-master. The head of a gang of counterfeiters, one who makes the coin but does not himself attempt to pass it : see Dandy 2. Dandypratt for Dandipratt). Prim- arily a dwarf, page ; by implica- tion a jackanapes. In all likelihood, the etymon of the modern ' dandy,' erroneously derived from the French dandin, a fool, as in Moliere, Georges Dandin (1580). Dang it I A euphemism for Damn it ! Also Dang my buttons I and Dang me I Danglers. A bunch of seals. Dan Tucker. Butter. Darbies. 1. Handcuffs. English synonyms : black-bracelets, buckles, Father Derbie's bands, ruffles, wife, snitchers, clinkers, government se- curities, twisters, darbies and Joans ( = fetters coupling two persons). 2. Sausages, bags of mystery, chambers of horrors (q.v.). D a r b 1 e. The devil. [A corrup- tion of French diable.] Darby. Ready money. [One Derby is supposed to have been a noted sixteenth century usurer.] Darby Allen (Lancashire). Ca- jolery, chaff, gammon. Darby - roll. A gait peculiar to felons of long standing : the result of shackles- wearing. Darby's - dyke. The grave ; also death. Darby's-fair. The day of removal from one prison to another for trial. Dark. To get the dark, to be con- fined in the punishment cell. Dark-cull (or -cully). A married man with a secret mistress (Orose). Dark-horse (or Dark'un). A horse whose pace is unknown to the backers ; figuratively, one about whom little is known. Dark-house, subs. (old). A mad- house. Shakespeare (Alfa Well, etc., n. iii.) used it to denote the seat of gloom and discontent. Darkmans (Darks, Darky). The night, twilight (1567). English syno- nyms: blackmans, bund, blindman's holiday (twilight). Darkman's - budge. A burglar's confederate : he slips into a house during the day, hides there, and opens the door at night (Grose). Darky (or Darkey). 1. A dark lantern, bull's eye. 2. The night, twilight: also (nautical) Darks. 3, A negro : see Snowball. Darn (Darned). Euphemistic for damn and damned ; used to avoid ' cussing bar' -foot.' Also Dor- nation, Dangnation, Darn burn it, and Darn (or Dash) my buttons (or wig). Dart. A straight-armed blow. D.A.'s. The menstrual flux: an abbreviation of Domestic afflictions (q.v.) Dash. 1. A tavern waiter. 2. (com- mon). A small quantity, a drink ; a go (q.v.). Also a small quantity of one fluid to give a flavour to another e.g. a lemon and a dash, a bottle of lemonade with just a suggestion of bitter beer in it. As verb, to adulterate Dash it I (or dash my buttons, wig, timbers, etc.) Expletives employed euphemistically, i.e. to damn. To cut a dash : see Cut. To have a dash on, to speculate largely or wildly, to go it strong. Dasher. 1. A showy prostitute. (1790). 2. An ostentatious or extra- vagant man or woman, an impetuous person, a clipper ; also latterly, a man or woman of fashion, a person of brilliant qualities, mental or physical : Fr., genreux-se. Daub. 1. An artist 2. A bad picture. David. 1. See Davy. 2. (Ameri- can). A torpedo. David's Sow. Drunk as David's (or Davy's) sow, beastly drunk : see Screwed. Davy. 1. An affidavit: e.g. So help (or s'wdp) me davy, or Alfred Davy (q.v.): Fr., Je fen foiu mon 128 Davy's-dust. Dead-head. billet or mon petit turlututu, I'll take my davy on it (1764). Davy Jones, Davy, or Old Davy, the spirit of the sea, specifically the sailor's devil (1751). Whence, Davy Jones' locker, the ocean, specifically, the grave of them that perish at sea. The popular derivation ( = a corruption of Jonah's locker, i.e. the place where Jonah was kept and confined, and by im- plication the grave of all gone to the bottom, drowned or dead) is con- jectural. Davy putting on the coppers for the parsons, the indications of a coming storm. Davy Jones' natural children, smugglers, sea-rovers, pirates. Davy's-dust. Gunpowder. 3^ Dawb (or Daub). To bribe. Daylight. A glass that is not a bumper, skylight (q.v.): obsolete. To burn daylight, to use artificial light before it is really dark, to waste time (1595). To let (or knock) day- light into one (into the victualling de- partment, or into the luncheon reservoir), to stab in the stomach, and, by im- plication, to kill : Fr., bayafer. Daylights. 1. The eyes. To darken one's daylights, to give a black eye, sew up one's sees (1752). 2. In sing., the space in a glass between liquor and brim : inadmissible in bumpers at toasts : the toast-master cries ' no daylights nor heeltaps ! ' Deacon. To pack fruit, vegetables, etc., the finest on the top : cf. Yankee proverb, All deacons are good, but there is odds in deacons. To deacon a calf, to kill. To deacon land, to filch land by gradually putting back one's fences into the highway or other common property. To deacon off, to give the cue, lead in debate. [From a custom, once universal but now almost extinct, in the New England Congregational churches. An im- portant function of the deacon's office was to read aloud the hymns given out by the minister one line at a time, the congregation singing each line as soon as read. This was called deaconing off.] Deacon - seat. In log cabins the sleeping apartment is partitioned off by poles. The bed is mother earth, the pillow is a log, the foot-board a long pole six feet from the fire and in the centre of the cabin. The deacon seat is a plank fixed over and running parallel with the footboard so as to form a kind of settee in front of the fire. [Probably in allusion to the seats round a pulpit, facing the con- gregation, reserved for deacons.] Deacon's Hiding-place. A private compartment in oyster saloons and cafes ; Fr., cabinet particulicr. Dead. An abbreviation of dead certainty. As adj., stagnant, quiet (of trade), flat (as of beer or aerated waters after exposure), cold, good, thorough, complete (1602). Dead as a door nail (mutton, a herring, a tent- peg, Julius Ccesar, etc.), utterly, com- pletely dead. Dead as a door-nail is found in Langland's Piers Plowman [1362] ; all other forms are modern. In dead earnest, without doubt, in very truth. Dead against, decidedly opposed to. Dead alive (or Dead- and-alive), dull, stupid, mopish, for- merly deadly - lively. Dead - amiss, incapacitated through illness from competing in a race : of horses. Dead- beat, a sponger, loafer, sharper. 2. A pick-me-up compounded of ginger, soda, and whisky. As verb, to sponge, loaf, cheat. As adj., ex- hausted. Dead broke, utterly penni- less, ruined : also flat (or stone) broke ; used verbally, to dead break. Eng- lish synonyms: wound up, settled, coopered, smashed up, under a cloud, cleaned out, cracked up, done up, on one's back, floored, on one's beam ends, gone to pot, broken-backed, all U. P., in the wrong box, stumped, feathered, squeezed, dry, gutted, burnt one's fingers, dished, in a bad way, gone up, gone by the board, made mince meat of, broziered, wil- lowed, not to have a feather to fly with, burst, fleeced, stony, pebble- beached, in Queer Street, stripped, rooked, hard up, broke, hooped-up, strapped, gruelled. Dead-cargo. Booty of a disappoint- ing character. Dead-certainty. That which is sure to occur ; usually contracted to Dead or Cert, both of which see. Dead cut, see Cut. Dead-duck. That which has depre- ciated to the verge of worthlessness. Deader. 1. A funeral, black - job (q.v.). 2. A corpse. Dead - frost. A fiasco, Columbus (q.v.) : Fr., four noir, Dead-head (Dead-beat or Dead- hand). One who obtains some 129 Dead-heat. Dean. thing of commercial value without special payment or charge ; spec, a person who travels by rail, visits theatres, etc., by means of free paaiei. Also as verb. Dead-heat A race with an equal finish : formerly dead (1635). Dead-horse. 1. Work, the wages for which have been paid in advance ; by implication, distasteful, or thank- less labour : Fr., bijouterie. To pull the dead horse, to work for wages al- ready paid : Fr., manger du soli ( 1651 ). 2. (West Indian). A shooting star. Among Jamaican negroes the spirits of horses that have fallen over pre- cipices are thought to re-appear in this form. To flog the dead hone, to work to no purpose, dissipate one's energy in vain, make much ado about nothing. Dead-letter. Anything that has lost its force or authority by lapse of time or other causes (1775). Deadlights. The eyes. Dead - lurk. The art of entering dwelling-houses during divine service (May hew). Deadly. Very, extremely, ex- cessively : e.g. So deadly cunning a man (Arbuthnot). Deadly-lively. Jovial against the grain and to no purpose. Deadly-nevergreen. The gallows, The leafless tree, The tree that bears fruit all the year round : see Nubbing- cheat. Dead-man. 1. An emply bottle: said to bear Moll Thompson's mark (i.e. M.T.=empty). English syno- nyms : camp-candlestick, fellow-com- moner, corpse, dummy, dead marine, dead recruit, dead 'un. 2. A loaf, over-ch irged, or marked down though not delivered. In London, dead 'un is a popular term for a half-quartern loaf. Also, by implication, a baker (1819). 3 (tailors'). In pL, Misfits ; hence, a scarecrow. Dead man's - lurk. Extortion of money from the relatives of deceased persons. Dead - meat. A corpse. English synonyms : cold meat, pickles (medical students' : for specimens direct from the subject), croaker, stiff, stiff 'un, dustman, cold pig. See Cold-meat train. Dead - m e n's - shoes. A situa- tion, property, or possession formerly occupied or enjoyed by a person who is dead and buried. Waiting for dead men's shoes, looking forward to inheritances (1584). Dead-nap. A thorough-going rogue. Dead - nip. A plan or scheme of little importance which has turned out a failure. Dead-oh. In the last stage of intoxi- cation : see Screwed. Dead - on (or Dead nuts on). Originally, having some cause of complaint or quarrel ; also, very fond of, having complete mastery over, sure hand at Dead-set A pointed and persist- ent effort or attempt (1781). Dead Sow's-eye. A badly worked button-hole. Dead-stuck. Said of actors who break down in the midst of a perform- ance through sudden lapse of memory. Dead-swag. Dead stock, or dead cargo (q.v.) ; plunder that cannot be disposed of. Dead-to-rights. Certain, without doubt. Dead-'un. 1. An uninhabited house. The cracksman who confines his attentions to ' busting ' of this kind is, in Fr., un nourrisseur. 2. A half -quartern loaf. 3. A horse des- tined to be scratched or not intended to win, and against which odds may be safely laid; a safe 'un (q.v.). 4. An empty bottle. 5. An unpaid super. Dead-unit for (or against). Collec- tive advocacy of (or opposition to) a subject, principle, or line of action. Dead- wo od earnest Quite earnest, dead on. Dead Wrong-'un. See Wrong 'un. Deady (or Dead-eye). Gin ; a special brand of full proof spirit, Stark- naked (q.v.). [From Deady, a well- known gin-spinner.] (1819). Deal. There's a deal of glass about, said of men and things ; used as a compliment^ showy, it's the thing. To wet the deal, to ratify a bargain by drinking, to ' shake.' To do a deal, to conclude a bargain. Deal-suit A coffin ; especially one supplied by the parish. Dean (Winchester College). A small piece of wood bound round a Bill-brighter (q.v.); that securing a faggot is called a Bishop. 130 Deaner. Deuce. Deaner. A shilling : see Rhino. Death. To be death on, very fond of, thoroughly master of a metaphor of completeness ; the same as Dead on, Mark on, or Some pumpkins on. To dress to death, to attire oneself in the extreme of fashion. In America to dress within a inch of one's life ; to dress up drunk, and to dress to kill. An old Cornish proverb has dressed to death like Sally Hatch (N. and Q., 3 ser., vi. 6). Death hunter. 1. A vendor of the last dying speeches, or confessions of criminals ; a running patterer or stationer (1738). 2. An undertaker. Death or Glory Boys. See Bing- ham's Dandies. Debblish. A penny : see Rhino. Decent (Decently, Decentish). Moderate, tolerable, passably, fairly good. Decoy-bird (or duck). One em- ployed to decoy persons into a snare ; a Buttoner or Bug-hunter (q.v.) : FT., allumeur, chatouilleur, or arrangeur. D e c u s. A crown piece : see Rhino. [From the Latin motto, Decus et tutamen on the rims of these coins.] (1688). Dee. 1. A pocket-book or reader. 2. A detective ; also 'tec (q.v.). 3. See D, sense 2. Deeker. A thief kept in pay by a constable (Haggart). Deep. Artful, e.g. a deep one: cf. Wide (1672). Deerstalker. A felt hat : see Gol- gotha. Deferred-stock. Inferior soup. Degen (Degan, or Dagen). A sword (1785). Delicate. A lurker's (q.v.) false subscription book. Dell. A young girl, virgin, young wanton : later, a mistress : cf. Doxy (1567). Delog. Gold : see Rhino. Delo-nammow. An old woman. Delve. To delve it, to hurry with one's work, head down and sewing fast. Demaunder for Glymmar. ' These Demaunders for Glymmar be for the moste parte wemen ; for glymmar in their language, is fyre. These goe with fayned lycences and counter- fayted wrytings, hauing the hands and seales of suche gentlemen as dwelleth nere to the place where they fayne them selues to haue bene burnt, and their goods consumed with fyre. They wyll most lamentable demaunde your charitie, and wyll quicklye shed salte teares, they be so tender harted. They wyll neuer begge in that Shiere where their losses (as they say) was ' (Barman). Demi -doss. A penny sleep. Demi-rep. A woman of doubtful repute. [A contraction of demi- reputation. ] ( 1 750). Demnition Bow-wows. The ' dogs ' which spell ' ruin.' Originally a Dickensism. Demon (Australian prison). 1. A policeman. 2. An adept ; e.g. the demon bowler Mr. Spofforth ; the demon /oc&ez/ Fordham or Fred Archer, and so forth. Den. A place where intimates are received ; one's diggings, or snug- gery. Dennis. A small walking stick. Dep. 1. A deputy; specifically the night porter or chamberlain at padding or doss-kens. 2. (Christ's Hospital). A deputy Grecian, i.e. a boy in the form below the Grecians. D e r r e y. An eyeglass. To take the derrey, to quiz, ridicule. Derrick. The gallows. [A cor- ruption of Theodoric, the name of the public hangman at the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth centuries.] Now the name of an apparatus, resembling a crane. Also as verb, to hang (1600): see Nubbing-cheat. Derwenter. A convict. [From the penal settlement on the banks of the Derwent, Tasmania.] Despatchers. False dice with two sides, double four, five, and six. Desperate (and Desperately), generic for excessiveness ; e.g. des perately mashed, over head and ears in love. Detrimental. An ineligible suitor ; also a male flirt. Detrimental-club. The Reform Club. Deuce (Dewce, or Deuse). 1. The devil ; perdition. Also used as an ejaculation, e.g. the deuce ! what the deuce ! who the deuce I deuce take you I etc. 2. Twopence : see Rhino (1714). 3. The two at dice or cards. To play the deuce (or devil) with, to send, or be sent, to rack and ruin. The deuce to pay, unpleasant or awkward con- 131 DevU-dodger. sequences to be faced : see Devil to pay. Deuced. Devilish, excessive, con- founded. Also adverbially. Deusea - ville. The country : see Daisyville. Deusea-ville Stampers. Country carriers. Devil. 1. Formerly, a barrister who devils, or gets up, a case for a leader; as in A Tale of Two Cities, Sydney Carton for Mr. Stryver. Now common for any one hacking for another. 2. An errand boy or young apprentice ; in the early days of the craft, the boy who took the printed sheets as they came from the press : Fr., attrape-acienee (1754). 3. A kind of sharpened anchor, at the bows of a trawler, for cutting the nets of drifters in the North Sea. 4. A firework (1742). 5. Gin seasoned with capsi- cums. 6. A grilled bone seasoned with mustard and cayenne. 7. A sand- storm. 8. A species of firewood soaked in resin. The (or a) devil of [a thin}], an indefinite intensitive : e.g. devil of a mess, of a woman, of a row, etc. (1602). American devil, a steam whistle or hooter : used in place of a bell for summoning to work. Blue devils: see ante. Little (or young) devil, a half playful, half sarcastic, address ; a term of endear- ment ; e.g. You little deviL As verb, 1. To act as a Devil (q.v.), to perform routine or regular work for another. 2. To victimize. What who, when, where, or how the devil, an expletive of wonder, vexation, etc. To play the devil with, to ruin or molest. To pull the devil by the tail, to go headlong to ruin ; also to be reduced to one's last shift. To whip the devil round the stump, to enjoy the sweets of wickedness and yet escape the penalty. Haul devil, putt baker, to contend with varying fortunes. And the devU knows what (or who), a term used vaguely and indefinitely to include details not specifically mentioned or known (1717). To go to the devil, to go to rack and ruin. Go to the devil I Begone ! a summary form of dismissal with no heed as to what may become of the person who is sent about his business. To hold a light or candle to (or burn a candle before) the devil, to propitiate through fear, to assist (or wink at) wrongdoing. Shakespeare (' Merchant of Venice,' act n. sc. vi.), employs ' What ! must I hold a candle to my shame,' in much the same sense. Not fit to hold a candle to the devil, a simile of inferiority. To hold a candle to another, to assist in, occupy a sub- ordinate position, or to compare to another (1461). The devil (or the devil and all) to pay, a simile of fruit- less effort ; awkward consequences to be faced. [Nautical : originally, There's the devil to pay and no pitch hot ; the devil being any seam in a vessel, awkward to caulk, or in sailor's language ' to pay.' Hence by con- fusion, The deuce to pay (q.v.).] (1711). Talk of the devil and you'll see his horns or tail, said of a person who, being the subject of conversation, unexpectedly makes an appearance. Fr., parlez des anges et vous en voyez les ailes (1664). Devil may care, rollicking, reckless, rash (1822). DevU take (fetch, send, snatch, or fly away with) you, me, him I an imprecation of impatience. Fr., le boulanger fentrotte en son pasclin. There's the devil among the tailors, a row is going on. [Edwards : Originating in a riot at the Haymarket when Dow- ton announced the performance, for his benefit, of a burlesque entitled ' The Tailors : a Tragedy for Warm Weather.' Many thousands of jour- neymen tailors congregated, and interrupted the performances. Thirty- three were brought up at Bow Street next day. See Biographica Drama- tica under ' Tailors.'] When the devil is blind, never, i.e. in a month of Sundays ; said of anything unlikely to happen : see Greek Kalends. Devil -dodger. A clergyman : also, by implication, any one of a religious turn of mind (1791). English syno- nyms : devil catcher (driver, pitcher, or scolder), snub devil, bible pounder, duck that grinds the gospel mill, corn- mister, camister, sky-pilot, chimney- sweep, rat, rum (Johnson), pan tiler, cushion smiter (duster, or thumper), couple (or buckle) beggar, rook, gospel grinder, earwig, one-in-ten (tramps = a tithe-monger), finger-post, parish prig, parish bull, holy Joe, green apron, black cattle (collectively), white choker, patrico, black coat, black fly, glue pot, gospel postilion, prunella, pudding-sleeves, puzzle-text, schism - monger, cod, Black Bruns- 132 Devil-drawer. Dew-beaters. wicker, spiritual flesh-broker, head- clerk of the Doxology Works, Lady Green, fire-escape, gospel sharp, padre (Anglo-Indian), pound-text. Devil-drawer. An indifferent artist. Devilish. Used intensively : cf. Awfully, beastly (1755). Devil's Bed-posts (or Four- poster). The four of clubs ; held to be an unlucky ' turn up.' Devil' s-bones. Dice ; also Devil's teeth, Devil's books (1664). Devil's-books. Cards. [Of Pres- byterian origin ; in reproof of a syno- nym King's books, or more fully, The History of the Four Kings (Fr., lime des quatre row).] Also Books of Briefs (Fr., la cartouchiere d parties) (1729). Devil's-claws. The broad arrow on convict dress. Devil's-colours (or livery). Black and yellow. Devil's-daughter. A shrew. Devil's-delight. To kick up the devil's delight, to make a disturbance (1854). Devil' s-d o z e n. Thirteen ; the original of baker's dozen (q.v.). [From the number of witches sup- posed to sit down together at a ' Sab- bath.' Fr., boulanger = the devil.] Devil's -dung, subs. (old). Asa- f oetida : the old pharmaceutical name (1604). Devil' s-dust. 1. Old cloth shredded for re-manufacture. [In twofold al- lusion to the swindle and to the ' dust ' or ' flock ' produced by the disinteg- rating machine called a ' devil.' The practice and the name are old. Lati- mer, in one of his sermons before Ed- ward the Sixth, treating of trade rascality, remarked that manufac- turers could stretch cloth seventeen yards long, into a length of seven-and- twenty yards : ' When they have brought him to that perfection,' he continues, ' they have a pretty feat to thick him again. He makes me a powder for it, and plays the pothicary. They call it flock-powder, they do so incorporate it to the cloth, that it is wonderful to consider ; truly a good invention. Oh that so goodly wits should be so applied ; they may well deceive the people, but they cannot deceive God. They were wont to make beds of flocks, and it was a good bed too. Now they have turned their flocks into powder, to play the false thieves with it.' Popularised by Mr. Ferrand in a speech before the House of Commons, March 4, 1842 (Hansard, 3 S., Ixi. p. 140), when he tore a piece of cloth made from devil's dust, into shreds to prove its worth- lessness.] Also Shoddy (q.v.) (1840). 2. Gunpowder. Devil's-guts. A surveyor's chain (1785). Devil's Own (The). 1. The Eighty- Eighth Foot. [A contraction of The Devil's Own Connaught Boys, a name bestowed by General Picton for gallantry in action and irregularity in quarters during the Peninsular War, 1809-14.] 2. The Inns of Court Volunteers [in allusion to the legal personnel] (1864). Devil' s-paternoster. To say the devil's paternoster, verb. phr. (old). To grumble (1614). Devil's-playthings. Cards : also Devil's books. Devil's-sharpshooter. A cleric who took part in the Mexican War. Devil's - smiles. April weather, alternations of sunshine and rain. Devil's - tattoo. Drumming the fingers or tapping the floor with one's feet, in vacancy or impatience (1817). Devil's-teeth. See Devil's-bones. [Also to note in this connexion are Devil's own boy, a young blackguard ; imp of the devil, idem ; Devil's own ship, a pirate ; Devil's own luck, un- common, or inexplicable good fortune. To lead one. the devil's own dance, to baffle one in the pursuit of any object ; The devil a bit, says Punch, a jocular yet decided negative ; and Neat but not gaudy, as the devil said when he painted his bottom pink and tied up his tail with pea green, a locution em- ployed of aged ladies dressed in flam- ing colours.] Deviltry. A vulgarism for devilry. D e v o r (Charterhouse). Plum cake. [From the Latin.] Devotional - habits. Said of a horse that is apt to ' say his prayers,' i.e. to stumble and go on his knees. Dew-beaters (dusters, or treaders). 1. Pedestrians out early in the morning, i.e. before the dew is off the ground (1692). 2. The feet : see Creepers. 3. Shoes. Dew-bit. Dew-bit. A snack before break- (-t. Dew -drink. A drink before break- fast : Fr., goutte pour tutr It ver, i.e. to drown the maggot, or, to crinkle the worm. Not, of course, the early worm of the proverb, but his spiritual cousin, the worm that never dies. Dewitt. To lynch. [The two De Witts, opponents of William of Orange, were massacred by the mob in 1672, without subsequent inquiry.] Cf. Boycott, Burke, Cellier (1690). Dewse-a-Vyle. The country : see Daisyville(1567). Dewskitch. A thrashing. Dial (or Dial-plate). The face. To turn the hands on the dial, to disfigure the face. English synonyms : frontis- piece, gills (the jaws), chump (also the head), phiz, physog, mug, jib, chivy (or chevy), roach and dace (rhyming), signboard, door - plate, front-window. Dials. Convicts and thieves hailing from Seven Dials. Diamond - cracking. 1. Stone- breaking. 2. Coal mining. Cf. Black diamonds. Dibs (or Dibbs). Generic for money : see Rhino. [Said to be a corruption of diobs, i.e. diobolus, a classic coin= 2Jd. Another derivation is from the hucklebones of sheep, popularly dibbs, used for gambling ; Scots ' chuckies.'] To brush with the dibs, to abscond with the cash ; To tip over the dibs, to pay down or shell out ; To flash the dibs, to show money, etc. Dice. To box the dice, to carry a point by trick or swindle. Dick. 1. A dictionary, a Richard (q.v.) ; also, by implication, fine language or long words. 2. A riding whip. 3. An affidavit. 4. An Irish Catholic : see Crawthumper. As verb, to look, Pipe (q.v.) ; e.g. the bulky's dicking, the policeman is watching you : Fr., gaffer : see Pipe. Dick in the green, weak, inferior : cf. Dicky. In the reign of Queen Dick, never, when two Sundays come in a week : see Greek Kalends. To swallow the Diet, to use long words without know- ledge of their meaning, to high falute (American). Up to Dick, not to be taken in, artful, fly, wide - awake. Also, up to the mark, i.e. perfectly satisfactory. Dickens. The devil (q.v.) or deuce (q.v.) (1596), used interchange- ably. [A corruption of nick (q.v.).] For synonyms, see Skipper. Dicker (or Dickering). Barter, swap (q.v.) : generally applied to trade in small articles. Dickey. 1. A woman's under pet- ticoat 2. A donkey (1766). 3. A sham shirt front, formerly a worn-out shirt. [Hotten : originally tommy (from the Greek, ropy, a section), a word once used in Trinity College, Dublin.] Also, by implication, any sham contrivance (1781). 4. A shirt collar (De Fere). 6. A ship's officer or mate ; second dickey, i.e. second mate. 6. A swell : see Dandy. As adj., 1. Sorry, inferior, paltry and poor in quality. Dickey domus (theatri- cal), a poor house. 2. Smart : cor- ruption of Up to dick (q.v.). Att dickey with [one'], queer, gone wrong all up with (1811). Dickey-bird. 1. A louse: see Chates. 2. (pi.) Professional singers of all grades. 3. A prostitute ; gener- ally naughty dickey-bird. Dickey-diaper. A linen-draper. Dickey-dido. An idiot : see Buffle. Dickey-lagger. A bird-catcher. Dickey-sam. A native of Liverpool. Diddies. The paps. Diddle. 1. Gin : see Drinks. 2. A swindle, do. As verb, 1. To cheat (1811). 2. (Scots colloquial). To shake. Diddle-cove. A landlord. Diddler. A cheat, a dodger. [Cf. Jeremy Diddler, in Kenny's liaising the Wind.} Also a chronic borrower. Didoes. Pranks, tricks, fantastic proceedings. Die (or Dee). A pocket book. To die in one's boots (or shoes). 1. To be hanged: see Ladder (1653). 2. To ' die standing ' : at work, in harness, in full possession of one's faculties. See Cotton. Die - by - the - Hedge. The flesh of animals deceased by accident or of disease ; hence, inferior meat. Die - Hards. The Fifty-Seventh Foot. [From the rallying call at Albuera (1811) its Colonel (Inglis) calling to the men, ' Die hard, my men, die hard,' when it had thirty bullets through the King's Colour, and only had one officer out of twenty-four, and one hundred and sixty-eight men out 134 Dig. Dip. of five hundred and eighty-four, when left standing.] Dig. 1. A blow, thrust, punch, or poke ; in pugilism, a ' straight left- hander ' delivered under the guard on the 'mark' (1819). Also as verb. English synonyms : auctioneer, biff, bang, buck-horse, buster, chatterer, chin - chopper, chopper, clip, click, clinker, clout, cock, cork, comber, cuff, cant, corker, dab, downer, douser, ding, domino, floorer, ferricadouzer, fibbing, facer, flush - hit, finisher, gooser, hot 'un, jaw-breaker, lick, mendoza, muzzier, noser, nobbier, nose-ender, nope, oner, punch, stock- dollager, stotor, spank, topper, twister, whack, wipe. 2. A diligent student : (by implication from the verb (q.v.) ; also study ; e.g. to have a dig at Caesar or Livy ; as verb, to work hard ; especi- ally to study. To dig a day under the skin, to make one shave serve two days. To dig up the hatchet : see Bury. Digester. See Patent digester. Digged. See Jigged. Diggers. 1. Spurs, persuaders (1789). 2. The spades suit: also Diggums. Big digger, ace of spades. 3. The finger nails. Diggers' -delight. A wide-brimmed felt hat : see Golgotha. Diggings. A place of residence or employment. [First used at the Western lead mines in the U.S.A. to denote whence ore was dug.] Eng- lish synonyms : birk, box, case, crib, chat, den, dry-lodgings, drum, place, pig-sty, pew, cabin, castle, chafimg- crib, caboose, sky-parlour, shop, ken, dossing - ken, hole, rookery, hutch, hang-out. Diggums. 1. A gardener. 2. The suit of spades ; also Diggers (q.v.). Dilberries. Fcecal and seminal deposits : clinkers. Dilly. A night cart ; formerly a coach. [Fr., diligence.} Dilly-bag. A wallet, scran-bag. Dilly - dally. To loiter, hesitate, trifle (1740). D i m b e r. Pretty, neat, lively, scrumptious, natty. Fr., batif, fignole, girofte. Dimber cove, a sprightly man, a gentleman. Dimber mort, a pretty girl. Dimber - damber. A captain of thieves or vagrants. Dimmock. Generic for money : see Rhino. Dinahs. Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway Ordinary Stock. Dinarly (or Dinali) Money : gen- eric : see Rhino. Nantee (or Nanti Dinarly), no money : Sp., dinero ; Lingua Franca, niente dinaro, not a penny. Dine. To dine out, to go dinnerless. To dine with Duke Humphrey, Take a Spitalfields breakfast (or an Irishman's dinner), go out and count the railings. Fr., Se coucJier bredouUle (to go to bed supperless) ; oiler voir de filer lea dragons (to go and watch the dragoons march past) ; diner en ville (to dine in town : i.e. to munch a roll in the street or to eat nothing), lire le journal. Ding. To knock, strike down, pound, or give way : also to get rid of, pass to a confederate, steal by a single effort. To ding a castor, to snatch a hat and run with it : the booty being dinged if it has to be thrown away. Going upon the ding, to go on the prowl. Ding the tot ! run away with the lot ! (1340). Ding-bat. Money : see Rhino. Ding-boy. A rogue, bully (Grose). Ding-dong. To go at it (or to it) ding-dong, to tackle with vigour, or in right good earnest. Formerly, helter- skelter (Grose, 1785). Dinge (Royal Military Academy). A picture or painting. Dinged. Darned (damned), some- times Ding-goned. Dinger. 1. A thief who throws away his booty to escape detection : see Ding. 2. In pi., cups and balls ; Fr., gobdets et muscades. Ding-fury. Huff, anger. Ding-goned. See Dinged. Dingle. Hackneyed, used up (1786). Dining - room. The mouth : see Potato - trap. Dining - room chairs, the teeth ; also Dinner-set (q.v.) : see Grinders. Dining-room Post. Petty pilfering by sham postmen. Dink. Dainty, trim ( 1 794). Dinner-set. The teeth. Your dinner-set wants looking to, you need to go to the dentist. Dip. 1. A pickpocket ; also Dip- per and Dipping-bloke : see Stook- hauler. 2. A stolen kiss, especially one snatched in the dark. 3. (West- minster School). A pocket inkstand- 4. A candle made by dipping the wick 135 Dipe. Do. in tallow. As verb ( 1 ) To pick pockets To dip a lob, to rob a till : also to go on the dipe, to go pocket-picking : see Frisk. (2) To pawn, mortgage ( 1 093). (3) To be convicted, get into trouble. To dip one's beak, to drink : see Lush. Dipe. See Dip. Dipped. Dipped in the wing. Worsted. Dipper. 1. A baptist (Grose). 2. See Dip. Dipping-bloke. See Dip. Dips. 1. A purser's boy. 2. A grocer. Dipstick. A gauger. Dirt. Money : generic : see Rhino. To eat dirt, to submit to insult, eat broiled crow, or humble pie (q.v.) ; to retract. To fling dirt (or mud), to abuse, vituperate (1689). To cut dirt. See Cut. Dirt-baillie. An inspector of nuisances. Dirt - scraper. An advocate who rakes up unpleasant facts in a witness's past. Dirty -dishes. Poor relations. Dirty Half-Hundred. The Fiftieth Foot. [From the fact that, in action, during the Peninsular War, the men wiped their faces with their black fac- ings.] Also the Blind Half- Hundred. Dirty-puzzle. A slut (Orose). Dirty -shirt March. On Sunday mornings the male population of Drury Lane, Whitechapel, and other crowded districts loaf about the streets, before attiring themselves in their Sunday clothes. This promenade is called a Dirty-shirt march. Dirty-shirts. The Hundred and First Foot. [They fought in their shirt-sleeves at Delhi in 1867.] Disgruntled. Offended : colloquial in U.S.A. Undisgruntled, unoffended. Disguised. Drunk : see Screwed (1622). Dish. To cheat, circumvent, dis- appoint, to ruin (1798). Dish-clout. A dirty-puzzle, slattern. To make a napkin of one's dish-clout, to marry one's cook, con- tract a mesalliance (Orose). Dished. Said of electrotypes when the centre of a letter is lower than its edges. Dismal-ditty. A psalm sung by a criminal at the gallows. Dispar (Winchester College). See Cat's-head. Dispatches. False dice; con- trived always to throw a nick. See Doctor. Dissecting - job. Garments re- quiring extensive alterations. Distiller. A man easily vexed, and unable to dissemble his condition. Ditto-blues (Winchester College). A suit of clothes all of blue cloth : cf. Dittoes. Ditto Brother (or Sister) Smut. See Brother Smut. Dittoes. A complete suit of clothes of tLe same material. Fr., un com- plet. Occasionally applied to trousers only. Ditty-bag. A handy bag, used by sailors as a ' huswife.' [Deft, Dight = neat, active, handy.] Dive. A drinking saloon ; also a brothel. As verb, to pick pockets : see Frisk. Diving, picking pockets (1631). To dive into one's sky, to put one's hands into one's pockets. To dive into the woods, to conceal oneself. Diver (or Dive). A pickpocket (as Jenny Diver in ' The Beggar's Opera ') dip (q.v.): see Thief (1608). Divers. The fingers : see Forks. Divide. To divide the house with one's wife, to turn her out-of-doors. Diving-bell. A cellar- tavern : cf. Dive : and see Lush-crib. Do. 1. A fraud (1812). 2. One' duty, a success, performance of what one has to do; once literary (1663). As verb, (1) to cheat: see Gammon (1789). 2. To punish (q.v.). 3. To visit a place ; e.g. to do Italy, to do the Row, to do the High (at Oxford), etc. Fr., faire is used in the same sense ; faire ses Acacias, i.e. to walk or drive in the AUee des Acacias. 4. To perform, to come (q.v.) ; to do the polite, to be polite ; to do a book, to write one ; to do the heavy (the grand, or the genttel), to put on airs (1767). 6. To utter base coin or Queer (q.v.). Do as I do, an invitation to drink. See Drinks. To do a beer (or a bitter, a drink, or a drop), to take a drink. To do a bilk. See Bilk. To do a bill, to utter an acceptance or bill of ex- change. To do a bishop, to parade at short notice. To do a bit, to eat some- thing : cf. to do a beer. To do a bunk (or shift), to ease nature : see Bury a quaker, and Mrs. Jones. Also, to go away. To do a crib, to break into a house, to burgle : Fr., maquiUcr 136 Do. Dodder. une cambriole : see Crack a crib. To do a guy (1) to run away, make an escape. (2) To absent oneself when supposed to be at work. To do a nob, to make a collection. To do a pitch : see Pitch. To do a rush, see Rush. To do a snatch : see Snatch. To do a star pitch, to sleep in the open air : Fr., loger d la belle ctoUe : see Hedge Square. To do a brown : see Brown and Bamboozle : also to do brown and to do it up brown. To do for (1) to ruin: also to kill (1650). (2) To attend on (as landladies on lodgers). (3) To convict, sentence. Done for, convicted. To do or play gooseberry : see Gooseberry. To do gospel, to go to church. To do the handsome (or the handsome thing), to behave extremely well to one. To do it away, to dispose of stolen goods : also To do the swag (q.v.), Fence (q.v.). To do it on the B. H., to perform with ease. To do it up, to accomplish an object in view, obtain one's quest. To do it up in good twig, to live an easy life by one's wits. To do one proud, to flatter : e.g. Will you drink ? You do me proud. To do out, to plead guilty and exonerate an accomplice. To do over (1) to knock down, persuade, cheat, ruin (1789). (2) To search a victim's pockets without his knowing it : cf. run the rule over. To do potty, to pick oakum in gaol. To do one's business, to kill : see Cook one's goose. Also (vulgar), to evacuate. To do the downy to lie in bed. Downy flea pas- ture, a bed. To do the swag, to sell stolen property : Fr., laver la camelote or les fourgueroles. To do the trick, to accomplish one's object. To do time, to serve a term of imprisonment. To do to death, to repeat ad nauseam. To do to tie to, to be fit to associate with ; trustworthy. To do up, to use up, finish, quiet. Done up, tired out, ruined, sold up: see Floored (1594). For the rest, do, like Chuck and Cop, is a verb-of-all-work, and is used in every possible and impossible connec- tion. Thus, To do reason and To do right, to honour a toast ; To do a bit of stiff, to draw a bill ; To do a chuck, to eject, or to go away ; To do a sip (back slang), to make water ; To do a cat, to vomit ; To do a hall (or a theatre), to visit a music hall or a play- house ; To do a fluff (theatrical), to forget one's part ; To do a pitch (show- man's or street artists'), to go through a performance ; To do a mouch (or a mike), to go on the prowl ; To do a grouse, to go questing for women ; To do a doss, to go to sleep ; To do a cadge, to go begging ; To do a scrap, to engage in combat ; to do a rural, to ' rear ' by the wayside ; etc. Do tell ! intj. A useful interjection, for lis- teners who feel that some remark is expected ; equivalent to the English Really ? and Indeed ? A similar phrase in the South is the old English, You don't say so ? which a Yankee will vary by, I want to know ! Do tell is also used with inexperienced Munchausens who by its means may often be lured to repeat themselves (1824). Doash. A cloak : see Capella. Dobbin. Ribbon. Dobbin rig, stealing ribbon. Dock. 1. The weekly work bill or Pole (q.v.). 2. The hospital. Aa verb, (1) (Winchester College), to scratch out, tear out (as from a book) ; also to strike down. To go into dock, to undergo salivation. Docker. 1. A brief handed to counsel by a prisoner in the dock. Legal etiquette compels acceptance if ' marked ' with a minimum fee of 1, 3s. 6d. 2. A dock labourer. Dock -walloper. A loafer ; one who loiters about docks and wharves ; also an unemployed emigrant. Dockyarder. A skulker : cf. Straw- yarder (q.v.). Dockyard-horse. An officer better at correspondence than at active service. Doctor. 1. A false die ; sometimes a manipulated card. To put the doctor on one, to cheat. 2. An adulter- ant. To keep the doctor, to make a gractice of adulterating liquor. 3. rown sherry. [Because a doctored (q.v). wine.] 4. A ship's cook. 6. (Winchester College). The head master. 6. The last throw of dice or ninepins. As verb, (1) to patch, adul- terate, falsify, cook. (2) To poison a horse. Doctor Draw-fart. A wandering quack. Doctored. Patched, adulterated, falsified, cooked. Dod-burn it I A euphemistic oath ; on the model of Dadbinged (q.v.). Dodder. Burnt tobacco taken 137 Dodderer. Dog's-eared. from the bottom of a pipe and placed on the top of a fresh plug to give a stronger flavour. Dodderer. A meddler; always in contempt. Sometimes doddering old sheep's head, which also=a fool. D o d d y. In Norfolk a person of low stature. Sometimes hodmandod and hoddy-doddy, ' all head and no body.' Dodman (dialect), a snail. Dodfetched. A euphemistic oath. Most of its kind have originated in New England, where the descend- ants of the Puritans form the largest portion of the population. Dodgasted. See Dodfetched. Dodge. To trick, swindle, elude. Used in various combinations : The pious dodge, a pretence of piety ; The tidy-dodge, begging in the streets with tidily but poorly dressed children, etc. Also, Nart (1708) : see Lay. Dodger. 1. A trickster : e.g. the ' Artful Dodger ' (Dickens, Oliver Twist, ch. viii.) : FT., etre ficelle, to be a dodger (1611). 2. A dram; pro- vincially, a nightcap : see Go. 3. A hard-baked cake or biscuit : usually corn - dodger, or when mixed with beef, beef-dodgers. 4. A handbill. Dodo. A stupid old man. Dodrotted. A euphemistic oath. Does. Does it ? A sarcastic retort. Does your mother know you're out ? A popular locution, vague as to meaning and inexact in application an expression expressive of con- tempt, incredulity, sarcasm, anything you please. English variants: Has your mother sold her mangle ? Not to- day, or it won't do, Mr. Ferguson ! Sawdust and treacle ! Draw it mild ! And the rest ! Who are you T All round my hat ! Go it, ye cripples ! Shoo, fly ! How does the old thing work ? Well, you know how it is yourself ! How's your poor feet ? Why, certainly ! I'll have your whelk ! Not to-day, baker, call to- morrow, and we'll take a crusty one ! Do you see any green in my eye ? Put that in your pipe and smoke it ! Where are you going on Sunday T Go to Putney ! Who stole the donkey : the man in the white hat ! Cough, Julia ! Over the bender ! There you go with your eye out ! etc., etc. Dog. 1. A man; sometimes used contemptuously (cf. Cat, a woman), but more frequently in half-serious chiding ; e.g. a sad dog, gay dog, old dog, etc. : see Cove. Sometimes adjectively male ; An old dog at it, expert, or accustomed to (1596). 2. A burglar's iron : see Jemmy. To go (or throw) to the dogs, see Go and Demnition Bow-wows. Hair of the dog that bit you : see Hair. To blush like a blue dog : see Blush. Dog biting dog, said of actors who spitefully criticise each others' performance. Dog in a blanket, a pudding of pre- served fruit spread on thin dough, rolled up, and boiled ; also Roly-poly and Stocking. Like a dog in shoes, a pattering sound ; as the noise of a brisk walk. Dog in the manger, a selfish churl ; who does not want himself, yet will not let others enjoy. [From the fable.] (1621). To go to the dogs : see Go. To let sleeping dogs lie : see Sleeping dogs. Dogberry. A magistrate or stupid constable : see Beak and Copper. [From Much Ado about Nothing.] Dog-cheap. Very cheap, of little worth, foolish. [Skeat : from Swed., dog, very ; Latham : the first syllable is god = good, transposed + cheap, from chapman, a merchant hence, a good bargain.] Fr., bon marchc (1598). Dog-collar. A stand-up shirt collar, an all-rounder (q.v.). Dog-drawn (old), adj., phr. Said of a bitch from which a dog baa been removed by force. Dogger (Charterhouse). To cheat, sell rubbish. Doggery. 1. Transparent cheating : cf. Dogger. [Carlyle in Frederick uses doggery = the doings of a scurvy set of soldiers.] 2. A low drinking saloon. Doggoned. A euphemistic oath. Doggy. A batty in the mining districts is a middleman ; a doggy is his manager. As adj., (1) Connected with, or relating to dogs. (2) Stylish. Dog - Latin. Barbarous or sham Latin ; also Kitchen, Bog, Garden, or Apothecaries' Latin. Dogs. 1. Sausages; otherwise bags' of mystery (q.v.), or chambers of horrors (q.v.). 2. Newfoundland Land Company's shares; now amal- gamated with the Anglo - American United, and called Anglos. ' Dog's-body. Pease pudding. Dog's-eared. Crumpled, as the leaves of a page with much reading. 138 Dog's-meaL Donkey. Dog's-meat. Anything worthless : as a bad book, a common tale, a villainous picture, etc. Dog-shooter. 1. A volunteer. 2. (Royal Military Academy). Cadets thus term a student who accelerates, that is, who, being pretty certain of not being able to obtain a commission in the engineers, or not caring for it, elects to join a superior class before the end of the term. Dog's -nose. A mixture of gin and beer : see Drinks. Dog's - paste. Sausage or mince- meat. Dog's - portion. A lick and a smell, i.e. next to nothing. Dog's-sleep. The lightest possible form of slumber. Dog's-soup. Water: see Adam's ale and Fish broth. Dog's-tail. The constellation of Ursa minor or Little Bear. Dog - stealer. A dog-dealer : sar- castic. Doldrums. Low spirits; the dumps or hump (q.v.). [Properly parts of the ocean near the Equator abounding in calms and light, baffling winds.] Dole (Winchester College). A stratagem or trick. [Latin dolus.'] D o 1 i fi e r (Winchester College). One who contrives a trick. See Dole. Dollar. A five-shilling piece. Half-dollar, half-a-crown, or two shillings : see Caroon. Dollop. A lot. All the dollop, the whole thing. In Norfolk to dollop, to dole out ; also to ' plank.' Dolloping, throwing down. Dolly. 1. A mistress. 2. A piece of cloth use as a sponge. As adj . , silly. Dolly-mop. A harlot. Dolly - shop. A marine store : really an illegal pawn-shop and fence (q.v.); also leaving-shop. No ques- tions are asked ; all goods are received on the understanding that they may be repurchased within a given time ; so much per day is charged ; no duplicalo is given ; and no books are kept. From the sign of the Black Doll (q.v.).] Dome. The head : see Crumpet. Domestic-afflictions. A woman's flower-time. Dome-stick. A domestic servant. Dominie. A clergyman ; also (modern Scots), a pedagogue or schoolmaster. [Latin dominus, a lord or master.] (1616). Dominie Do-little. An impotent old man. Domino ! An ejaculation of com- pletion : e.g. for sailors and soldiers at the last lash of the flogging ; and for 'bus conductors when an omnibus is full inside and out ; also, by im- plication, a knock-down blow, or the last of a series. [From the call at the end of a game of dominoes.] Domino - box. The mouth : see Potato-trap. Dominoes. 1. The teeth : see Grinders. To sluice one's dominoes, to drink. 2. The keys of a piano. Domino-thumper. A pianist. Dommerar (Dommerer, or Dum- merer). A beggar feigning to be deaf and dumb; also, a madman (1567). Don. An adept ; a swell ; also a swaggerer, a man putting on side. At the Universities a fellow or officer of a college ; whence the vulgar usage. [Latin, dominus, a lord, through the Spanish title.] (1665). As adj., clever, expert, first-rate. Dona (Donna, Donny, or Doner). A woman : see Petticoat. Donaker. A cattle-lifter (1669). Done ! An interjection of accept- ance or agreement (1602). As adj., exhausted, ruined, cheated, convicted. [See Do in most of its senses.] Done-over. Intoxicated : see Screwed. Donkey. 1. A compositor; press- men are Pigs (q.v.). English syno- nyms: ass, moke, galley-slave. 2. A sailor's chest. 3. A blockhead : see Buffle. A penny (twopence or three- pence) more, and up goes the donkey, an exclamation of derision. [Street acrobats' : the custom was to finish off the pitch by balancing a donkey at the top of a ladder on receipt of ' tuppence more ' ; which sum, however often subscribed, was always re-demanded, so that the donkey never ' went up ' at all.] Who stole the donkey ? A street cry once in vogue on the ap- pearance of a man in a white hat. With a similar expression Who stole the leg of mutton ? applied to the police, it had its rise in a case of larceny. To ride the donkey, to cheat with weights and measures : also Donkey-riding. To talk the hind leg off a donkey : see Talk. 139 Donkey-drops. Mb, Donkey - drops. Slow roundhand bowling, such as is seldom seen in good matches, but is effective against boys, is known by the contumelious desig- nation of donkey-drops. Donkey's-ears. An old-fashioned shirt-collar with long points. Donna. See Dona. Donnish (Donnism, Donnishness) (University). Arrogant, arrogance (1823). Donny. See Dona. Donovans. Potatoes : cf. Murphy. [Donovan, like Murphy, is a common Irish patronym.] Don's-week. The week before a general holiday. Don't-name-'ems. Trousers: see Kicks. Don't. Don't you insh you may get it, a retort forcible. Doodle. A dolt : see Buffle. Doodled. Cheated, done (1823). Doodle -doo -man. A cockfighter or breeder. Doog. Good. D o o k i e. A penny show or un- licensed theatre : cf. Gaff. Dookin (Dookering). Fortune- telling (1857). Dookin-cove, a fortune teller. Door -nail. Dead as a door-nail : see Dead. Doorsman. See Barker and Clicker. Doorstep. A thick slice of bread and butter : Fr., fondante. Dooteroomus (or Doot). Generic for money : see Rhino. Dope. To drug with tobacco : also doping, the practice. Dopey. 1. A beggar's trulL 2. (old). The podex. Dor (Old Westminster School). 1. Leave to sleep awhile (Kersey, 1715). 2. An affront. Doras. South-Eastern Railway Deferred Ordinary Stock, sometimes applied to the ' A ' Stock. D o r b i e. An initiate. The Dor- bie's knock, a peculiar rap given by masons as a signal amongst themselves. It may be represented by the time of the following notes : . rc;r! Dorcas. A sempstress ; especially one employing herself for charitable purposes. Dorse. BM D.'---. Dose. 1. A sentence of imprison- ment ; specifically three months' hard labour. English synonyms : spell, time, drag, three moon, length, stretch, seven- pennorth, sixer, twelver, lagging. 2. A burglary. 3. A beating. 4. As much liquor as one can hold. To have a dose of the balmy, to do a sleep. To take a grown man's dose, to take a very large quantity of liquor. Doss (or Dorse). A bed, lodging ; also asleep, or lib (q.v.) (1789). As verb, to sleep. English synonyms : to go to the arms of Murphy (q.v.). have forty winks, go to Bedfordshire, take a little (or do a dose) of the balmy, chuck (or do) a doss, snooze, go to by- by, read the paper, shut one's eyes to think, retire to the land of Nod. Dosser. One who frequents a doss - house (q.v.). 'Appy dossers, houseless vagrants who creep in, sleep on stairs, in passages, and in empty cellars. The dosser, the father of a family. Doss-house (Dossing-crib or ken). A common lodging - house : Fr., baa- tengue and garno. Doss - money, the price of a night's lodging (1838). Dossy. Elegant, spiff (q.v.). Dot. A ribbon. Dot-drag, a watch ribbon (1821). Dot - and - Carry - (or Go-) one. 1. Properly, a man with a wooden leg ; by implication, a Hopping-giles or Lira ping- Jesus (q.v.): Fr., banban. 2. A writing-master or teacher of arith- metic (Orose). As verb, to ' hirple ' ; especially applied to a person with one leg shorter than the other, or, with an uneven keel. Dot. 1. An item of news. 2. Money : see Rhino. D o 1 1 e r. A reporter, penny-a- liner : see Dot. Dottle. The same as Dodder (q.v.). Dotty. 1. Feeble, dizzy, idiotic ; e.g. Dotty in the crumpet, weak in the head ; Dotty in the pins, unsteady on the legs. Also 2. subs., a fancy man of prostitutes of the lowest type. Doubite. A street. Double. 1. A trick. 2. An actor playing two parts in the same piece ; also as a verb (1825). 3. A turning. 4. Repetition of a word or sentence. Double, adj. and adv., is also used as an intensitive in many obscene or offensive connotations : e.g. Double- arsed, large in the posteriors ; Double- 140 Double-back. Down. duggs (and Double-dugged or diddied), heavy breasted ; Double - guts (and Double - gutted), excessively corpu- lent ; Double-hocked, abnormally thick ankled ; Double - mouthed, Mouth- almighty (q.v.) ; and so forth.] To put the double on, to circumvent. To tip (or give) the double, to run or slip away openly or unperceived ; to double as a hare ; formerly to escape one's creditors. Also to Tip one the Dublin packet : see Amputate (1781). Double-back. To go back upon oneself, an action, an opinion. Double-barrel. A field or opera glass. Double-bott omed . Insincere, saying one thing and meaning another. Double-breasted feet. Club feet : also Double-breasters. Double-cross (or Double-double). Winning or doing one's best to win after engaging to lose or Mike (q.v.). Double-distilled. Superlative : e.g. a double - distilled whopper, a tre- mendous lie. Double - dutch. Unintelligible speech, jargon, gibberish. It was all Double - dutch to me, I didn't under- stand a word of it. Double-event. Backing a horse for two races. Double - firm. A 10 note : see Finn. Double-header. A false coin with a head on the obverse and reverse, made by soldering two split coins. Double-juggs. The posteriors (Burton). Double-lines. Ship casualties: from the manner of entering at Lloyd's. Doubler. A blow in the side or stomach, causing a man to bend from pain or lack of wind. Double - ribbed. Pregnant : see Lumpy. Double-shotted. Said of a whisky (or brandy) and soda, containing twice the normal quatity of alcohol. Double-shuffle. 1. A hornpipe step in which each foot is shuffled twice in succession, the more rapidly and neatly the better. 2. A trick or fake- ment. Double-slang. See Slangs. Doublet. A doctored diamond or other precious stone. The face is real and this is backed up by a piece of coloured glass. Cf. Triplet. Double-thumber. A prodigious lie. Double-tongued. Mendacious, given to change opinions in changing company. Double-tongued squib. A double- barrelled gun. D o u b 1 e - u p. 1. To punish. Doubled-up, collapsed (1819). 2. To pair off, chum with. Dough. Pudding. Dough-baked. Deficient in intel- lect. In U.S.A., easily moulded : said of politicians (1675). Doughy. A baker : see Master of the rolls. Douse. See Dowse. Dover. A made-dish, hash, re- chauffe. Dovers. South Eastern Railway Ordinary Stock. Dove. A member of St. Catharine's College, Cambridge. It is said that the members of St. Catharine's Hall were first of all called Puritans, from the derivation of the name of their patroness from KoQuipeiv. The dove being the emblem of purity, to change a name from Puritans to doves was but one short step. Soiled dove, a high-class prostitute. Dove-tart. A pigeon-pie. (Doo- tairt is excellent Scots for the same thing.) Cf. Snake-tart, eel pie. Dowlas. A draper. [From dowlas, now a kind of towelling, but mentioned by Shakespeare (' 1 Henry IV.,' m. in'., 1597) as a material for shirts. Popu- larised as a sobriquet by Colman's Daniel Dowlas in The Heir at Law. Dowling. A compulsory game of football. [ow\oe. ] Down. 1. Suspicion, alarm, a diversion. There is no down, all is quiet, it is safe to go on (1821). 2. Small beer. Up, bottled beer. As adv. (1) dispirited, hard-up, in dis- grace. Found in various combina- tions : e.g. Down in the mouth (or dumps), dejected ; Down on one's luck, reduced in circumstances ; Down at heel, shabby ; Down at one's back- seam, out of luck ; Down to bed- rock, penniless, etc., etc. (1608). (2) acquainted with, Fly (q.v.), Up to (q.v.). Also in combination: down to, down on, and down as a hammer (1610). (3) Hang-dog. As verb, to put on one's back ; whether by force or by persuasion. To be down a pit, to be very much taken with a part. To be (or come) down upon one, to be- 141 Dral. rate, attack, oppose. Sometimes with a tag : e.g. like a thousand (or a load) of bricks ; like one o'clock ; like a tom- tit on a horse turd, etc. To be down pin, to be out of sorts, despondent. To drop down on one, to discover one's character or designs. To put a down upon one, to peach so as to cause detec- tion or failure. To put one down to [a thing], to apprize, elucidate, or explain ; to coach or prime ; to let one into the know. To take down a peg : see Peg. Down the road, vulgarly showy, flash. Down to dandy : see up to Dick. Down to the ground, en- tirely, thoroughly, to the last degree (1642). Downed. Tricked, beaten, sat upon. Downer. 1. A sixpence : see Rhino. In U.S.A., a five-cent, piece. [Cf. Deaner (q.v.) ; now corrupted into Tanner (q.v.).] 2. A knock- down blow : cf. Bender, Doubler, etc. Down-hills. Dice cogged to run on the low numbers (Grose). Downs. Tothill Fields prison : see Cage. Downstairs. HelL Downy. A bed : also Downy flea- pasture. As adj., artful, knowing (q.v.) (1823). To do the downy: see Do. Downey-bit. A half-fledged girl. Downy-cove (or bird). A clever rogue : in pi., the downies. English synonyms : mizzler, leary bloke or cove, sly dog, old dog, nipper, file, Greek, one that knows what's o'clock, one who knows the ropes, or his way about, don, dodger, dab, doll's eye-weaver, dam - macker, shaver, dagen, chickalcary - cove, ikey bloke, artful member, one that is up to the time of day, fly cove, one that's in the know, one that has his eye-teeth skinned, or that has cut his wisdoms. Dowry. A lot, a great deal ; dowry of parny, a lot of rain or water. Dowse (or Douse). A verb of action : e.g. Dowse your dog vane, take the cockade out of your hat ; Dowse the glim, put out the candle; Dowse on the chops, a blow in the face. Dout. Literally, to do out ; as Dup (q.v.), to do up, and Don, to do on. See Hamlet, iv. Then up he rose and donned his clothes, and dupped the chamber door. Doxology - works. A church or chapel. Doxy. A mistress, prostitute, oc- casionally, a jade, a girl, even a wife. In West of England, a baby (1567). Dozing-crib. A bed : see Kip. D.Q. On the D.Q., on the dead quiet : cf. Strict Q.T., etc. Drab. 1. Poison; also medicine. Also as a verb. 2. A strumpet. Drabbing, strumming. Drabbut. A vague and gentle form of imprecation. Drabbut your back, confound you. Draft. Draft on Aldgate pump, a fictitious banknote or fraudulent bill. See N. and Q., 7 S., i. 387-493 (1760). Drag. 1. A cart of any kind ; now usually applied to a four-horse coach. 2. A chain. 3. A street or road. Back drag, a back street. 4. Three months' imprisonment ; also Three Moon : see Dose. Done for a drag, convicted of Dragging (q.v.) : see Drag, a term of imprisonment. 6. Feminine attire worn by men. To go on (or flash) the drag, to wear women's attire for im- moral purposes. 6. A lure, trick, stratagem. 7. A fox prepared with herring or aniseed and brought to covert in a bag. 8. See Dragging. To put on the drag, to ease off or go slow ; also to put on pressure. To drag the pudding, to get the sack just before Christmas-time. Drag-cove. A carter or driver of a Drag (q.v.). Dragging. Robbing vehicles. Drag - lay. The practice of rob- bing vehicles (Grose). Dragon. A sovereign, 20s. : see Rhino. To water the dragon, to urinate, ' pump ship,' ' rack off.' Dragsman. A coachman ; also a Drag-sneak (q.v.). Drag -sneak. A thief who makes a speciality of robbing vehicles (1781). Drain. 1. A drink : see Go. To do a drain (wet, or common sewer), to take a friendly drink (1836). 2. Gin. [From its diuretic qualities.] Drains. A ship's cook ; The Doctor (q.v.). Drammer. See Drummer. Draper. See Gammon the Draper. Drat (Dratted). A mild and in- definite imprecation of contempt, or impatience. [A corruption of God rot it.] 142 Draught. Drinks. Draught. A privy : see Mrs. Jones (1602). Draw. 1. An undecided contest. [An abbreviation of ' drawn game.'] 2. An attraction ; e.g. an article, popular preacher, successful play, and so forth. 3. A stroke with the surface of the bat inclined to the ground. As verb, (1) to attract public attention. (2) To steal, pick pockets. To draw a wipe (or ticker), to prig a handkerchief or watch ; to draw a damper, to empty a till (Grose). (3) To tease to vexation, take in, make game of. (4) To bring out, cause to act, write, or speak, by flattery, mis-statement, or deceit. Also, to draw out ; Fr., tirer les vers du nez. (5) To ease of money : e.g. I drew him for a hundred ; She drew me for a dollar ! To draw on [a man], to use a knife. To draw a bead on, to attack with rifle or revolver. To draw a straight furrow, to live up- rightly. To draw plaster, to fish for a man's intentions. To draw straws, to be almost asleep, drowsy. To draw teeth, to wrench knockers and handles from street doors. To draw the badger : see Badger. To draw blanks, to fail, be disappointed. To draw the bow up to the ear : see Bow. To draw (or pull) the long bow : see Bow. To draw the cork, to make blood flow ; to tap the claret (q.v.). To draw the King's (or Queen's) picture, to manufac- ture base money. To draw wool (or worsted), to irritate ; foment a quarrel : cf. Comb one's hair. Draw it mild ! an interjection of (1) derision ; (2) in- credulity; (3) supplication : cf. Come it strong. Draw boy, a superior article ticketed and offered at a figure lower than its value. Drawer-on. An appetiser : used only of food, as Puller-on (q.v.) of drink. Both are in Massinger. Drawers. Embroidered stock- ings (1567). Draw-fart (or Doctor Draw-fart). A wandering quack. Draw - latch. A thief ; also a loiterer (1631). Draw - off. To throw back the body to strike ; He drew off, and delivered on the left peeper. A sailor would say, He hauled off and slipped in. Dreadful. A sensational story, newspaper, or print : see Awful, and Shilling Shocker. Dredgerman. A river thief under pretence of dredging up coals and such like from the bottom of the river. They hang about barges and other undecked craft, and when opportunity serves, throw any property they can lay their hands on overboard: in order, slyly, to dredge it up when the vessel is gone. Sometimes they dexterously use their dredges to whip away any- thing that may lie within reach. Some are mighty neat at this, and the ac- complishment is called Dry dredging. Dress (Winchester College). The players who come next in order after Six or Fifteen. [So called because they come down to the matches ready dressed to act as substitutes if re- quired.] To dress a hat, to exchange pilferings : e.g. to swap pickings from a hosier's stock with a shoemaker's assistant for boots or shoes. To dress down, to beat, scold (1715). To be dressed like Xmas beef : see Beef. To dress to death (within an inch of one's life, or to kill), to dress in the extreme of fashion. Dress-house. A brothel : cf. Dress- lodger. Dressing (or Dressing -down). Correction, manual or verbal ; also defeat. Dress -lodger. A woman boarded, fed, and clothed by another, and pay- ing by prostitution. Dressy. Fond of dress. Drilled. Shot through the body. Drinks. The subjoined lists will be of interest. Invitations to drink What'll you have ? Nominate your pizen ! Will you irrigate ? Will you tod ? Wet your whistle ? How'll you have it ? Let us stimulate ! Let's drive another nail ! What's your medicine ? Willst du trinken ? Try a little anti-abstinence ? Twy (zwei) lager ! Your whisky's wait- ing. Will you try a smile ? Will you take a nip ? Let's get there. Try a little Indian ? Come and see your pa ? Suck some corn juice ? Let's liquor up. Let's go and see the baby. Responses to invitations to drink. Here's into your face ! Here's how ! Here's at you ! Don't care if I do. Well, I will. I'm thar ! Accepted, unconditionally. Well, I don't mind. Sir, your most. Sir, your utmost. You do me proud ! Yes, sir-reo ! With you yes ! Anything to oblige. 143 Drinks. Drop. On time. I'm with you. Count me in. I subscribe. Synonyms for a drink [i.e. a portion], generally, or when taken at specified times. Anti- lunch, appetiser, ball, bullock's eye (a glass of port), bead, bosom friend, bucket, bumper, big-reposer, chit- chat, cheerer, cinder, corker, cobbler, damper, or something damp, dannie, drain, dram, deoch-an-doras, digester, eye-opener, entr'acte, fancy smile, flash, flip, facer, forenoon, go, gill, heeltap, invigorator, Johnny, joram, morning rouser, modicum, nip, or nipperkin, night cap, nut, pistol shot, pony, pill, quantum, refresher, rouser, reposer, shout, smile, swig, sleeve- button, something, slight sensation, shant, sparkler, settler, stimulant, soother, thimble-full, tift, taste, tooth- full, Timothy : see Go. General syn- onyms for drink. Breaky - leg, bub, crater ( also = whisky), fuddle, gargle, grog, guzzle, lap, lush, neck-oil, nectar, poison, slum-gullion, swizzle, stingo, tipple, tittey, toddy : see Tipple. Synonyms for beer (including stout). Act of Parliament ; artesian, barley, belch, belly-vengeance, bevy or bevvy, brownstone, bum-clink, bung-juice, bunker, cold-blood, down (see Up) ; English burgundy (porter), gatter, half-and-half, heavy-wet, John Bar- leycorn, knock-down or knock- me- down, oil of barley, perkin, ponge, pongelow, or ponjello, rosin, rot-gut, sherbet, stingo, swankey, swipes, swizzle, up (bottled ale or stout) : see Swipes. Synonyms for Brandy. Ball of fire, bingo, cold-tea, cold- nantz ; French elixir or cream : see French Elixir. Synonyms for whisky. Aqua vitas, bald - face, barley - bree, breaky - leg, bottled - earthquake, bum - clink, caper - juice, cappie, curse of Scotland, family-disturbance, farintosh, forty-rod lightning, grapple- the-rails, hard stuff, hell-broth, in- fernal compound, kill - the - beggar, lightning, liquid fire, moonlight, moon- shine, mountain-dew, old man's milk, pine - top, railroad, red - eye, rotgut, screech, Simon pure, sit - on - a - rock (rye whisky) soul - destroyer, square face, stone-fence, tangle-foot, the real thing, the sma' still, white-eye : see Old man's milk. Synonyms for gin. Blue ruin, blue-tape, Brian O'Lynn (rhyming), cat-water, cream of the valley, daffy, diddle, drain, duke, eye- water, frog's wine, juniper, jackey, lap, max, misery, old Tom, ribbon, satin, soothing-syrup, stark-naked, strip me - naked, tape, white satin, tape, or wine : see Satin. Synonyms for champagne. Cham or chammy, boy, fiz, dry, bitches' wine. Synonyms for port. lied fustian (q.v.). Syno- nyms for sherry Bristol milk, white wash. Terms implying various degrees of intoxication : eee Screwed. See also lists under Elbow - crooker, Lush, Lushcrib, Lushington, Gallon Distemper. Dripper. A gleet. Dripping. A cook ; especially an indifferent one : FT., fripier and daube : cf. Doctor and Slushy (q.v.), a ship's cook. Drive. A blow. To lei drive, to aim a blow, strike. Four rogues in buck- ram let drive at me. Shakespeare, As verb, to send a ball off the bat with full force horizontally. To drive at, to aim at : e.g. What are you driv- ing at T What do you mean T (1697). To drive a bargain, to conduct a negotiation, make the best terms one can, dispute a condition or a price, succeed in a deal (1580). To drive a humming (or roaring) trade, to do well in business (1625). To drive oneself to the wash, to drive in a basket-chaise. To drive pigs to market, to snore. Fr., jouer d la ronfle (or de Forgue), also fumer. To drive turkeys to market, to reel and wobble in drink. To drive French horses, to vomit. From the Hue done of French carters to their teams.] Driver's pint. A gallon. Driz. Lace: Fr., miche (in allusion to the holes in a loaf of bread). Driz-fencer. A street vendor of lace, also a receiver of stolen material. fc Droddum. The posteriors (1786). Dromaky. A prostitute : north of England, particularly N. and S. Shields. [From a strolling actress who personated Andromache.] Dromedary. A bungler ; specifically a bungling thief : also Purple drome- dary. Drop. See Drop game. As verb, (1) to lose, give, or part with (1812). (2) To relinquish, abandon, leave : e.g. to drop an acquaintance, to gradually withdraw from intercourse : cf. Cut. To drop the main toby, to turn out of the main road (1711). (3) To knock 144 Drop-game. D. Ts. down : cf. To drop into, to thrash. (4) To bring down with a shot. To drop anchor, to pull up a horse. To drop one's anchor, to sit (or settle), down. To drop a cog, see Drop-game. To drop one's flag, to salute ; also to sub- mit, lower one's colours. To drop (hang, slip, or walk) into, to attack : also cf. Drop on to. To drop off the hooks, to die : see Hop the twig. To drop one's leaf, to die : see Hop the twig. To drop on one, to accuse or call to account without warning. Also to thrash. To drop the scabs in, to work button-holes. To drop one's wax, to evacuate or ' rear.' To get (or have) the drop on, to hold at dis- advantage, forestall. To have a drop in the eye, to be slightly drunk : see Screwed (1738). Drop it\ Cease! Cut it ! Cheese it ! Drop -game. A variety of the con- fidence trick : The thief picks out his victim, gets in front of him, and pre- tends to pick up (say) a pocket-book, (snide) which he induces the green- horn to buy for cash. The object is a Cog, and the operator a Dropper or Drop-cove. Dropped-on. Disappointed. Dropper. A specialist in the Drop- game (q.v.) : also Drop-cove (1669). Dropping. A beating ; I'll give you a good dropping, i.e. I'll thrash you severely. Droppings. The excrement of horses and sheep. Drown. See Miller. Drudge. Whisky in its raw state. Drug. To administer a narcotic. A drug in the market, anything so common as not to be vendible. Drum. 1. An entertainment ; now a tea before dinner ; a Kettle-drum (q.v.) (1750). 2. A road, street, or highway. English synonyms: drag, toby, high (or main) toby, pad, donbite, finger and thumb (rhyming). 3. The ear. 4. A building ; Hazard - drum, a gambling hell ; Flash - drum, a brothel ; Cross- drum, a thieves' tavern ; In U.S.A., a drinking place. 5. A bundle carried on tramp ; generally worn as a roll over the right shoulder and under the left arm : also Bluey and Swag (q.v.). 6. A small workshop. Drummer. 1. A horse, the action of whose forelegs is irregular (Grose). 2. A thief, who before robbing, narcotises or otherwise stupefies his victim. 3. A commercial traveller ; also Ambas- sador of Commerce or Bagman (q.v.) ; Fr., gaudissart or hirondette. See Drum, a road. Old - time pedlars announced themselves by beating a drum at the town's end.] (1827). 4. A trousers' maker, Kickseys' -builder (q.v.). Drumstick - cases. Trousers : see Kicks. Drumsticks. 1. The legs especially of birds. English synonyms : cheese- cutters (bandy-legs), stumps, cabbage- stumps, pins, gams, notches, shanks, stems, stumps, clubs, marrow-bones, cat-sticks, trap-sticks, dripping-sticks, trams, trespassers, pegs, knights of the garter. Drunk. A debauch ; by implica- tion, a drunkard, i.e. a drunk and disorderly person. On the drunk, on the drink, i.e. drinking for days on end. Drunk as Davy's sow, excessively drunk : see Screwed. Drunkard. To come the drunkard, to feign drunkenness ; also to be drunk. To be quite the gay drunkard, to be more or less in liquor. Drunken-chalks. Good conduct badges : see Chalk. Drury - Lane Ague. A venereal disease : see Ladies' Fever. Drury-Lane Vestal. A prostitute. Dry. See Lime-basket. Dry-boots. A dry humorist (Grose). Dry-hash. A miser ; also, by im- plication, a loafer. Dry-land! (rhyming). ' You understand ! ' Dryland - sailor. See Turnpike Sailor. Dry-lodging. Accommodation without board. Dry - nurse. A guardian, bear- leader, tutor ; a junior who instructs an ignorant chief in his duties (1614). Dry-room. A prison : see Cage. Dry - shave. Rubbing the chin with the fingers ; also as a verb. The action implies a certain effrontery. Dry - up. LA failure, Columbus (q.v.); contrast with Draw, sense 2. As verb, to cease talking, abandon a purpose or position, stop work. As an interjection, Hold your jaw ! Dry-walking. A hard-up soldier's outing. D. T's. Delirium tremens : see Jim- jams. The D. T., The Daily Tele- graph. 145 Dub. Dugs. Dub. 1. A k ey ; specifically a master key : see Locksmith's daughter (1789). As verb, to open. Dub your mummer Open your mouth. Dub the, jigger, open the door. Also by confusion, to shut or fasten (1567). Dub at a Knapping Jigger, a turnpike keeper. To dub up, to hand over, pay, fork out. FT., f oncer, abouler. Formerly, to lock up, secure, button one's pocket. Dub her. 1. The mouth or tongue ; mum your dubber ; hold your tongue. 2. A picklock (Grose). Dub-cove. See Dubsman. Dub-lay. Using picklocks. Dublin-dissector. A cudgel. Dubs (Winchester College). Double. Dub mans (or Dubs). A turnkey, gaoler. English synonyms : jigger- dubber, screw. Ducats. 1. Money : see Rhino. [Probably from Shylock in ' The Mer- chant of Venice.'] 2. Specifically a railway ticket ; also pawnbroker's duplicate, raffle-card, or Brief (q.v.). Also Ducket. D u c e. Twopence : see Rhino. [Latin.] Duck. 1. Scraps of meat ; other- wise Block-ornaments, Stickings, Fag- gots, Manablins, or Chuck (q.v.). 2. (Winchester College). The face. To make a duck, to make a grimace. 3. A draw or decoy. [An abbreviation of decoy-duck.] 4. A term of endear- ment ; also used in admiration ; e.g. a duck of a bonnet. Also ducky : duck of diamonds being a superlative. 5. A metal-cased watch ; i.e. old watch movements in German silver cases. To make a duck (or duck's egg), to make no score, to crack one's egg, get a pair of spectacles. The duck that runs (or grinds) the gospel mill, a clergyman : see Devil-dodger. Lame duck (q.v. post). Oerman duck (q.v. post). To do a duck, to hide under the seat of a public conveyance with a view to avoid paying the fare. Ducket. See Ducat. Duck-footed. Said of people who walk like a duck ; i.e. with the toes turned inwards. Ducking. To go ducking, to go courting. Ducks. 1. Linen trousers ; generally White ducks: see Kicks. 2. Aylesbury Dairy Co. shares. 3. An official of the Bombay service. To chance the ducks (q.v.) ante. To make ducks and drakes of one's money, to squander money as lavishly as stones are squan- dered at ' ducks and drakes.' [In al- lusion to the childish game.] (1605). Duck's- bill. A tongue cut in a piece of stout paper and pasted on at the bottom of the tympan sheet. Ducky (or Duck of Diamonds). See Duck. Dudder (Dudsman, or Duffer). A pedlar of pretended smuggled wares gown-pieces, silk waistcoats, etc. The term and practice are obsolete, though in a few seaports, London especially, they survived till recently in a modified form. Fr., marottier. Dude. A swell, fop, masher: see Dandy. Dudette (or Dudinette), a young girl affecting the airs of a belle ; Dudine, a female masher. Dude-hamfatter. A wealthy pig- jobber. Duds. Clothes ; sometimes old clothes or rags (1440). Doddery, a clothier's booth (De Foe's Tour of Ot. Brit., p. 125). In America applied to any kind of portable property. To angle for duds, see Anglers ; To sweat duds, to pawn. Dudsman. See Dudder. Dues. Money : see Rhino : spec, a share of booty. To tip the dues, to pay, to hand over a share. Duff. 1. Specifically, to sell flashy goods as pretended contraband or stolen ; hence to cheat. Duffers (or Men at the duff), pedlars of flash. Duffing, the practice ; as an adjective, spurious ( 1 78 1 ). 2. To rub up the nap of old clothes to improve their ap- pearance. Duffer, one who performs this operation, whilst the article operated upon is also a duffer by virtue of the fact itself. D u ff e r. 1. A pedlar ; specific- ally a hawker of brummagem (q.v.), and so-called smuggled goods. In the population returns of 1831 duffer, one who gets a living by cheating pawnbrokers. 2. Anything worth- less or sham. 3. A female smuggler. Duffer-out. To get exhausted. D u m n g. False, counterfeit, worthless. Dugs. The paps ; once used without reproach, of women ; now only in contempt except of animals : see Dairy. [From same stem as daughter.] 146 Duke. Dust. Duke. 1. Gin : see Drinks. 2. A horse. 3. Any transaction in the shape of a burglary ; e.g. I was jemming to their duke, I was privy to the robbery. Duke Humphrey. See Dine. Duke - of - Limbs. An awkward, uncouth man ; specifically one with ungainly limbs (Grose). Duke - of - York (rhyming slang). To walk ; also, to talk. Dukes. The hands : see Bunch of fives. To grease the dukes, to bribe ; also to pay. To put up the dukes, to put up one's hands for combat. Dukey. See Dookie and Gaff. Dulcamara. A quack doctor. [From the name of a character in Donizetti's V Elixir d? Amour (1845).] Dull. Dull in the eye, intoxicated : see Screwed. Dull -swift. A sluggish messenger. Dumb-fogged. Confused. Dum b -f o ozled. Confounded, puzzled. Dumbfound (Dumfound, Dumb- founding, Dumbfounded or Dum- foundered). To perplex, confound, etc. (1690). Dummacker. A knowing person. Dummerer. See Dommerar. Dummock. The posteriors. Dummy. 1. A deaf mute ; also an idiot ; sometimes a duffer, sense 2. 2. Generic for shams : e.g. empty bottles and drawers in an apothecary's shop, wooden half-tubs of butter, bladders of lard, hams, cheeses, and so forth ; dummies in libraries generally take the form of works not likely to tempt the general reader. 3. The open hand at an imperfect game of whist. 4. A pocket book. Dummy-daddle Dodge. Picking pockets under cover of a sham hand or Daddle (q.v.). Dummy - hunter. A pickpocket whose speciality is pocket-books. Dump. A metal counter. As verb, (1) to throw down : e.g. to dump down coals. (2) (Winchester College). To put out. Dump the tolly ! Ex- tinguish the candle. Dump -fencer. A button-merchant. Dumpies. The nineteenth Hus- sars. [From the diminutive size of the men when the regiment was first raised.] Dumpling -depot. The stomach : see Bread-basket. Dumpling -shop. The paps : see Dairy. Dumps. Money : see Rhino. In the dumps, cast down, ill at ease, un- pleasantly situate (1592). Dun. An importunate creditor ; as verb, to persist in demanding pay- ment. FT., loup. Also Dunner and Dunning (1663). Dunaker. A cattle-lifter (1650). Dunderhead. A fool : see Buffle. Dundreary. Specifically, a stam- mering, foolish, and long-whiskered fop the Lord Dundreary of Our American Cousin (1858) generally, a foppish fool. Dundrearies. A pair of whiskers cut sideways from the chin, and grown as long as possible. A fashion (now obsolete) suggested by Sothern's make-up in Our American Cousin. Dung. An operative working for less than society wages. Formerly, according to Grose, ' a journey- man taylor who submits to the law for regulating journey-men taylors' wages, therefore deemed by the Flints (q.v.) a coward.' Dung-fork (also Dung-cart). A country bumpkin : see Joskin. Dunnage. Baggage ; clothes. [Properly wood or loose faggots laid across the hold of a vessel, or stuffed between packages, to keep cargo from damage by water or shifting.] Dunnakin (or Dunnyken). A privy ; in U.S.A., a chamber-pot : see Mrs. Jones (Grose). Dunop (back-slang). A pound. Dup. To open (1567). ' Durham -man. A knock-kneed man. Duria. Fire. Durrynacker. A female lace hawker ; generally practised as an introduction to fortune-telling. Also Durrynacking. Dust. Generic for money : see Rhino (1655). To dust one's jacket, to thrash ; to criticise severely. To get up and dust (or to dust out of), to move quickly, leave hurriedly : see Bunk. To have dust in the eyes, to be sleepy, draw straws (q.v.). Said mainly of children : e.g. The dustman is coming. To kick up (or raise) a dust, to make a disturbance, or much ado (1759). To throw dust in the eyes, to mislead, dupe. To bite the dust, to knock under, be mortified, or shamed. 147 Dust-bin. Earl of Mar's Grey Breeks. Dust-bin. A grave. Dusted. Drubbed, severely criti- cised. Duster. A sweetheart : see Jomer. Dust-hole. 1. The Prince of Wales' Theatre in Tottenham Court Road. [From the fact that, fifty years ago, under the management of Mr. Glossop, the sweepings of the house were deposited and suffered to accumulate under the pit.] 2. Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. Obsolete. Dustman. 1. A personification of sleep : the dustman coming, you are getting sleepy. 2. A head man. Dusty. Not so dusty, a mark of approval, not so bad, so-so. Dusty-bob. A scavenger. Dusty poll (or Dusty - nob). A miller. Dutch. An epithet of inferiority. An echo, no doubt, of the long-stand- ing hatred engendered by the bitter fight for the supremacy of the seas between England and Holland in the seventeenth century. As subs., a wife. [Probably an abbreviation of Dutch clock.] English synonyms : mollisher,rib, grey-mare, warming- pan, splice, lawful blanket, autem-mort, comfortable impudence, comfortable importance, old woman, evil, missus, lawful jam, yoke-fellow, night-cap, legitimate, or legiti, weight-carrier, mutton-bone, ordinary, pillow-mate, supper-table, Dutch clock, chattel, sleeping-partner, doxy, cooler, mount, bed-faggot. To do a dutch, to desert, run away : see Bunk. That beats the Dutch, a sarcastic superlative (1775). To talk Dutch (Double- Dutch, or High- Dutch), to talk gibberish ; or, by implication, nonsense (1604). The Dutch have taken Holland, a quiz for stale news : cf. Queen Bess (or Queen Anne) is dead ; The Ark rested upon Mount Ararat, etc. Dutch-auction (or sale). A sale at minimum prices, a mock-auction. Dutch-bargain. A bargain all on one side. ' In matters of commerce the fault of the Dutch, Is giving too little and asking too much ! Dutch-clock. 1. A wife: cf. Dutch. 2. A bed-pan. Dutch - concert (or medley). A sing-song whereat everybody sings and plays at the same time ; a hubbub. Dutch-consolation. Jobs comfort, unconsoling consolation. Dutch -courage. Pot- valiancy. Dutch -defence. Sham defence. Dutch - feast. An entertainment where the host gets drunk before his Dutch-gleek. Drinks. Dutchman. I'm a Dutchman if I do, a strong refusal. [During the wars between England and Holland, Dutch was synonymous with all that was false and hateful ; therefore, I would rather be a Dutchman, =the strongest term of refusal that words could express.] Dutchman's - breeches. Two streaks of blue in a cloudy sky. Dutchman's - drink. A draught that empties the pot. Dutch - treat. An entertainment where every one pays his shot. Dutch - uncle. / will talk to you like a Dutch uncle, I will reprove you smartly. [The Dutch were renowned for the brutality of their discipline.] Dutch-widow. A prostitute (1608). Dutch -wife. A bolster. Eagle-takers (The). The Eighty- Seventh Foot. [The title was gained at Barossa (1811), when it captured the eagle of the 8th French Light Infantry. Its colours also bear the plume of the Prince of Wales and tho harp and crown, an eagle with a wreath of laurel.] It was also nick- named The old Fogs; also The Faugh-a-Ballagh Boys, from Fag an bealac I Clear the Way, the regi- mental march, and the war-cry at Barossa. Ear. To send away with a flea in the ear, to dismiss peremptorily and with a scolding : Fr., mettre la puce d Voreille (1764). To bite, the ear : see Bite. To get up on one's ear, to bestir oneself, to rouse oneself for an effort. Earl of Cork. The ace of diamonds. Earl of Mar's Grey Breeks (The). The Twenty- First Foot [In allusion 14S Early. to the colour of the men's breeches and to the original title of the regi- ment, The Earl of Mar's Fuzileers.] Obsolete. Early. To get up early, to be astute, ready, wide - awake : cf . It's the early bird that catches the worm (1738). Early - riser. An aperient : cf. Custom-house officer, and Two gunners and a driver. Early-worm. A man who searches the streets at daybreak for cigar stumps. Earth - bath. A grave. To take an earth - bath, to be buried ; cf . ground sweat. Earthquake. Battled earthquake, intoxicating drinks. Earth-stoppers. Horse's feet. Earthy. Gross, common, devoid of soul. Ear-wig. A private prompter or flatterer; also (thieves') a clergyman. [From the popular delusion that the ear- wig lodges itself in the ear with a view to working its way into the brain, when it causes death.] (1639). As verb, to prompt, influence by covert statements, whisper insinuations. Ease. To rob; Fr., soulager: cf. Annex and Convey. To ease a bloke, to rob a man (1630). Eason. To tell. East-and- South (rhyming slang). The mouth ; also Sunny south : see Potato trap. Eastery. Private business. Easy. To make easy, to gag or kill (Grose). Easy as damn it (or as my eye), excessively easy, Easy as lying [Shakespeare]. Easy does it ! An exclamation of encouragement and counsel, Take your time and keep your coat on. Easy over the pimples (or over the stones), an injunction to go slow, or, mind what you're about. Easy Virtue. See Lady of Easy Virtue. Eat. To provision: e.g. a steamer is said to be able to eat 400 passengers and sleep about half that number. Eat coke : see Coke. Eat crow : see Crow. Eat a fig (rhyming slang), to crack a crib, to break a house. To eat one's head off, to be retained for service and stand idle ; also to cost more in keep than one is worth. Eat one's head (hat, boots, etc.), a locu- tion of emphatic asseveration. [Prob- ably Dickensonian, influenced by the proverbial saying, To eat one's heart out to undergo intense struggle, and also To eat one's head off (q.v.). To eat one's terms, to go through the prescribed course of study for admission to the bar. [In allusion to the dinners a student has to attend in the public hall of his inn.] To eat one's words, to retract a statement, own a lie. To eat up, to vanquish, ruin. [Originally Zulu.] Eaves. A hen-roost. Eavesdropper. A chicken thief ; also generally, any petty pilferer. Ebenezer (Winchester College). A stroke at fives : when the ball hits ' line ' at such an angle as to rise perpendicularly into the air. Ebony. 1. A negro ; otherwise Blackbird (q.v.) and Black Ivory. Thomas Fuller (1608-1661) spoke of the negro race as God's images cut in ebony. 2. The publisher of Maga : i.e. Blackwood. Ebony-optics. Black eyes. Ebony- optics albonized, black eyes painted white. Edgabac (back slang). Cabbage. Edge. Stitched off the edge, said of a glass not filled to the top. Side- edge, whiskers. Short top edge, a turn-up nose or Celestial (q.v.). Edge in, to slip in, insinuate, e.g. to edge in a word (or a remark). Edge off (or out of), to slink away, gradually desist. To take the edge off [a thing, or person, or idea], to become ac- quainted with, enjoy to satiety : see Hamlet, m. ii. ' It would cost you a groaning to take off my edge.' Edgenaro (back slang). An orange. Edge-ways. Not able to get a word in edge-ways, having but the barest opportunity of taking part in a dis- cussion. Eel - skins. Tight trousers : see Kicks. E-fink (back slang). A knife, Efter. A theatre thief. Egg. See Bad egg. Egg on, to encourage. Sure as eggs is eggs, of a certainty, without doubt. [From the formula, ' x is x.'] To teach one's grandmother to roast (or suck) eggs, to lecture elders and superiors ; Fr., lea oisons veulent mener les oies pattre (the goslings want to drive the geese to pasture). 149 Egham. Errand. Egham, Staincs, and Windsor A three-cornered coachman's hat. |>, Egyptian-hall (rhyming slang). A ball. , Eighter. An eight-ounce loaf. E k a m e (back slang). A Make (q.v.), swindle. Ekom (back slang). A Moke (q.v.) or donkey. Elbow. To turn a corner, get out of sight. To shake the elbow, to play dice. [From the motion of the arm in casting.] (1680). To crook the elbow, to drink : see Lush. Elbow-crooker. A hard drinker. English synonyms : borachio, boozing- ton, brewer's horse, bubber, budger, mop, lushington, worker of the cannon, wet - quaker, soaker, lapper, pegger, angel altogether, bloat, ensign-Dearer, fiddle - cup, sponge, tun, toss - pot, swill-pot, wet subject, shifter, pot- ster, swallower, pot-walloper, wetster, dramster, drinkster, beer-barrel, gin- nums, lowerer, moist 'un, drainist, boozer, mopper-up, piss-maker, thirst- ington. Elbower. A runaway. Elbow-grease. Energetic and con- tinuous manual labour : e.g. Elbow- grease is the best furniture oil : Fr., huile de bras or de poignet ; du foulage (1779). Elbow - scraper (or Jigger). A fiddler. Elbow-shaker. A gambler (1748). Elbow-shaking. Gambling. Electrified. 1. Moderately drunk : see Screwed. 2. Violently startled. Elegant. Excellent. Elegant Extracts. 1. The Eighty- Fifth Foot. [This regiment was re- modelled in 1812, after a long sequence of court - martials : when the officers were removed, and others set in their room.] 2. (Cambridge University). Students who, though ' plucked,' were still given their degrees. A line was drawn below the poll-list, and those allowed to pass were nicknamed the elegant extracts. There was a similar limbo in the honour - list, called the Gulf : for ' Between them (t'n the poll) and us (in the honour lists) there is a great gulf fixed.'] Elephant. A wealthy victim. To see the elephant, 1. To see the world, go out for wool and come home shorn; by implication, to go on the loose : sometimes, To see the King. 2. To be seduced ; Fr., avoir vu le loup. Elephant-dance. See Cellar-flap and Double-shuffle. - Elephant's-trunk (rhyming slang). Drunk : see Screwed, r Elevated. Drunk : see Screwed. (1664). Elf en. To walk lightly, go on tiptoe. Ellenborough - Lodge (Spike, or Park). The King's Bench Prison. [From Ld. Chief - Justice Ellen- borough. Ellenborough' s teeth, the chevaux de frize round the prison wall. . Elrig (back slang). A girl. . Elycampane (or Elecampane). See Allacompain. Emag (back slang). Game : e.g. I know your little emag. Embroider. To exaggerate, add to the truth. Embroidery. Exaggeration : the American sass and trimmins (q.v.). Emma. See Whoa Emma. Emperor. A drunken man. [An intensification of, Drunk as a lord ; whence, Drunk as an em- peror.] Fr., saoul comme trente mille homines, or un fine.. Empty the Bag. See Bag. Encumbrances. Children : see Certainties and Uncertainties. End. To be all on end, to be very angry, irritated. Also expectant. At loose ends, neglected, precarious. End on, straight, full-tilt. To keep one's end up, to rub along. Enemy. Time : e.g. How goes the enemy, what's o'clock ? To kill the enemy, to kill time. English Burgundy. Porter : see Drinks. Enif. Fine. Enin - gen. Nine shillings. Enin yanneps, ninepence. Eno (back slang). One. Ensign - bearer. A drunkard ; especially with red nose and blotchy face: see Lushington. Ephesian. A boon companion, spreester : cf. Corinthian. Epip (back slang). A pipe. Epsom-races (rhyming slang). A pair of braces. Equipped. Rich, well-dressed, in good circumstances. Erif (back slang). Fire. Eriff . A young thief. Errand. To send a baby on an 150 Error. Eye-water. errand, to undertake what is pretty sure to turn out badly. Error. See No error. Erth (back slang). Three. Ertli gen, three shillings. Erth-pu, Three- up, a street game, played with three halfpence. Erih sith-noms, Three months' imprisonment ; a drag. Erth yanneps, Threepence. E s c 1 o p (back slang). A police- constable ; esclop is pronounced ' slop ' the c is never sounded : see Beak. Es-roch (back slang). A horse : see Prad. Essex-lion. A calf : e.g. as valiant as an Essex-lion : cf. Cotswold Lion, Cambridgeshire Nightingale, etc. Essex-stile. A ditch. Esuch( back slang). Ahorse: seeKen. Eternity-box. A coffin. English synonyms: cold meat box, wooden surtout, coffee-shop, deal suit. Evaporate. To run away, to dis- appear : see Bunk. Evatch (back slang). To have : e.g. Evatch a kool at the elrig, Have a look at the girl. Everlasting-shoes (also Everlast- ings). The naked feet : see Creepers. Everlasting-staircase. The tread- mill. Everton - toffee (rhyming slang). Coffee. Everything is lovely and the goose hangs high. Everything is going swimmingly. [An allusion to the sport of gander pulling. A gan- der was plucked, thoroughly greased, especially about the head and neck, and tied tight by the feet to the branch of a tree. The game was then to ride furiously at the mark, catch it by the head or neck, and attempt to bear it away. With every failure the fun would get more up- roarious.] Evif (back slang). Five. Evif- gen, a crown, or five shillings. Evif- yanneps, fivepence. Evil. A wife : see Dutch. Evlenet-gen (back slang). Twelve shillings. Evlenet sithnoms, twelve months : generally known as a stretch. Ewe. See White-ewe and-Old ewe. Ewe-mutton. An elderly strumpet, or piece. Exalted. Hanged : see Ladder. Exam. An abbreviation of Ex- amination. Exasperate. To over-aspirate the letter H. E x c e 1 1 e r s. The Fortieth Foot. [A pun upon its number, xl + ers.] Excruciators. Tight boots ; especi- ally with pointed toes. Execution-day. Washing day. Exes. 1. An abbreviation of ex- penses. 2. An abbreviation of ex- officials, ex-ministers, and so forth. As in Tom Moore's ' We x's have proved ourselves not to be wise.' Exis-evif-gen (back slang). Six times five shillings, i.e. 30s. All monies may be reckoned in this manner, either with yanneps or gens. Exis-evif-yanneps, literally, sixpence and fivepence, elevenpence. Exis gen, six shillings. Exis sith-noms, six- months. Exis yanneps, sixpence. Expecting. With child. Experience Does it. A dog- English rendering of Experienta docet. Explaterate. To hold forth, ex- plain in detail. [From O.E. Expiate ==to unfold.] Explosion. A delivery in childbed. Exquisite. A fop : see Dandy. Extensive. Formerly applied to a person's appearance or talk ; rather extensive that ! intimating that the person alluded to is showing off, or cutting it fat. Extinguisher. A dog's muzzle. Ex Trumps (Winchester College). Extempore. To go up to books ex trumps, to go to class without pre- paring one's lessons. Eye. See All my eye. To putt wool over tlie eyes : see Wool. To keep the eyes dean (skinned, or peeled), to be watchful, alert, with all one's wits about one. To have a drop in the eye, to be drunk : see Screwed. In the twinkling of an eye : see Bedpost. To bet one's eyes : see Bet. My eyes I An expression of surprise. Eyelashes. To hang on by the eye- lashes (or eyebrows), to be very tena- cious ; also by implication, to be in a difficulty : cf. Hang on by the splash board. Eye-limpet. An artificial eye. Eye-opener. 1. Drink generally ; specifically, a mixed drink. 2. Any- thing surprising or out of the way. Eyeteeth. To have cut one's eye- teeth, to have learned wisdom. Eye-water. Gin : see Drinks. 151 Fa.;-. Faggot-briefs. Face. 1. Confidence, boldness, also (more frequently) impudence : e.g. I like your face, I like your cheek. Once literary ; cf. Cheek, Jaw, Gab, Brow, Mouth, Lip, etc. (1610). 2. Credit To push one's face, to get credit by bluster (1765). 3. A qualification of contempt : e.g. Now face ! where are you a-shoving of T ' As verb, to bully (1593) : also to face (or outface) with a card of ten, to browbeat, bluff. [Nares : derived from some game (possibly primero) wherein the standing boldly upon a ten was often successful.] (1460). To face the knocker, to go begging : see Cadge. To have no face but one's own, to be penniless, or (gamesters') to hold no court cards : Fr., n' 'avoir pas une face, to have not a sou. To make faces, to go back, or ' round ' upon a friend. To face the music, to meet an emergency, show one's hand. Face - entry. Freedom of access, the personal appearance being familiar to attendants. Facer. 1. A blow in the face (Grose). 2. A sudden check, spoke in one's wheel. 3. A dram. 4. A bumper (Orose). 5. A tumbler of whisky punch. 6. An accomplice, stall (q.v.), fence (q.v.). F a c e y. A fellow vis-d-vis, work- man. Facey on the bias, one in front either to right or left ; Facey on the two thick, one working immediately behind one's opposite. Facings. To be put (or go), through one's facings, to be called to account or scolded, to exemplify capacity ; to show off. Silk-facings, stains upon work caused by beer droppings. Fad-cattle. Easy women. Faddist (or Fadmonger). A person (male or female) devoted to the pursuit of public fads : as social purity, moral art, free - trade in syphilis, and so-forth. F addle. To toy, trifle : as a subs., a busybody, a ' nancified,' affected, male. Also Faddy, full of fads. Fadge. A farthing. English syno- nyms : fiddler, farden, gig, (or grig), quartereen. As verb, to suit, fit, agree with, come off. [Nares : prob- ably never better than a low word : it is now confined to the streets] (1596). F a d g e r. A glazier's frame, a ' frail.' Fadmonger. A Faddist (q.v.). Fadmongering, dealing as a Faddist with fads. Fag. 1. A boy doing menial work for a schoolfellow in a higher form. As verb, to act as a fag. 2. Christ's Hospital). Eatables. 3. A lawyer's clerk. 4. A cigarette. Fag. See subs. To beat F agger (Figger, or Figure). A boy thief employed to enter houses by windows and either open the doors to his confederates as Oliver Twist with Bill Sykes), or hand out the swag to them ; also Little snakesman (q.v.) : cf. Diver. Fagging (or F a g g e r y). Waiting upon and doing menial work for a schoolfellow in a higher form. Also used adjectively. Faggot. 1. A woman, baggage: in contempt. [Once a popular symbol of recantation : heretics who had thus escaped the stake were required either to bear a faggot and burn it in public, or to wear an imitation on the sleeve as a badge.] Also Bed- (or Straw-) faggot, a wife, or mistress ; Tumble- faggot, a whore-master ; Carry - faggot, a mattress. 2. A sort of cake, roll, or ball, a number being baked at a time, made of chopped liver and lights, mixed with gravy, and wrapped in pieces of pig s caul It weighs six ounces, so that it is unquestion- ably a cheap [it costs Id. hot] and, to the scavenger, a savoury meal, but to other nostrils its odour is not seductive (Mayhew). 3. A dummy soldier ; one hired to appear at a muster to hide deficiencies. Many names of dummies would appear on the muster-roll : for these the colonel drew pay, but they were never in the ranks : obsolete, see Widow's - man (1672). As verb, to bind hand and foot, to tie [as sticks into a faggot] : Fr., tm fagot, a convict, be- cause bound to a common chain on their way to the hulks. Faggot-briefs. Bundles of dummy papers sometimes carried by briefless barristers. 152 Faggot-vote. 'Fan Faggot - vote. A vote secured by the purchase of property under mort- gage, or otherwise, so as to constitute a nominal qualification without a sub- stantial basis. Fains! (Fainits! Fain itl) A call for truce during the progress of a game without which priority or place would be lost ; generally understood to be preferred in bounds, or when out of danger : see Bags ! Fair-gang. Gypsies. Fair-rations. Fair dealings. Fair-shake. A good bargain : see Shake. Fair-trade. Smuggling. Faithful. One of the faithful (1) A drunkard: see Lushington (1609). (2) A tailor giving long credit (Grose). Faithful Durhams. The Sixty- Eighth Footh. Fake. An action, proceeding, manoeuvre, mechanical contrivance an affair of any kind irrespective of morals or legality : generally used in a sense specifically detrimental. In America, a swindler. As verb, (1) to do anything ; to fabricate, cheat, deceive, devise falsely, steal, forge : a general verb-of -all-work. In America, fix (q.v.) is employed much in the same way : Fr., faire. Also, To fake a screeve, to write a begging letter ; to fake one's slangs, to file through one's fetters ; to fake a dy (q.v.), to pick a pocket ; to fake the sweetener, to kiss ; to jake the duck, to adulterate, dodge ; to fake the rubber, to stand treat ; to fake the broads, to pack the cards, or to work the three-cark trick ; to fake a line (theatrical), to improvise a speech ; to fake a dance (a step, or a trip) thea- trical), to perform what looks like, but is not, dancing. (2) To hocus, nobble, tamper. (3) To paint one's face, make up a character. Also to fake up. (4) To cut out the wards of a key. Fake away! an ej aculation of encouragement. Fake-boodle. See Boodle. Faked. Counterfeit : sometimes Faked-up : Fr., lophe. Fakement. 1. A counterfeit signa- ture, forgery : specifically a begging letter or petition : Fr., brasser des faffes, to forge documents, i.e. To screeve fakements. 2. Generic for dishonest practices ; but applied to any kind of action, contrivance, or trade : see Fake. 3. Small properties, accessories. Fakement - Charley. An owner's private mark. .- Faker. 1. One who makes, does, or fakes anything ; specifically a thief. Found in many combinations : e.g. Bit - faker, Flue - faker, Grub- faker, Sham-faker, Twat-faker, etc. 2. A circus rider or performer. Fakes and Slumboes. Properties, accessories of any kind. Faking. The act of doing any- thing : Fr., maquillage (or goupinage), Fall. 1. To be arrested. 2. To conceive : see Lumpy. Fall of the Leaf (The). Hanging : see Ladder. False - hereafter. A bustle : see Bird-cage. F a m. See Fambling-cheat and Famble. F a m b 1 e (Fam, or Fem). The hand : see Fambling-cheat : see Bunch of fives and Daddle. As verb, to touch, to handle, especially with a view to ascertaining the whereabouts of valuables. Also To fam for the plant : see To run a rule over. Famblers (Fambling - cheats, or Fam-snatchers). Gloves. Fambling- cheat (Famble, or Fam). A ring ; also (about 1694) gloves, which later still were also called Fam-snatchers (q.v.) (1560). Fam-grasp. To shake hands : also subs., hand-shaking. Familiars. Lice : see Chates. Familiar -way. With child. Family-disturbance. Whisky : see Drinks. Family - hotel. A prison : see Cage. Family-man. A thief ; specifically, a fence (q.v.). [In allusion to the fraternities into which thieves were at one time invariably banded.] (1749). Family-plate. Silver money : see Rhino. Family-pound. A family grave. Fam -lay. Shoplifting. Fam-snatchers. Gloves : cf. Fambling-cheat. Fam-squeeze. Strangulation. Fam-struck. Baffled in ascertain, ing the whereabouts of valuables on the person of an intended victim ; also handcuffed. Fan. A waistcoat ; said by Hotten (1864) to be a Houndsditch term, but quoted in Matsell (1859) as American. English synonyms : ben, benjie, M.B. 153 Fancy. Fnth-r. waistcoat, Charley Prescot. As verb, (1) to beat, to be-ratc. (2) To feel, handle (with a view to ascertain if a victim has anything valuable about his person). Also to steal from the person. Queen Anne's fan : see post. Fancy. The fraternity of pugilists : prize-fighting being once regarded aa The fancy, par excellence. Hence, by implication, people who cultivate a special hobby or taste. Fancy-bloke. 1. A sporting man. 2. See Fancy-man. Fancy-house. A brotheL Fancy-Joseph. An Apple-squire (q.v.), Cupid. Fancy-lay. Pugilism. Fancy-man (or bloke). A prostitute's lover, husband, or pen- sioner. English synonyms! apple- squire, faker, bully, ponce, pensioner, Sunday-man, fancy-Joseph, squire of the body, apron - squire, petticoat pensioner, prosser, twat-faker, twat- master, stallion, mack, bouncer, bruiser, buck. Fancy-piece. A prostitute. Fancy-work. To take in fancy work, to play the harlot. Fang-faker. A dentist. Fanning. 1. Stealing ; Cross- fanning, robbery from the person, the arms of the manipulator being folded. 2. A beating. Fanny Adams. Tinned mutton. Fanny Blair. The hair. Fantail. A sort of round hat with a long leathern fan-shaped flap at the back ; worn by coal-heavers and dustmen; a Sou'-wester (q.v.). Fanteague. On the Fanteague, on the burst, or loose. Far - back. An indifferent work- man, ignoramus. Farden. A farthing : see Rhino. Fadge. Farm. 1. An establishment where pauper or illegitimate children were lodged and fed at so much a head. Also verbally, to contract to feed and lodge pauper or illegitimate children. 2. The prison infirmary. To fetch the farm, to be ordered infirmary diet and treatment : see Fetch. Farmer. 1. An alderman. 2. One who contracts to lodge and feed pauper or illegitimate children. Farthing. To care not a brass farthing, to care nothing. Chaucer uses the expression ' no farthing of grease as equivalent to a small quantity. Fast. 1. Embarrassed, hard-up, in a tight place. 2. Dissipated, ad- dicted to going the pace : e.g. a fast man, a rake-hell, or spendthrift ; a fast woman, a strumpet ; a fast life, a life of debauchery ; a fast house, a brothel, or a sporting tavern ; to dress fast, to dress for the town ; to live fast, to go the pace, and so forth (1751). 3. Impudent, cheeky: e.g. Don't you be so fast, Mind your own business. To play fast and loose, to be variable, inconstant, say one thing and do another. Fastener (or Fastner). A warrant. Fat. 1. Money: Fr., graisse: see Rhino. 2. Composition full of blank spaces or in short lines. Verse is frequently fat, while this dictionary, with its constant change of type, is lean (q.v.). Hence, work that pays well : Fr., affaire juteuse. 3. A good part ; telling lines and conspicuous or commanding situations : Fr., des cotelettes. As adj., (1) rich, abundant, profitable. (2) Good. Cut it fat: see Cut. Cut up fat: see Cut up. All the fat's in the fire, said of failures and of the results of sudden and un- expected revelation, disappointments : i.e. it is all over or up with a person or thing. A late equivalent is, And then the band played. Fat as a hen's forehead, meagre, skinny (q.v.). Fat- (Barge-, Broad- or Heavy-) arsed. Broad in the breech ; and, by implication (in Richard Baxter's Shove to Heavy Arsed Christians), thick-witted and slow to move. Fat- (or Thick-) chops. A con- tumelious epithet. Fater (Faytor, or Fator). A fortune-teller. In Spencer, a doer ; in Bailey, an idle fellow, vagabond : Fr., faiteur. Fat-flab (Winchester School). A cut off the fat part of a breast of mutton : see Cat's-head. Fat- (or Full-) guts. An oppro- brious epithet for a fat man or woman. Fat-head. A dolt Fat -headed (-skulled, -thoughted, -paled, -grained, or -witted), dull, stupid, slow. Father. 1. A receiver of stolen property, fence (q.v.). 2. A chief in authority, elder : e.g. The father of the house, the oldest member of the 154 Father Derbies Bands. Feet. House of Commons (cf. Babe) ; among printers, the chairman of the Chapel (q.v.), tne intermediary be- tween master and men ; in naval circles, the builder of a man-of-war or Government ' bottom.' Father Derbie's Bands. See Darbies. Father's Brother. A pawnbroker, My uncle (q.v.). Fat Jack of the Bone-house. A con- tumelious epithet for a very stout man. Fatness. Wealth : Fat, rich. Fatten - up. To write Fat (subs., sense 3) into a part. Fat - un. An emission of peculiar rankness, ' roarer ' (Swift). Fatty (Fatymus, or Fattyma). A jocular epithet for a fat man ; a comic endearment for a fat woman. Faugh - a - Ballagh Boys. The Eighty-Seventh Foot ; also known as the Eagle-takers (q.v.), and the Old Fogs (q.v.). [From Fag an bealac, Clear the Way, the . regimental march.] >' l^t.TC^W^ Faulkner. A tumbler, juggler.!?! Fawney (or Fauney). 1. A ring : Fr., brobuante, broquille, chason. 2. A swindle (also Fawney '-dropping, or rig), worked as follows : A ring (snide) is let drop in front of a passer- by, who picks it up, and is confronted by the dropper, who claims to share. In consideration of immediate settle- ment he offers to accept something less than the apparent value in cash. Also done with pocket-books, meer- schaum pipes, etc. Fawney -dropper, one that practices the ring-dropping trick; Fawney -bouncing, selling rings for a pretended wager ; Fawnied, ringed (1789). Feager. ' One that beggeth with counterfeit writings ' (Rowlands, 1610). Feague. To send packing, whiff away. ^f- j$ Peak. The fundament. Feather. 1. Kind, species, com- pany : cf. Birds of a feather : see Kidney (1608). 2. In pi., money, wealth : see Rhino. In full feather ( 1 ), rich. (2) In full costume ; with all one's war paint on. In high (or full) feather, elated, brilliant, conspicuous. To feather one's nest, to amass money ; specifically to enrich oneself by in- direct pickings and emoluments (1590). To feather an oar, in rowing, to turn the blade horizontally, with the upper edge pointing aft, as it leaves the water, for the purpose of lessening the resistance of the air upon it. To show the white feather, to turn cur, prove oneself a coward. [Among game cocks a cross-bred bird is known by a white feather in the tail. Of old the breed was strictly preserved in England, for though birds of all descriptions were reared in the farm- yard, special care was taken that game fowls did not mix with them ; but this would occasionally happen, and while the game birds were only red and black, white feathers would naturally appear when there was any cross. The slightest impurity of strain was said to destroy the bird's courage, and the half-breeds were never trained for the pit. It became an adage that any cock would fight on his own dunghill, but it must be one without a white feather to fight in the pit.] Feather-bed and pillows. A fat woman. Feather-bed Lane. A rough or stony lane. Feather-bed Soldier (old col- loquial). A practised and determined loose liver. Feck. To discover a safe way of stealing or swindling. Feed. A meal, Spread (q.v.), Blow-out (q.v.): Fr., lampie. As verb (1), to support, backup. (2) To prompt. (3) To teach or cram (q.v.) for an examination. At feed, at meat. To be off one's feed, to have a distaste for food. To feed the fishes, to be sea- sick ; also to be drowned. To feed the press, to send up copy slip by slip. Feeder. 1. A spoon ; among thieves a silver spoon. To nab a feeder, to steal a spoon (Grose). 2. A tutor, crammer (q.v.). coach (q.v.) (1766). Feeding - bottle. The paps : see Dairy. Feel. See Bones. Feele. A girl or daughter : see Titter: Fr., fille ; It., figlia. Feeles, mother and daughter. Feeler. 1. A device or remark designed to bring out the opinions of others. 2. The hand : see Bunch of Fives. Feet. Making feet for children's stockings, begetting or breeding chil- dren. Officer of feet, an officer of infantry (Grose). How's your poor 155 Fetth. feet ? a street catch phrase in the early part of the sixties. [Henry Irving's revival of ' The Dead Heart ' revived this bit of slang. . . . When the play was brought out originally, where one of the characters says, ' My heart is dead, dead, dead ! ' a voice from the gallery nearly broke up the drama with ' How are your poor feet ? The phrase lived.] Feet-casements. Boots or shoes : see Trotter-cases. Feeze (Feaze, Feize, or Pheeze). To beat. Feint. A pawnbroker: see My uncle. Feker. Trade, profession. Fell. Fell a bit on, to act craftily, in an underhand manner. Fell -and -didn't. Said of a man walking lame. Fellow. See Old fellow. Fellow - commoner. An empty bottle: see Dead man (1794). Felt. A hat of felted wool : see Golgotha (1609). Fern. See Famble. Fen. A prostitute (Grose). As verb (also Fend, Fain, Fainits, etc.), a term of warning, or of prohibition : as to prevent any change in the existing conditions of a game ; e.g. at marbles, Fen-placings, no alteration in position of marbles is permissible ; Fen-clear- ances, removal of obstacles is for- bidden. .Fence. 1. A purchaser or receiver of stolen goods. English synonyms : fencing master (or cully), billy-fencer, angling cove, stallsman, Ikey, family- man, father (1714). 2. A place where stolen goods are purchased or received : FT., moulin. As verb, ( 1 ) to purchase or receive stolen goods (1610). (2) To spend money (1728). To be (ait, or ride) on the fence, to be neutral, ready to join the winning side, to wait to see how the cat will jump : also, to sit on both sides of the hedge. Those who thus seek to run with the hare and hunt with the hounds are called Fence-men. The operation is Fence-riding, which sometimes quali- fies for rail-riding (q.v.). Fencer. A hawker of small wares, tramp : generally used in connection with another word ; thus, Driz-fencer (q.v.), a pedlar of lace. Fencing-crib (or ken). A place where stolen goods are purchased or secreted. Fencing-cully. A receiver of stolen goods. Fen - nightingale. A frog : also Cambridgeshire, and Cape Night- ingale. Ferguson. You can't lodge here, Mr. Ferguson, a street cry, popular about 1846-50 ; used in derision or denial. [Mr. J. H. Dixon, writing to Mr. John Camden Hotten, under date Nov. 6, 1864, says the phrase originated thus : A young Scotsman, named Ferguson, visited Epsom races, where he got very drunk. His friends applied to several hotel keepers to give him a bed, but in vain. There was no place for Mr. Ferguson. He was accordingly driven to London by his companions, who kept calling out, Ferguson, you can't lodge here. This was caught up by the crowd, repeated, and in a week was all over London, and in a month all over the kingdom. Mr Dixon states he was introduced to Mr. Ferguson, and that two of his companions were intimate friends.] Perm. A hole : with Spencer, a prison (1632). Ferret. 1. A barge-thief. 2. A dunning tradesman. 3. A pawn- broker : see My uncle. To ferret ovt, to be at pains to penetrate a mystery of any kind by working under- ground. Ferricadouzer. A knock - down blow, a thrashing. F e s s. To confess, own up : FT., norguer. As adj., proud. Festive. Loud, fast ; a kind of general utility word. Gay and festive cuss (Artemus Ward), a rollicking companion. Fetch. 1. A stratagem ; indirectly bringing something to pass ( 1576). 2. A success. 3. A likeness : e.g. the very fetch of him, his very image or spit (q.v.) : also an apparition. As verb, ( 1 ) to please, excite admiration, arouse attention or interest (1607). (2) To get, do. Some combinations are To fetch the farm, to get infirmary treatment and diet ; to fetch a stinger, (colloquial), to get in a heavy blow ; to fetch a lagging (thieves'), to serve one's term ; to fetch a howl, to cry ; to fetch a crack, to strike ; to fetch a cir- cumbendibus, to make a detour ; to fetch the brewer, to get drunk. To fetch away, to part ; e.g. A fool and his money are soon fetched away. To 156 Fettle. Fieri Facias. fetch up, 1. to stop ; to run against. 2. To startle. 3. To come to light. 4. To recruit one's strength after illness. Fetching, attractive (as of women), pleasing (as of a dress or bonnet). Fettle. In good (or in proper) fettle, drunk. Few. A few (or Just a few), origin- ally a little. Hence, by implication, on the lucus a non lucendo prin- ciple, considerably ; e.g. Were you alarmed ? No, but I was astonished a few ! i.e. I was greatly surprised : cf. Rather, a good deal (1778). Fib. 1. To beat, specifically (pugil- ism) to get in a quick succession of blows, as when you get your man round the neck (i.e. in chancery) and pommel his ribs and face (1665). 2. To lie (1694). Also, used substan- tively, (1) a lie, (2) a liar (1738). Fibber. A liar (1748). Fibbery. Lying. Fibbing. 1. Pummelh'ng an op- ponent's head while ' in chancery,' drubbing : Fr., bordee de coups de poings. 2. Lying. Fibbing-gloak. A pugilist. Fibbing-match. A prize-fight. Fibster. A liar. Fiddle. 1. A sharper ; sometimes Old fiddle : see Rook. 2. A swindle : see Sell. 3. A whip. 4. A fiddle on which to play a tune called ' Four pounds of oakum a day ' a piece of rope and a long crooked nail. 5. (Stock Exchange). One sixteenth part of a pound. 6. A watchman's (or policeman's) rattle. 7. A six- pence : see Rhino, and cf. Fiddler's money. As verb, (1) to trifle, especi- ally with the hands (1663). (2) To cheat, specifically, to gamble. (3) To earn a livelihood by doing small jobs on the street. (4) To intrigue. (5) To strike. Scotch fiddle, the itch. To hang up the fiddle, to abandon an undertaking. To play first (or second) fiddle, to take a leading or a subordinate part. Among tailors second fiddle, an unpleasant task. Fit as a fiddle, in good form or con- dition. See Fiddle-de-dee. Fiddle-faced. Wizened, also sub- stantively. Fiddle-faddle. Twaddling, trifling, 'little nothings,' rot (q.v.): Fr., oui, lea landers ! (1593). As adj., trifling, fussy, fluffing (1712). As verb, to toy, trifle, talk nonsense, gossip, make much cry and little wool. (1761). Also Fiddle - faddler, one inclined to Fiddle-faddles. Fiddle - head. A plain prow as distinguished from a figure - head : Hence Fiddle-headed, plain, ugly. Fiddler. 1. A trifler, a careless, negligent, or dilatory person. 2. A sharper, cheat ; also Fiddle (q.v.). 3. A prize-fighter ; one who depends more on activity than upon strength or stay. 4. A sixpence. [From the old custom of each couple at a dance paying the fiddler a sixpence : cf. Fiddler's-money.] 5. A farthing : see Rhino. Fiddlers' -fare. Meat, drink, and money (Grose). Fiddlers' -green. A sailor's elysium (situate on the hither and cooler side of hell) of wine, women, and song. Fiddlers' -money. Sixpences : see Rhino. [From the custom at country merry-makings of each couple paying the fiddler sixpence.] Also generic- ally, small silver. Fiddlestick! Nonsense: sometimes Fiddlestick's end and Fiddle-de-dee (1610). As subs., A spring saw. 2. A sword. Fiddling. 1. A livelihood got on the streets, holding horses, carrying parcels, etc. 2. Buying a thing for a mere trifle, and selling it for double, or for more. 3. Idling, trifling. 4. Gambling. As adj., trifling, trivial, fussing with nothing (1667). Fid - fad. A contracted form of Fiddle-faddle (q.v.) ; also applied to persons (1754). Fidlam-bens (or coves). Thieves who steal anything they can lay hands on : also St. Peter's sons. Field. To chop the field, to win easily. Fielder. A backer of the field i.e. the ruck (q.v.), as against the favourite]. At cricket, a player in the field as against those at the wickets. Field-lane Duck. A baked sheep's head. Fient (Scots colloquial). An ex- pression of negation : e.g. Fient a hair care I, Devil a hair I care. Fieri Facias. To have been served with a writ of fieri facias, said of a red- nosed man. [A play upon words.] (1594). 157 Fiery Lot. Filch wav. Fiery Lot. Fast (q.v.), rollicking, applied to a hot member (q.v.). Fiery Snorter. A red nose. Fifer. 1. A waistcoat hand. 2. A native of the Kingdom (q.v.), i.e. the county of Fife. Fi-fi (or fie-fie). Indecent, blue, or smutty. Fifteener. A book printed in the 15th century. Fifth Rib. To hit (dig, or poke) one under the fifth rib, to deliver a heavy blow, dumbfound. Fig. 1. A gesture of contempt made by thrusting forth the thumb between the fore and middle fingers ; whence the expression, I do not care, or would not give, a fig for you : FT., je ne voudrais pas en donner un ferret d'aiguillette : see other similes of worthlessness, Curse, Straw, Rush, Chip, Cent, Dam, etc. ( 1599). [Italian : When the Milanese revolted against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa they set his Empress hind before upon a mule, and thus expelled her. Fred- erick afterwards besieged and took the city, and compelled all his prisoners, on pain of death, to extract with his (or her) teeth a fig from the funda- ment of a mule and, the thing being done, to say in announcement, Ecco la fica. Thus far la fica became a universal mode of derision. Fr., faire la figue ; Ger., die Feigen weisen ; It., far le fiche ; Dutch, De vyghe setten. 2. Dress. In full fig, in full dress. As verb, to ginger a horse. To fig out, to show off, dress ; don one's war paint (q.v.). To fig up, to restore, reanimate (as a gingered horse). Figaro. A barber. [From Le Nozze di Figaro.] Figdean. To kill : see Cook one's Goose. Figged. See Jigged. Figger (or Figure). See Fagger. Figging- (or Fagging-lay). Pocket- picking. Fight. A party ; e.g. Tea fight, Wedding-fight, etc. : cf. Scramble, Worry, Row. To fight or play eoeum: see Cocum. To fight (or buck) the tiger : see Buck. One that can fight his weight in wild cats, a brilliant desperado. Fighting - cove. A professional pugilist, specifically one wno ' boxes ' for a livelihood at fairs, race-meetings, etc. Fighting Fifth (The). The Fifth Foot. [So distinguished in the Pen- insula.] Other nicknames were the Shiners (in 1764, from its clean and smart appearance) ; The Old Bold Fifth (also Peninsular) ; and Lord Wellington's Body Guard (it was at headquarters in 1811). Fighting Ninth (The). The Ninth Foot Also Holy Boys (Peninsular), from its selling its Bibles for drink. Fighting-tight Drunk and quarrelsome : see Screwed. Fig-leaf. An apron. In fencing, the padded shield worn over the lower abdomen and right thigh : Fr., petite bannette. Figs (also Figgins). A grocer. Figure. 1. Appearance, conduct ; e.g. to cut a good or bad figure, a mean figure, sorry figure, etc. (1712). 2. Paps and posteriors ; said only of women. A T o figure, wanting in both particulars. As verb, to single out, spot (q.v.). Figure, like Fetch, comes in for a good deal of hard work in America. It is colloquially equivalent to ' count upon ' ; as, You may figure on getting a reply by return mail ; also, to strive for. To figure on [a thing], to think it over ; to figure out, to estimate ; to figure up, to add up ; to cut a figure, see Cut ; to go the whole figure, to be thorough ; to go the big figure, to launch out ; to miss a figure, to make a mis- take.] Figure-dancer. A manipulator of the face value of banknotes, cheques, and paper security generally (Grose). I, Figure-head. The face : see Dial, i Figure-maker. Awencher. Figure (or Number) Six. A lock of hair brought down from the forehead, greased, twisted spirally, and plastered on the face : see Aggerawator. Filbert. Cracked in the filbert, crazy ; a variant of Wrong in the nut (q.v.) or Upper storey. Filch. 1. To steal : specifically to pilfer (1567). 2. To beat As subs., a thief. Filcher (or Filch). A thief. Filchman (or Filch). A thief s hooked staff : ' He carries a short staff in his hand, which is called a filch, having in the nab or head of it a ferme (that is to say a hole) into which, upon any piece of service, when he goes a filching, he putteth a hooke of iron, with which hooke he angles at 158 File. Fire-eater. a window in the dead of night for shirts, smockes, or any other linen or woollen ' (Dekker). File. 1. A pickpocket : also file cloy (or bung nipper) : Fr., poisse a la detourne (1754). As verb, to pick pockets. 2. A man : i.e. a cove (q.v.). Thus silent file (Fr. lime sourde), a dumb man; dose -file, a miser, or a person not given to blabbing ; hard- file, a grasper (q.v.) ; old file, an elder ; and so forth. Filing-lay. Pocket - picking (1754). Filling at the Price. Satisfying. Fill. Fill one's pipe. To attain to easy circumstances. Fill the bill, to excel in conspicuousness : as a star actor whose name is ' billed ' to the exclusion of the rest of the company. Hence, by implication, out of the common run of things ; e.g. That fills the bill, that takes the cake, for a lie, an effect, an appearance anything. Fill the bin, to be beyond question, come up to the mark ; e.g. Is the news reliable ? Yes, it fills the bin. Fillupey. Satisfying. Filly. A girl ; specifically a wanton : among thieves, a daughter (1668). Filth. A prostitute (1602). Fimble - f amble. A lame excuse, prevaricating answer. Fin. The arm ; also the hand : Fr., nageoire : To tip the fin, to shake hands (Grose). Find (Harrow). A mess of three or four upper boys which teas and breakfasts in the rooms of one or other of the set. Find-fag, a fag who provides for, or finds, upper boys. Finder. 1. A thief; specifically a meat- market thief. 2. (Oxford Uni- versity). A waiter ; especially at Caius'. Fine. Punishment, a term of im- prisonment. To fine, to sentence. To cut it fine, see Cut fine. To get one down fine and dose, to find out all about a man, deliver a stinging blow. All very fine and large, an interjection of (1) approval, (2) derision, and (3) incredulity. [The refrain of a music- hall song excessively popular about 1886-88.] Fine as fivepence : see Fivepence. Fine day for the young ducks, a very wet day. Fine words butter no parsnips, a sarcastic retort upon large promises. Fine-drawing. Accomplishing an end without discovery. Fineer (and Fineering). Running into debt ; getting goods made in such a fashion as to be unfit for every other purchaser, and if the tradesman refuses to give them on credit, then threatens to leave them upon his hands (Goldsmith). Fine-madam. An epithet of envy or derision for one above her station. Finger. A ' nip,' usually ap- plied to spirituous liquors. Thus, Three fingers of clear juice, Three ' goes ' of whisky. To put the finger in the eye, to weep (Grose). Finger - and - thumb. A road or highway, i.e. drum. Finger-better. A man who bets on credit ; also one who points out cards. Finger-post. A clergyman. Finger - smith. 1. A pickpocket. 2. A midwife : Fr., Madame tire- monde (or tire-pouce, tire-m6mes). Finish. To kill. Finisher. Something that gives the last, the settling touch to any- thing: see Corker, Clincher, etc. (1788). F i n j y ! (Winchester College). An exclamation excusing one from participation hi an unpleasant or un- acceptable task, which he who says the word last has to undertake. Finnuf. See Finnup. Finnup (also Finnip, Finnuf Finnif , Finnic, Finn, or Fin) . A five pound note or Flimsy (q.v.) [A Yiddish pronunciation of German ficnf, five.] Also Finnup ready, ready money : hi America, Finnup, a five dollar bill. Double finnup, a ten pound note. Fippenny. A clasp knife : see Chive. Fire. Danger. Like a house on fire, easily and rapidly : cf. House, Winking, One o'clock, Cake, Brick, etc. To fire a slug, to drink a dram (Grose). To fire a gun, to introduce a story by head and shoulders, lead up to a subject (Grose). To set the Thames on fire, to do some next-to- impossible task, to be exceptionally clever ; used negatively in sarcasm. Fire and Light. A master-at-arms. Fired. Arrested, turned out, and (among artists) rejected. Fire-eater. In Old Cant a quick- worker ; and in modern English, a duellist or bully : also Fire-eating. 159 Fire-escape. Fix. Fire-escape. A clergyman. Fire-prigger. A thief whose venue is a conflagration (Grose). Fire-spaniel. A soldier who nurses the barrack-room fire : syn- onyms are: fire-dog, fire- worshipper, chimney - ornament, fender - guard, and cuddle-chimney. Firewater. Ardent spirits. Fireworks. A state of disturb- ance, mental excitement : e.g. Fire- works on the brain, a fluster. Firk. To beat (1599). Firkytoodle. To caress. English synonyms : to canoodle, to fiddle, to mess (or pull) about, to slewther (Irish), to spoon, to crooky, to fam. Firmed. See Well-firmed. First - chop. First rate. [From Hind., chaap, a stamp, an official mark on weights and measures ; hence used to signify quality.] Also Second-chop (q.v.). First-flight. In the first flight those first in at the finish ; in fox- hunting those in at the death. First-nighter. An habitue of theatrical first- performances. First-night Wrecker. See Wrecker. Fish. 1. A man ; generally in con- tempt or disparagement, as Odd fish, Loose fish, Queer fish, Scaly fish, Shy fish. 2. Pieces cut out of garments to make them fit close. As verb, to attempt to obtain by artifice, seek in- directly, curry favour. Pretty kettle of fish, a perplexing state of affairs, quandary. To have other fish to fry, to have other business on hand. To be neither fish nor flesh, to be neither one thing nor another ; said of waverers and nondescripts ; sometimes ex- tended to Neither fish, flesh, fowl, nor good red herring (1598). Fish-broth. Water : see Adam's ale (1599). Fisher. A lick-spittle ; only used contemptuously. Fishhooks. The fingers : see Forks. Fishmarket. The lowest hole at bagatelle, Simon (q.v.). Fishy. Effete, dubious, or seedy (of persons) : unsound, or equivocal (of things). Also Fishiness, unsound- ness. Fist. 1. Handwriting : FT., la cape. 2. A workman. Good fist, a good workman. 3. An index hand. As verb, (1) to apprehend (1598). 2. To take hold : e.g. Just you fist that scrubbing brush, and set to work. To put up one's fist, to acknowledge a fact : cf. Fill the bin and acknowledge the corn. Fit. Suitable, in good form. Fit as a fiddle, in perfect condition. To fit like a ball of wax, to fit close to the skin. To fit like a sentry box, to fit badly. To fit like a glove, to fit per- fectly. To fit to a T, to fit to a nicety. [In reference to the T square used in drawing.] To fit up a show, to ar- range an exhibition. Fitch's Grenadiers. The Eighty- Third Foot. [From the small stature of the men and the name of the first colonel.] Fits. To beat into fits : see Beat and Creation. Fitter. A burglar's locksmith. Fit-up. A small company: also used adjectively : see Conscience. Five-fingers. The five of trumps in the game of Don or Five Cards (1611). Fiver. Anything that counts as five ; specifically a five- pound note : cf. Finn. Five over Five. Said of people who turn in their toes. Fivepence. As fine (or as grand), as fivepence (or as fippence), as fine as possible : cf. As neat as ninepence (1672). Fives. 1. The fingers. Bunch of fives, the fist : see Forks (1629). Also the feet. 2. A fight Fix. A dilemma ; frequently in con- junction with Awful (q.v.) and Regu- lar (q.v.), e.g. An awful fix, a terrible position. Variants are Cornered, Up a tree, Up a close, Under a cloud, In a scrape : FT., avoir des mots avec les sergots, to run amuck of the police. As verb, (1) to arrest (1789). (2) A general verb of action. Everything is fixed except the meaning of the word itself. The farmer fixes his fences, the mechanic his work- bench, the seamstress her sewing-machine, the fine lady her hair, and the schoolboy his books. The minister has to fix his sermon, the doctor to fix his medicines, the lawyer to fix his brief. Dickens was requested to un-fix his straps ; eatables are fixed for a meal ; a girl unfixes herself to go to bed, and fixes herself up to go for a walk. At public meetings it is fixed who are to be the candidates for office ; rules are 160 Fixings. Flannels. fixed to govern an institution, and when the arrangements are made the people contentedly say, Now every- thing is fixed nicely. To fix the ballot box, to tamper with returns. Anyhow (or nohow) you can or can't fix it : see Anyhow. To fix one's flint, to settle one's hash : see Cook one's goose (1835). To fix up, to settle, arrange. Fixings. A noun of all work : applied to any and everything. Fiz (or Fizz). Champagne; some- times lemonade and ginger-beer : see Boy. Fiz-gig. A firework. Fizzer. Anything first-rate : cf. Fizzing. Fizzing. First-rate. English synonyms: Al, cheery, clean wheat, clipping, crack, creamy, crushing, first chop, first-class, first-rate, or (in America) first-rate and a half, hunky, jammy, jonnick, lummy, nap, out- and-out, pink, plummy, proper, real jam, right as ninepence, ripping, rooter, rum, screaming, scrumptious, ship-shape, slap-up, slick, splenda- cious, splendiferous, to rights, tip-top, true marmalade, tsing-tsing. Fizzle. A ridiculous failure, flash in the pan : in many of the United States colleges, the term=a blundering recitation. To hit just one third of the meaning constitutes a perfect fizzle. As verb, to fail in reciting, recite badly. Also (said of an instructor) to cause one to fail at reciting. At some American colleges Flunk (q.v.) is the common word for an utter failure. To Fizzle, to stumble through at last. Flabbergast. To astound, stagger, either physically or mentally (1772). Flabberdegaz. Words interpolated to dissemble a lapse of memory, Gag (q.v.). Also, imperfect utterance or bad acting. Flag. 1. A groat, fourpenny piece : also Flagg, and Flagge : see Rhino (1567). 2. An apron ; hence a badge of office or trade : cf. Flag-flasher. 3. A jade (1539). To fly the flag, to post a notice that hands are wanted. Flag of Defiance. A drunken roysterer : see Lushington. To hang out the flag of defiance (or bloody flag), to be continuously drunk. Flag-flasher. One sporting a or other ensign of office (cap, apron, uniform, etc.) when off duty. Flag-about. A strumpet. Flag -flying. See Flag. Flag of Distress. 1. A card an- nouncing lodgings, or board and lodgings. Hence, any overt sign of poverty. 2. A flying shirt-tail; in America, a letter in the post-office (q.v.). Flagger. A street-walker. Flags. Linen drying and flying in the wind. Flag Unfurled. A man of the world. Flag-wagging. Flag-signal drill. Flam. 1. Nonsense (for synonyms, see Gammon), humbug, flattery, or a lie : as a regular flam (1598). 2. A single stroke on the drum (Orose). As adj., false. As verb, (1) to take in, flatter, lie, foist or fob off. Flamming, lying. (2) (American University). To affect, or prefer, female society. Flambustious. Showy, gaudy, pleasant. Flamdoodle. Nonsense, vain boasting. Probably a variant of Flapdoodle (q.v.). Flame. 1. A sweetheart, mistress in keeping. Old flame, an old lover, cast-off mistress (1664). Also, 2. a venereal disease. Flamer. A man, woman, thing, or incident above the common. Flames. A red-haired person : cf. Carrots and Ginger. Flaming. Conspicuous, ardent, stunning (q.v.) : see Al (1738). Flanderkin. A very large fat man or horse ; also natives of Flanders (B. E.). Flanders-fortunes. Of small sub- stance (B. E.). Flanders - pieces. Pictures that look fair at a distance, but coarser near at hand (B. E.). Flank. 1. To crack a whip ; also, to hit a mark with the lash of one. 2. To deliver a blow or a retort, push, hustle, quoit (Shakespeare) : Fr., flanquer. A plate of thin flank, a sixpenny cut off the joint. To flank the whole bottle, to dodge, i.e. to outflank, to achieve by strategy. Flanker. A blow, retort, kick. Flankey. The posteriors. Flannel. See Hot flannel. Flannels. To get one's flannels, to get a place in the school football 161 Flap. Flash. or cricket teams, or in the boats : of. to get one's colours, or, one's blue. Flap. 1. Sheet- lead used for roof- ing: Pr..doussin, noir : cf. Bluey. 2. A blow (1539). As verb, (1) to rob, swindle. 2. To pay, fork out. To flap a jay, to swindle a greenhorn, sell a pup (q.v.). To flap the dimmock, to pay. Flapdoodle. 1. Transparent nonsense, kid. Also Flamdoodle, Flamsauce, or Flap-sauce : see Gam- mon. To talk flapdoodle, to brag, talk nonsense. Flapdoodler. A braggart agitator, one that makes the eagle squeal (q.v.), Flap-dragon. To gulp down hastily, as in the game of flap-dragon (1604). Flap man. A convict promoted for good behaviour to first or second class. Flapper. 1. The hand ; also Flap- per-shaker : see Daddle. 2. A little girl. [Also a fledgling wild duck.] 3. A very young prostitute. 4. A dustman's or coalheaver's hat, a Fantail (q.v.). 5. (in pi.). Very long- pointed shoes worn by nigger minstrels. 6. A parasite ; a remem- brancer. Flapper- shaking. Hand-shaking. Flap-sauce. See Flapdoodle. Flare. 1. Primarily a stylish craft ; hence, by implication, anything out of the common. 2. A row, dispute, drunk, or spree. As verb, (1) speci- fically to whisk out ; hence, to steal actively, lightly, or delicately. 2. To swagger, go with a bounce. All of a flare, bunglingly. Flaring. Excessive: e.g. a flaring lie, flaring drunk : see Flaming. Flare-up (or -out). An orgie, fight, outburst of temper. Also a spree. English synonyms: barney, batter, bean-feast, beano, breakdown, burst, booze (specifically a drinking - bout), caper, devil's delight, dust, fanteague, fight, flare, flats -yad (back slang), fly, gig, hay-bag, hell's delight, high jinks, hooping up, hop, jagg, jamboree, jump, junket ting, lark, drive, randan, on the tiles, on the fly, painting the town (American), rampage, razzle- dazzle, reeraw, ructions, shake, shine, spree, sky-wannocking, tear, tear up, toot. As verb, to fly into a passion. Flash. 1. The vulgar tongue; the lingo of thieves and th<-ir associates. To patter flash, to talk in thieves' lingo. The derivation of Flash, like that of French argot, is entirely specu- lative. It has, however, been gener- ally referred to a district called Flash (the primary signification as a place name is not clear), between Buxton Leek and Macclesfield : there lived many chapmen who, says Dr. Aiken (Description of Country round Man- chester), ' were known as flash- men . . . using a sort of slang or cant dialect.'] (1718). 2. Hence, at one period, especially during the Regency days, the idiom of the man about town, of Tom and Jerrydom. 3. A boast, brag, or great pretence made by a spendthrift, quack, or pretender to more art or knowledge than he really has. 4. A showy swindler (e.g. Sir Petronel Flash) ; a blustering vulgar- ian (1605). 5. A peruke or perriwig. 6. A portion, a drink, go (q.v.). As adj., (1) relating to thieves, their habits, customs, devices, lingo, etc. (2) Knowing, expert, showy, cf. Down, Fly, Wide-awake, etc. Hence (popu- larly), by a simple transition, vul- garly counterfeit, showily shoddy : possibly the best understood mean- ings of the word in latter-day English. To put one flash to anything, to put him on his guard ; to inform. (3) Vulgar, blackguardly, showy, applied to one aping his betters. Hence (in Aus- tralia), vain-glorious or swaggering. (4) In a set style. Also used sub- stantively. Hence, in combination, Flash-case (crib, drum, house, ken, or panny ) : see Flash - ken ; Flash - cove (q.v.); Flash-dispensary (American), a boarding house, especially a swell brothel ; Flash-gentry, the swell mob or higher class of thieves ; Flash-girl (moll, -mollisher, -piece, or -woman), a showy prostitute ; Flash-jig (costers), a favourite dance ; Flash-kiddy, a dandy ; Flash-lingo (or song), patter, or song interlarded with cant words and phrases; Flash - man (q.v.); Flash-note, a spurious bank-note ; Flash-rider (American) : see Broncho- buster ; Flash toggery, smart clothes ; Flash vessel, a gaudy looking, but undisciplined ship. As verb, (1) to show, to expose. Among combina- tions may be mentioned To flash one's ivories, to show one's teeth, to grin (Grose); To flash the hash, to 1C2 Flash-case. Flats. vomit (Grose) ; To flash the dicky, to show the shirt front ; To flash the dibs, to show or spend one's money ; To flash a fawney, to wear a ring ; To flash one's gab, to talk, to swagger, to brag ; To flash the bubs, to expose the paps ; To flash the muzzle (q.v.) ; To flash one's ticker, to air one's watch ; To flash the drag, to wear women's clothes for immoral purposes ; To flash the white grin : see Grin ; To flash the flag, to sport an apron ; To flash the wedge, to fence the swag, etc. To flash the muzzle, to produce a pistol. To flash it about (or to cut a flash or dash), to make a display ; to live conspicuously and extravagantly. Flash-case (-crib, -house, -drum, -ken, -panny, etc.) 1. A house frequented by thieves, as a tavern, lodging-house, fence (q.v.) (1690). 2. A brothel, any haunt of loose women. Flash - cove (also Flash Com- panion). A thief, sharper, fence (q.v.). Flash - man. Primarily a man talking Flash ; hence, a rogue, thief, the landlord of a Flash-case (q.v.). Also a Fancy-Joseph. In America, a person with no visible means of sup- port, but living in style and showing up well. Flash-of-lightning. 1. A glass of gin, dram of neat spirits : see Go and Drinks. Latterly, an American drink. 2. The gold braid on an officer's cap. Flashy (Flashily, or Flashly). Empty, showy, tawdry, insipid (1637). Flash-tail. A prostitute. Flasher. A high-flyer, fop, pre- tender to wit (1779). F 1 a s h e r y. Inferior, vulgar : hence by inversion, elegance, dash, distinction, display. Flash - yad (back slang). A day's enjoyment. Flashy Blade (or Spark). A Dandy (q.v.) ; now a cheap and noisy swell, whether male or female : cf. Flasher (1719). Flat. 1. A greenhorn, noddy, gull : see Buffle (1762). 2. An honest man. 3. A lover's dismissal, jilting. As adj., downright, plain, straight- forward : as in That's flat ! a flat lie, flat burglary, etc. (1598). There are other usages, more or less colloquial e.g. Insipid, tame, dull : as in Mac- aulay's Flat as champagne in de- canters. On the Stock Exchange, flat, without interest ; stock is bor- rowed flat when no interest is al- lowed by the lender as security for the due return of the scrip. As verb, to jilt. To feel flat (1), to be low- spirited, out of sorts, Off colour (q.v.). (2) To fail, give way : also used sub- stantively. Flat as a flounder (or pancake), very flat indeed : also, flat as be blowed. To brush up a flat : see Brusher. To pick up a flat, to find a client : Fr., lever or faire un miche. Flat-back. A bed-bug : see Nor folk Howard. Flat-broke. Utterly ruined, Dead-broke (q.v.). Flat-catcher. An impostor. Flat-catching. Swindling. F 1 a t c h (back slang). 1. A half. Flatch-kennurd, half drunk ; Flatch- yenork, half-a-crown ; Flatch-yennep, a half-penny. 2. A half-penny : see Rhino. [An abbreviation of Flatch- yennep.] 3. A counterfeit half- crown : see Rhino. Flat - cap. A citizen of London. In Henry the Eighth's time flat round caps were the pink of fashion ; but when their date was out, they be- came ridiculous. The citizens con- tinued to wear them long after they were generally disused, and were often satirized for their fidelity.] (1596). Flat-cock. A female (Orose). Flat - feet. Specifically the Foot Guards, but also applied to regiments of the line. Also (generally with some powerful adjective), applied to militiamen to differentiate them from linesmen. Flat-fish (generally, a Regular Flat-fish). A dullard. Flat-footed. Downright, resolute, honest. [Western : the simile ia common to most languages.] Flat-head. A greenhorn, a Sammy- soft (q.v.) : see Buffle. Flat-iron. A corner public house. [From the triangular shape.] Flattie (or Flatty). A gull : see Buffle. Flat - move. An attempt or pro- ject that miscarries ; folly and mis- management generally (Grose). Flats. 1. Playing cards : see King's 163 FlcUs-and-aharps. Flesh-pot. Books. 2. False dice: see Fulhams. 3. Base money. Mahogany flat, bed-bugs : see Norfolk Howards. Flats-and-sharps. Weapons. Flatten. To flatten out, to get the better of (in argument or fight). Flat- tened out, ruined ; beaten. Flatter - trap. The mouth : FT., menteuse : see Potato-trap. Flatty-ken. A house where the landlord is not awake, or fly to the moves and dodges of the trade. Flawed. Half - drunk, a little crooked, quick-tempered (Grose) : see Screwed. Flay (or Flay the Fox). 1. To vomit : from the subject to the effect, says Cotgrave ; for the flaying of so stinking a beast is like enough to make them spue that feel it. Now, To shoot the cat. 2. To clean out by unfair means. To flay (or skin) a flint, to be mean or miserly : see Skinflint. Flaybottom (or Flaybottomist) . A schoolmaster, with a play on the word phlebotomist, a blood - letter (Grose). FT., fouette-cul ; and (Cot- grave) Fesse-cul, a pedantical whip- arse. Flavour. To catch (or get) the flavour, to be intoxicated : see Screwed. Flax. To beat severely ; to give it hot (q.v.). Flax-wench. A prostitute (1604). Flea. To send away with a flea in the ear, to dismiss with vigour and acerbity. To have a flea in the ear, (1) to fail in an enterprise; and (2) to receive a scolding or annoying suggestion. To sit on a bag of fleas, to sit uncomfortably ; on a bag of hen fleas, very uncomfortably indeed. To catch fleas for, to be on terms of ex- treme intimacy : e.g. I catch her fleas for her, She has nothing to refuse me: cf. Shakespeare (' Tempest,' n. ii.), ' Yet a tailor might scratch her where'er she did itch.' In a flea's leap, in next to no time, instanter (q.v.). Flea-and-louse (rhyming slang), A house : see Ken. Flea-bag. A bed : FT., pucier. Flea-bite. A trifle (1630). Flea-biting. A trifle. Flea- (or Flay-) Flint. A miser : cL Skinflint (q.v.) (1719). Flear. To grin. A /tearing fool, a grinning idiot. Fleece. An act of theft : cf. old proverb, To go out to shear and come home shorn. As verb, to cheat, shear or be shorn (as a sheep) (1593). Hence fleeced, ruined ; dead- broke (q.v.). Fleecer. A thief (1600). Fleeter-face. A pale-face, coward : cf. Shakespeare's Cream-faced loon. (1647). Fleet-note. A forged note. Fleet-of-the-desert. A caravan : see Ship of the desert, camel. Fleet-street. The estate of jour- nalism, especially journalism of the baser sort. Fleet-sir etter, a journalist of the baser sort ; a spunging Prophet (q.v.) ; a sharking dramatic critic ; a Spicy (q.v.) paragraphist ; and so on. Fieet-streetese, the so-called English, written to sell by the Fleet-streeter (q.v.), or baser sort of journalist: a mixture of sesquipedalians and slang, of phrases worn threadbare and phrases sprung from the kennel ; of bad grammar and worse manners ; the like of which is impossible outside Fleet-street (q.v.), but which in Fleet-street commands a price, and enables not a few to live. Fleg. To whip (Bailey). Flemish - account. A remittance less than expected ; hence, an un- satisfactory account. [Among the Flemings (the merchants of Western Europe when commerce was young) accounts were kept in livres, sols, and pence ; but the livre or pound onlv= 12s., so that what the Antwerp mer- chant called one livre thirteen and fourpence would in English currency be only 20s.] (1668). Flesh - and - blood. Brandy and port in equal proportions. Flesh - bag. A shirt or chemise. English synonyms : biled rag (Ameri- can), camesa, carrion-case, commis- sion, dickey (formerly a worn-out shirt), gad (gipsy), lully, mill tog, mish, narp (Scots'), shaker, shimmy (=a chemise, JUarryat), smish. Flesh-broker. 1. A match-maker (1690). 2. A procuress (Grose). Flesh-fly (or Flesh-maggot). A whoremaster. Flesh-pot. Sighing for the flesh-pots of Egypt, hankering for good things no longer at command. [Biblical] 164 Flesh-tailor. Floater. Flesh - tailor. A surgeon : see Sawbones. Fleshy (Winchester College) : see Cat's Head. Fletch. A spurious coin : cf. Flatch. Flick (or Flig). 1. A cut with a whip-lash ; hence, a blow of any sort. A flicking is often administered by schoolboys with a damp towel or pocket - handkerchief. 2. A jocular salutation ; usually Old Flick. As verb, 1. To cut (1690). 2. To strike with, or as with, a whip. Flicker. A drinking glass. As verb (1) to drink (Matsett). (2) To laugh wantonly ; also to kiss, or lewdly fondle a woman. Also Flick- ing, (1) drinking, and (2) wanton laughter. Let her flicker, said of any doubtful issue : let the matter take its chance. Flicket-a-Flacket. Onomatopoetic for a noise of flapping and flicking (1719). Flier (or Flyer). 1. A horse or boat of great speed ; also (American rail- way) a fast train ; hence, by implica- tion, anything of excellence. 2. A shot in the air. 3. A small hand- bill, Dodger (q.v.). To take a flier, to make a venture ; to invest against odds. Flies (rhyming). Lies. Hence, nonsense, trickery, deceit. There are no flies on me (or him), I am dealing honestly with you ; He is genuine, and is not humbugging. In America, the expression is used of (1) a man of quick parts, a man who knows a thing without its being kicked into him by a mule ; and (2) a person of superior breeding or descent. Fligger (also Flicker). To grin (1720). Film. See Flimsy. Flim-flam. An idle story, sham, Robin Hood tale (q.v.) (1589). As adj., idle, worthless (1589). Flimp. To hustle or rob. To put on the flimp, to rob on the highway. Flimping, stealing from the person. Flimsy (or Flim). 1. A bank-note. Soft-flimsy, a note drawn on the ' Bank of Elegance,' or ' The Bank of Engraving.' 2. News of all kinds, Points (q.v. ). First used at Lloyd's. Flinders. Pieces infinitesimally small. Fling. 1. A fit of temper. 2. A jeer, jibe, personal allusion or attack ( 1592). As verb, (1) to cheat, get the best of, Do (q.v.) or diddle (Grose). (2) To dance. To fling out, to depart in a hurry, and, especially, in a temper. In a fling, in a spasm of temper. To have one's fling, to enjoy full liberty of action or conduct (1624). To fling dirt : see Dirt. Flinger. A dancer. Fling-dust. A street-walker. Flint. A man working for a Union or fair house ; non- Union- ists are Dung (q.v.). Both terms occur in Foote's burlesque, The Tailors : a Tragedy for Warm Weather, and they received a fresh lease of popularity during the tailors' strike of 1832. Old Flint, a miser : one who would skin a flint, i.e. stoop to any meanness for a trifle. To fix one's flint : see Fix. To flint in, to act with energy ; stand on no cere- mony, pitch into, tackle. A verb of action well-nigh as common as Fix (q.v.). Flip. 1. Hot beer, brandy, and sugar ; also, says Grose, called Sir Cloudesley after Sir Cloudesley Shovel. 2. A bribe or douceur. 3. A light blow, or snatch. As verb, to shoot. To flip up, to spin a coin. Flip - flap. 1. A flighty creature (1702). 2. A step-dance; a Cellar- flap (q.v.). Also (acrobats'); a kind of somersault, in which the performer throws himself over on his hands and feet alternately (1727). 3. A kind of tea-cake. 4. The arm : see Bender. Flipper. 1. The hand. Tip ux your flipper, give me your hand : see Daddle. 2. See Flapper. 3. Part of a scene, hinged and painted on both sides, used in trick changes. Flirtatious. Flighty. Flirt-gill (Flirtgillian, or Gill-flirt). A wanton, a chopping - girl (q.v.) ; specifically a strumpet (1595). Flirtina Cop - all. A wanton, young or old ; a men's woman (q.v.). Float. The footlights : before the invention of gas they were oil-pans with floating wicks. // that's the way the stick floats : see Stick. Floater. 1. An Exchequer bill ; ap- plied also to other unfunded stock. 2. A suet dumpling in soup. 3. A vend- ible voter. 4. A candidate represent- ing several counties, and therefore not considered directly responsible to any one of them. 165 Floating-academy. Flop. ' Floating - academy. The hulks ; also Campbell's academy (q.v.), and Floating hell (q.v.). Floating - batteries. 1. Broken bread in tea ; also Slingers (q.v.). 2. The Confederate bread rations during the Secession. ^ Floating-coffin. A rotten ship. 1 ^ Floating -hell (or Hell afloat). A ship commanded by (1) a brutal savage, or (2) a ruthless disciplinarian. Flock. A clergyman's congrega- tion. Also any body of people with a common haunt or interest : e.g. a family of children, a company of soldiers, a school of girls or boys, a cabful of molls, and such like. To fire into the wrong flock, to blunder : see To bark up the wrong tree. Flock-of-Sheep. 1. A hand at dominoes set out on the table. 2. White-crested dancing waves on the sea, White horses (q.v.). Flog. A whip : a contraction of Flogger (q.v.). To flog (now recog- nised), is cited by B. E. (1690), and Orose. To be flogged at the tumbler, to be whipped at the cart's tail : see Tumbler. To flog the dead horse, 1. To work up an interest in a bygone sub- ject, try against heart, do with no will nor liking for the job. [Bright said that Earl Russell's Reform Bill was a dead horse (q.v.), and every attempt to create enthusiasm in its favour was flogging the dead horse.] 2. To work off an advance of wages. To flog a willing horse, to urge on one who is already putting forth his best energies. Flogger. 1. A whip: Fr.,6ouw. 2. A mop (i.e. a bunch of slips of cloth on a handle) used in the painting room to whisk the charcoal dust from a sketch. Flogging. Careful, penurious. Flogging-cove. 1. An official who administers the Cat (q.v.). 2. See Flogging cully. Flogging-cully. A man addicted to flagellation, a Whipster (q.v.). Flogging-stake. A whipping post. Flogster. One addicted to flog- ging. Specifically (naval) a nick- name applied to the Duke of Clarence (afterwards William IV.). Floor. 1. To knock down. Hence to vanquish in argument, make an end of, defeat, confound (Grose). To floor the odds, said of a low-priced horse that pulls off the event in face of the betting. 2. To finish, get outside of : e.g. I floored three half- pint and a nip before breakfast 3. To pluck. Plough (q.v.). To floor a paper (lesson, examination, examiner), to answer every question, master, prove oneself superior to the occasion. To floor one's ticks, to surpass one- self. Cut-around (q.v.). To have (hold, or take) the floor, to rise to ad- dress a public meeting ; in Ireland, to stand up to dance ; and, in America, to be in possession of the House. Floored. 1. Vanquished, brought under, ruined. English synonyms: basketed, bitched, bitched-up, bowled out, broken up, buggered up, busted, caved in, choked-off, cornered, cooked, coopered up, dead-beat, done brown, done for, done on toast, doubled up, flattened out, fluffed, flummoxed, frummagemmed, gapped, gone through St. Peter's needle, done under, grav- elled, gruelled, hoofed out, in the last of pea-time, or last run of shad, jacked - up, knocked out of time, knocked silly, looed, mucked - out, petered out, pocketed, potted, put in his little bed, queered in his pitch, rantanned, sat upon, sewn up, shut- up, smashed to smithereens, snashed, snuffed out, spread-eagled, struck of a heap, stumped, tied up, timbered, treed, trumped, up a tree. 2. Drunk ; in Shakespearean ' put down ' ; as Sir Andrew Aguecheek, ' Never in your life, I think, unless you see canary put me down' ("Twelfth Night," i. iii.): see Screwed. 3. Hung low at an exhibition ; in contradistinction to Skyed (q.v.), and On the line (q.v.). Floorer. 1. An auctioneer (q.v.), or knock-down blow. Hence, sudden or unpleasant news, a decisive argu- ment, an unanswerable retort, a decisive check: Sp., peso (1819). 2. A question or a paper too hard to master. 3. A ball that brings down all the pins. 4. A thief who trips his man, and robs in picking him up ; a Ramper (q.v.). Flooring. Knocking down : hence, to vanquish in all senses. Floor -walker. A shop-walker. Flop. 1. A Bite (q.v.), a successful dodge (1856). 2. A sudden fall or flop down. 3. A collapse cr break- down. 4. (For Flap or Flip). A light blow (1662). As verb, (1) to fall, or flap down suddenly : FT., 166 Florence. Flummox. prendre un billet de parterre (1742). (2) To knock down. As adj., An onomatopoeia expressive of the noise of a sudden and sounding fall. Often used expletively, as Slap (q.v.) is, and the American, Right (q.v.) (1726). To flop over, to turn heavily ; hence (in America), to make a sudden change of sides, association, or allegiance. Flop up, a day's tramp, as opposed to a Sot-down, half a day's travel. Flop up time, Bedtime. Flop, too, is something of a vocable of all-work. Thus, to flop round, to loaf, to dangle ; to do a flop (colloquial), to sit, or to fall, down: to flop out, to leave the water noisily and awk- wardly ; a flop in the gills, & smack in the mouth. Florence. A wench that has been touzed and ruffled (B. E.). Floster. A mixed drink : sherry, noyau, peach - leaves, lemon, sugar, ice, and soda-water. Flouch. To fall (or go) flouch (or floush), to come to pieces, sag sud- denly on the removal of a restraining influence, as a pair of stays. Flounce. To move with violence, and (generally) in anger. Said of women, for whom such motion is, or rather was, inseparable from a great flourishing of flounces. Flounder. 1. A drowned corpse : see Stiff. 2. To sell, and afterwards re-purchase a stock, or vice-versd. Flounder-and-Dab. A cab. Flour. Money : generic : see Rhino. Flourish. To be in luck : e.g. I flourish, I am well off ; Do you flourish, or Are you flourishing ? Have you got any money ? Flourishing, a retort to the inquiry, How are you ? The equivalent of Pretty well, thank you ! Flowery. Lodging, entertain- ment ; Square the omee for the flowery, pay the landlord for the lodging. [Lingua Franca,'} Flowery Language. Blasphemous and obscene speech. Flowing - hope. A forlorn hope. Flub-dub-and-Guff. Rhetorical embellishment ; High-falutin' (q.v.). Flue. 1. The Recorder of London or any large town. 2. The filth, part fluff, part hair, part dust, which collects under ill-kept beds, and at the junctures of sofas and chairs : see Beggar's Velvet. 3. A contrac- tion of influenza. As verb, to put in pawn. In (or up) the flue, pawned. Up the flue (or spout), dead ; collapsed, mentally or physically. To be up one's flue, to be awkward for one. That's up your flue, that's a facer, or that's up against you. Flue-Faker (or Scraper). A chimney-sweep : see Clergyman. Fluff (or Fluffings). 1. Short change given by booking-clerks. The practice is known as Fluffing : see Menavelings : Fr., des fruges ( = more or less unlawful profits of any sort). As verb, to give short change. 2. Lines half learned and imperfectly deli vered. Hence, To do a fluff, to forget one's part : also as verb, to disconcert, to floor (q.v.). Fluff it ! an interjection of disapproval : Be off ! Take it away ! F 1 u ff e r. 1. A drunkard : see Lushington. 2. A player ' rocky on his lines ' ; i.e. given to forgetting his part. 3. A term of contempt. Fluffiness. 1. Drunkenness : see Fluffy and Fluffer. 2. The trick, or habit, of forgetting words. Fluffy. Unsteady, of uncertain memory. Fluke. In billiards, an accidental winning hazard ; in all games a result not played for; a Crow (q.v.). In yachting, an effect of chance ; a result in which seamanship has had no part. Hence, a stroke of luck. As verb, (1) to effect by accident. (2) To shirk. To cut flukes out, to mutiny, turn sulky and disobedient. To turn flukes, to go to bed ; i.e. to Bunk (q.v.), or turn in. Fluky (or Flukey). Of the nature of a Fluke (q.v.) ; i.e. achieved more by good luck than good guid- ance. Hence Flukiness, abounding in Flukes. Flummadiddle. 1. Nonsense, Flummery (q.v.). 2. A sea-dainty. Flummergasted. Astonished, con- founded. A variant of Flabber- gasted (q.v.). Flummery. 1. Nonsense, Gammon (q.v.), flattery (Grose). 2. A kind of bread pudding (Nordhoff). 3. Oat- meal and water boiled to a jelly (Grose). Flummox (Flummocks, or Flum- mux). 1. To perplex, dodge, abash, silence, victimize, Best (q.v.), dis- 167 Flwnmocky. Fly. appoint. AlsoConflummox. To flum- mox (or conflummox) by the lip, to out- slang (q.v.), talk down; to flummox the coppers, to dodge the police ; to flummox the old Dutch, to cheat one's wife, etc. 2. To confuse, Queer (q.v.). 3. Used in the passive sense, to abandon a purpose, give in, die. As subs., a bad recitation, failure. Flummoxed, spoilt, ruined, drunk, Sent down (q.v.), Boshed (q.v.), defeated, dis- appointed, silenced, Floored (q.v.). Flummocky. Out of place, in bad taste. Flummut. A month in prison : see Dose. Flump. To fall, put, or be set down with violence or a thumping noise: onomatopoeic. Also to come down with a flump (1840). Flunk. 1. An idler, Loafer (q.v.), Lawrence (q.v.). 2. A failure, especi- ally (at college) in recitations ; a backing out of undertakings : also Flunk-out. As verb, to retire through fear, fail (as in a lesson), cause to fail. Flunkey. 1. A ship's steward. 2. An ignorant dabbler in stock, inexperi- enced jobber. 3. One that makes a complete failure in a recitation ; one who Flunks (q.v.). 4. A man-serv- ant, especially one in livery. Hence, by implication, a parasite or Toady (q.v.): FT., larbin (1848). Whence, Flunkeyism, blind worship of rank, birth, or riches : Fr.. larbinerie. Flurry. To flurry one's milk, to be worried, angry, or upset : see To fret one's kidneys (q.v.) ; To tear one's shirt (or one's hair), (q.v.). Flunyment. Agitation, bustle, con- fusion, nervous excitement. Flush. A hand of one suit. As adj., (1) with plenty of money, the reverse of Hard-up (q.v.) ; Warm (q.v.). Also abounding in anything : e.g. Flush of his patter, full of his talk ; flush of the lotion, liberal with the drink ; flush of his notions, prodigal of ideas ; flush of her charms, lavish of her person ; and so forth (1603). (2) Intoxicated (i.e. full to the brim) ; also Flushed : see Screwed. (3) Level: e.g. Flush with the top, with the water, with the road, with the boat's edge, etc. As verb, ( 1 ) to whip. English synonyms : to bludgeon, to bumbaste, to breech (Cotgrave), to brush, to club, to curry, to dress with an oaken towel, to drub, to dry-beat, to dry-bob, to drum, to fib, to flap, to flick, to flop, to jerk, to give one ballast, to hide, to lamin, to larrup, to paste, to punch, to rub down, to swinge, to swish, to switch, to trounce, to thump, to tund (Win- chester), to wallop. (2) To clean by filling full, and emptying, of water : e.g. to flush a sewer ; to wash, swill, or sluice away. Also, to fill with water : e.g. to flush a lock. (3) To start or raise a bird from covert : e.g. to flush a snipe, or a covey of partridges. To come flush on one, to come suddenly and unexpectedly (Marvell) ; to over- whelm (as by a sudden rush of water). Flushed on the horse, privately whip- ped in gaol. Flush-hit. A clean blow, a hit full on the mark and straight from the shoulder. As adj., full, straight, Right on (q.v.). Fluster. To excite, confuse, abash, Flummox (q.v.), upset, or be upset, with drink (1602). Flustered (or Flustrated). Excited by drink, circumstances, another person's impudence, etc.; also mildly drunk : cf. Flusticatod and see Screwed (1686). Flusticated (or Flustrated). Con- fused, in a state of heat or excite- ment : cf. Flustered (1712). Flustration. Heat, excitement, bustle, confusion, Flurry (q.v.) (1771). Flute. The recorder of a corpora- tion (1598). Flutter. 1. An attempt or Shy (q.v. ) at anything, a venture in earnest, a spree, a state of expectancy (as in betting) : hence gambling. 2. The act of spinning a coin. As verb, ( 1 ) to spin a coin (for drinks) ; also to gamble. (2) To go in for a bout of pleasure. To flutter the ribbons, to drive. Flutter, if not a word of all-work, is a word with plenty to do. Thus, to have (or do) a flutter, to have a look in (q.v.), to go on the spree ; to be on the flutter, to be on the spree ; to flutter a Judy, to pursue a girl ; to flutter a brown, to spin a coin ; to flutter (or fret) one's kidneys, to agitate, to exasperate ; to flutter a skirt, to walk the streets ; and so forth.] Flux. 1. To cheat, cozen, over- reach. 2. To salivate (Grose). Fly. A familiar ; hence, by im- plication, a parasite or Sucker (q.v.). [In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it was held that familiar spirits, in the guise of flies, lice, fleas, 168 Fly. Flying. etc., attended witches, who for a price professed to dispose of the Power for evil thus imparted.] 2. A printer's devil ; specifically a boy who lifted the printed sheets from the press. [Now the vibrating frame used for the same purpose.] (1688). 3. A customer. 4. The act of spinning a coin : cf. Flutter. 5. A public waggon : afterwards (colloquial) a four- wheel hackney coach : Fr., mouche (fly)=a public boat on the Seine. 6. A policeman. As adj., (1) knowing, Artful (q.v.), up to every move, cute. Also fly to, a-fly, fly to the game, and fly to what's what : cf. Awake, and, see Knowing. (2) Dextrous. As verb, ( 1 ) To toss, raise ; to fly the mags, to toss up halfpence. (2) To give way : as, china flies in the baking. To fly around, to bestir oneself, make haste. Also to fly around and tear one's shirt. To fly the flag, to walk the streets. See also Flag. To fly high (or rather high), (1) to get, or be drunk : see Screwed. (2) To keep the best company, maintain the best appearances, and affect the best aims : i.e. to be a High-flier ( q. v. ). Also, to venture for the biggest stakes in the biggest way. To fly low, to make as little of oneself as possible ; to sing small (q.v.) ; and (among thieves) to keep out of the way when Wanted (q.v.). To fly off the handle, to lose temper, fail of a promise, jilt, die ; also to slip off the Handle (q.v.); to disappoint in any way. [In pioneer life for an axe to part company with its handle is a serious trial to temper and patience.] To fly out, to get angry, scold (1612). To make the fur (or feathers) fly, to attack effectively, make a disturbance, quarrel noisily like two torn cats on the tiles, who are said (in American) to pull fur, or to pull wool. To take on the fly, to beg in the streets ; a specific usage of adverbial sense. To fly a kite, to raise money by means of accommodation bills, raise the Wind (q.v.). (3) To go out by the window. (4) To evacuate from a window. (5) To attempt, set one's cap at. To fly the blue pigeon, to steal lead from roofs : see Blue-pigeon. Fr., faire la mastar au gras-double (or la faire au mastar) (Grose). To let fly, to hit out : from cock-fighting. Not a feather to fly with, penniless, ruined, Dead-broke (q.v.). To break a fly on a wheel, to make a mountain of a molehill : cf. To crack a nut with a Nasmyth hammer, to lavish force or energy. The fly on the wheel, one who fancies himself of mighty im- portance. [From the fable.] / don't rise to that fly, I don't believe you ; you won't catch me with such bait as that. Off the fly, on the quiet, laid up in dock, doing nothing. On the fly, (1) walking the streets, out for a Lark (q.v.), Off work (q.v.), out on the spree (q.v.). (2) In motion : e.g. I got in one on the fly, I landed a blow while I was running. Fly-blow. A bastard ; cf. Bye- blow. Fly-blown. 1. Intoxicated : see Screwed. 2. Cleaned-out, without a rap, Hard-up. 3. Used, done-up, Washed-out (q.v.). 4. Deflowered, known for a wanton, suspected of disease. Fly - by - night. 1. A sedan chair on wheels ; a usage of the Regency days. 2. A defaulting debtor, one who shoots the moon (q.v.). 3. A prostitute. 4. A noctambulist for business or for pleasure : i.e. a burglar or a common spreester (q.v.). 5. A term of opprobrium, spec, 'an old woman, signifying that she was a witch, and alluding to the nocturnal excursions attributed to witches who were supposed to fly abroad to their meetings mounted on brooms ' (Grose). Fly - catcher. An open-mouthed ignoramus, a Gape-seed (q.v.) : Fr., gobe-mouche. Flycop. A sharp officer ; one well broken in to the tricks of trade. Fly-disperser Soup. Oxtail. Flyer. 1. See Flier in all senses. 2. A shoe : see Trotter-case. 3. (Win- chester). A half-volley at football, A made-flyer is when the bound of the ball is gained from a previous kick, by the same side, against canvas or any other obstacle, or is dropped, as in a drop - kick. This is now confused with a kick-up. Fly-flapped. Whipped in the stocks, or at the cart's tail (Grose). Fly - flapper. A heavy bludgeon. Fly-flat. A would-be connoisseur and authority. Flying. To look a# if the Devil had spued on him (or her) flying, said in derision of one odd -looking, filthy, or deformed. 169 Flying-angel. Fogram. Flying-angel. See Angel. Flying Bricklayers. The mounted Royal Engineers. Flying - camps. Couples or gangs of beggars. Flying - caper. An escape from prison, Leg-bail (q.v.). Flying-cat See Cat Flying-country. A country where the Going (q.v.) is fast and good. Flying - cove. An impostor who gets, or tries to get, money from persons who hare been robbed by pretending to give such information as will lead to recovery. Formerly, Flying-porter (Grose). Flying-dustman. See Stiff-'un. Flying - Dutchman. The London and Exeter express (G.W.R.). See also Flying Scotsman and Wild Irishman. Flying horse (or mare). The throw by which an opponent is sent over the head. Introduced, says Bee, by Parkins (1754). Flying - jigger (or gygger). A turnpike gate. Flying - man. A skirmisher good at taking, and running with, the ball. Flying - mare. See Flying-horse. Flying-pasty. Excrement wrapped in paper and thrown over a neighbour's wall (Grose). Flying-porter. See Flying-cove. Flying-stationer. A hawker of street ballads, Paperworker (q.v.), or Running patterer (q.v.). ' Printed for the Flying-stationer ' is the im- primatur on hundreds of broadsheets from the last century onwards (Grose). Fly my. Knowing, Fast (q.v.), roguish, sprightly. Fly-my-kite (rhyming). A light Flymy-mess. To be in a fiymy-mess, to be hungry and have nothing to eat. Fly - slicer. A cavalry-man : see Mudcrusher. French lancers are allum- curs de gaz, their weapons being likened to a lamplighter's rod. Fly-the-garter. Leap frog. Fly-trap. The mouth : see Potato-trap. Foaled. Thrown from a horse : Fr., faire parache. Fob (or Fub). 1. A cheat, trick, swindle. To come the fob, to impose upon, swindle: cf. Come over (1690). 2. A breeches pocket, watch pocket (1678). 3. A watch-chain or ribbon, with buckle and seals, worn hanging from the fob. As verb, (1) to rob, cheat pocket : also to fob off (1700). (2) To deceive, trifle with, disappoint, put off dishonestly or unfairly (1598). To gut a fob, to pick pockets. F o b u s. An opprobrious epithet (1677). Fodder. Paper for the closet, Bum-fodder (q.v.). F ce t u s. To tap the foetus, to procure abortion. Fog. Smoke (Grose). In a fog, in a condition of perplexity, doubt, difficulty, or mystification : as,| I'm quite in a fog as to what you mean. As verb, ( 1 ) to smoke. (2) To mystify, perplex, obscure. Fogey (Fogy, Fogay, or Foggi). An invalid or garrison soldier or sailor. Whence the present colloquial usages : ( 1 ) a person advanced in life, and (2) an old-fashioned or eccentric person ; generally Old fogey. So also Fogey- ish, old-fashioned, eccentric. Fogey- dom, the state of fogeyishness ; and fogeyism, a characteristic of fogeydom. F o g g a g e. Fodder, especially green-meat (Grose). Fogged. 1. Drunk : see Screwed. 2. Perplexed, bewildered, at a loss. Fogger. 1. A huckster, a cringing, whining beggar, a pettifogger. 2. A farm-servant whose duty is to feed the cattle; i.e. to supply them with Foggage (q.v.). Foggy. 1. Drunk, clinched, Hazy (q.v.) : see Screwed. 2. Dull, fatwitted, Thick (q.v.). Fogle. A silk handkerchief ; also generic. [Cf. Ital., foglia, a pocket a purse : Fr., fouittt, a pocket]. A cotton handkerchief is called a clout English synonyms : bandanna, belcher, billy, clout, conch-clout fam-cloth, flag, kent-rag, madam, muckender, mucketer (Florio) ; nose-wipe, pen- wiper, rag, sneezer, snot-tmger or snot-rag, stock, wipe : see Billy. Fogle - hunter. A thief whose speciality is Fogies (q.v.) : Fr., blavin- iste or chiffonier : see Stookhauler (1827). Fpgle-hunting (or drawing). Stealing pocket-handkerchiefs ; i.e. prigging of wipes. Fogram (or Fogrum). A fussy old man : see Fogey. As adj., fogey- ish, stupid (1777). Hence Fogram- ity, (1) Fogeyism (q.v.), and (2) the state of Fogeyishness. 170 Fogue. Foot-wobbler. Fogue. Fierce, fiery. Fogus. Tobacco (1671). Foiler. A thief (1669). Foist (Foyst, or Fyst). 1. A cheat, swindler, sharper (1592). 2. A trick, swindle, imposture : also Foyster and Foister (1605). As verb, to trick, swindle, pick pockets (1607). Foister (or Foyster). A pick- pocket, a cheat (1598). Follower. A maid-servant's sweetheart, a beau : see Jomer. Follow-me-lads. Curls or ribands hanging over the shoulder: Fr., suivez- moi-jeune-homme : also Followers. Follow-on. A team eighty runs behind the other in the first innings is obliged to follow on ; i.e. to take to the wickets a second time. A run more, and it saves the follow on. Follow your nose! A retort on asking the way. The full phrase is, Follow your nose and you are sure to go straight (1620). Foo-foo. A person of no account an insignificant idiot, a Poop (q.v.). Fool. A dish of gooseberries, boiled with sugar and milk : also Gull (q.v.) (1720). No fool, a phrase laudatory. To make a fool of, to delude : specifically to cuckold, or to seduce under promise of marriage. To fool about (or around), to dawdle, trifle with, be infatuated with, hang about, defraud. Fool-finder. A bum-bailiff (Grose). Fool -monger. A person, male or female, living by their wits, e.g. a Promoter (q.v.), a betting-man, a swindler : also Fool - catcher and Fool-trap (q.v.). Foolometer. A standard, positive or neuter, whereby to gauge the public taste. Fool's Father. The pantaloon or Old 'un (q.v.). Fool's-wedding. A party of women : see Hen party. Fool -trap. A Fool-monger. F o o n t. A sovereign : see Rhino. [Probably a corruption of Ger., Pfund.\ Foot. 1. To acknowledge pay- ment ; e.g. To foot a bill. 2. To kick, to Hoof (q.v.) : cf. ' Merchant of Venice,' i. iii. 'You, that did void your rheum upon my beard, And foot me, as you spurn a stranger cur.' To foot it, to walk, to dance : see Pad the Hoof. To foot-up, to sum up the total (of a bill); to Tot up (q.v.). Hence, to pay, discharge one's obliga- tions, Reckon up (q.v.) ; to summarize both merits and defects, and strike a balance. Footing-up, the reckoning, the sum total : Fr., gomberger. To put one's best foot (or leg) foremost, to use all possible despatch, exert one- self to the utmost (1596). To put one's foot into anything, ,io make a mess of it, get into a scrape. The bishop (i.e. the Devil) has put his foot in it (Old English proverb) is said of burned porridge or over-roasted meat (Orose) : Fr., faire une gaffe. To have one foot (or leg) in the grave, on one's last legs, measured for a funeral sermon : also as adj. (1825). To pull foot, to make haste : also To take one's foot in one's hand, and To make tracks. To take Mr. Foot's horse, to walk, Go by Shank's mare (q.v.) : see Pad the hoof. To know the length of one's foot, to be well acquainted with one's character (1581). Footer (Harrow). 1. Short for football. 2. A player of football according to Rugby rules. Foot-hot. In hot haste, Hot-foot (q.v.). Footing. Money paid on entering upon new duties, or on being received into a workshop or society : as at sea when a comrade first goes aloft. Formerly Foot-ale : Fr., arroser set galons, to christen one's uniform (1777). Footle. To dawdle, trifle, potter, Mess about (q.v.). Footlicker. A servant, a lickspittle (1609). Footlights. To smett the footlights, to acquire a taste for theatricals. To smett of the footlights, to carry thea- trical concerns and phraseology into private life, to Talk shop (q.v.). Footman's Inn. A poor lodging, a jail : Fr., H6tel de la modestie : the Poor Man's Arms (1608). Footman' s-maund. An artificial sore, as from a horse's bite or kick : the Fox's bite of schoolboys. Also Scaldrum dodge, or Maund (q.v.). Foot-riding. Walking and wheeling one's machine instead of riding it. Foot-scamp. A footpad (Parker). Footstool. See Angel's footstool. Foot-wobbler. An infantry-man : see Mudcrusher. 171 Form. F o o t y. Contemptible, worth- less : Fr., joutu (Grose). Foozle. 1. A boggle, a miss. 2. A bore, a fogey ; and (in America) a fool, a green 'un : see Buffie. As verb, to miss, boggle, Muff (q.v.). Foozled (or Foozley), blurred in appearance and effect, fuzzy, Muffed (q.v. ). Often said of badly painted pictures, or parts of pictures. Fop-doodle. An insignificant man, a fool (1689). Fop's Alley. The gangway run- ning parallel to the footlights, between the last row of the stalls and the first row of the pit in Her Majesty's Theatre, and in its palmiest days it was always graced by the presence of a subaltern of the Guards in full uniform, daintily swinging his bearskin. Forakers (Winchester Col- lege). The water-closet : see Mrs. Jones. [Formerly spelt foricu and probably a corruption of foricaa, an English plural of the Latin /on'ca.] Force (The). The police. To force the voucher, it is customary for sporting tricksters to advertise selec- tions and enclose vouchers (similar to those sent out by respectable com- mission agents) for double or treble the current odds. The correspondent is informed that, in consequence of early investments, the extra odds can be laid ; a remittance is requested ; the voucher is forced ; and then the firm dries up, and changes its name and address. Forcemeat - ball. Something en- dured from compulsion : as ( 1) a rape : (2) going to prison ; (3) transporta- tion ; (4) an affiliation order ; (5) ab- stention (from drink, pleasure, etc.) through impecuniosity. Forceps. The hands : see Daddle. Fore-and-after. Anybody or any- thing good all round. Fore - buttocks. The paps : see Dairy. Fore-coach-wheel. A half- crown : see Caroon. Forefoot. The hand (1598). Foreman of the jury. A babbler ; one with the Gift of the gab (q.v.) (1696). Fore-stall. In garotting, a look- out in front of the operator, or Ugly- man (q.v.) ; the watch behind is the Back-stall (q.v.) : see Stale. Fork. 1. A pickpocket: Fr., Avoir let main crochuu, to be a light- fingered or lime - fingered filcher ; every finger of his hand as good as a lime-twig (Cotgrave). 2. A finger. The fork, the fore and middle fingers ; cf. (proverbial) Fingers were made before forks. English synonyms : claws, fish-hooks (Oroe), daddies, (also the hands), divers, feelers, fives, flappers, grapplers, grappling irons, gropers, hooks, nail-bearers, pickers and stealers (Shakespeare), corn-steal - era, Ten Commandments, ticklers, pinkies, muck - forks. 3. The hands. 4. A gibbet ; in the plural, the gallows. 5. A spendthrift. 6. The Crutch (q.v. ), or Twist (q.v.) : Fr., Fourcheure, that part of the bodie from whence the thighs depart (Cotgrave). As verb, to steal ; specifically to pick a pocket by inserting the middle and forefinger : also To put one's forks down : Fr., vol rt la fourchette. To fork out (or over sometimes to fork), to hand over, pay, to shell out (q.v.). To fork on, to appropriate : cf. Freeze on to. To pitch the fork, to tell a piti- ful tale. To eat vinegar with a fork, a person either over -shrewd or over- snappish is said to have eaten vinegar with a fork : Fr., avoir mange de F o r k e r. A dockyard thief or Fence (q.v.). Forking. 1. Thieving. 2. Hurrying and Scamping (q.v.). Forkless. Clumsy, unworkman- like, as without Forks (q.v.) (1821). Foreloper. A teamster guide. Forlorn-Hope. A last stake (Oroe). Form. 1. Condition, training, fitness for a contest. In (or out of) form, in or out of condition, i.e. fit or unfit for work. Better (or top) form, etc. (in comparison) : cf. Colour. 2. Behaviour (with a moral significance : as good form, bad form, agreeable to good manners, breeding, principles, taste, etc., or the opposite). This usage, popularised in racing circles, is good literary English, though the word is commonly printed in inverted commas (' ') : Shakespeare (' Two Gentlemen of Verona,' 4), says, ' Can no way change you to a milder form,' i.e. manner of behaviour. 3. Habit, Game (q.v.) : e.g. That's my form, That's what Fm in the way of doing ; or That's the sort of man I am. 172 Forney. Four Seams. Forney. A ring ; a variant of Fawney (q.v.). Fortune-biter. A sharper (1719). Fortune - teller. A magistrate (1696). Forty. To talk forty (more com- monly nineteen) to the dozen, to chatter incessantly, gabble. To walk off forty to the dozen, to decamp in quick time. Roaring forties, the Atlantic between the fortieth and fiftieth degrees of latitude ; also applied to the same region in southern latitudes. Forty -faced. An arrant deceiver : e.g. a forty-faced liar, a forty-faced flirt, and so forth. Forty-five. A revolver : see Meat in the pot. Forty-foot (or Forty-guts). A fat, dumpy man, or woman : in contempt. English synonyms : All arse and no body, arse-and-corporation, all-belly (Cotgrave) ; all guts (idem), bacon- belly, barrel-belly,'belly-god, bladder- figured, bosse-belly, Bosse of Billings- gate (Florio, a fat woman), chuff (Shakespeare), Christmas beef, double- guts, double-tripe, fat-cock, fat-guts (Shakespeare and Cotgrave), fatico, fattymus or fattyma, fubsy, fat Jack of the bonehouse, fat-lips, flander- kin, fustiluggs (Burton), fussock, gor- belly, grampus, gotch-guts, grand-guts (Florio), gulche (Florio), gullyguts, gundigutts, guts, guts-and-stomach, guts-and-garbage, guts-to-sell, hoddy- doddy, dumpty-dumpty, hogshead, hopper-arse, Jack Weight, loppers, lummox, paunch, pod, porpoise, pot- guts, princod, pudding-belly, puff- guts, ribs, slush-bucket, sow (a fat woman), spud, squab, studgy-guts, tallow-guts, tallow-merchant, thick- in - the - middle, tripes, tripes and trullibubs, tubs, waist, water-butt, walking-ninepin, whopper. Forty-jawed. Excessively talkative. Forty -lunged. Stentorian ; given to shouting ; Leather-lunged (q.v.). Forty-rod (or Forty-rod Light- ning). Whisky, specifically, spirit so fiery that it is calculated to kill at Forty Rods' distance, i.e. on Bight: cf. Rotgut. Cf. Florio (1598), Catoblepa, ' a serpent in India so venomous that with his looke he kils a man a mile off.'] Forty - twa. A common jakes, or Bogshop (q.v.) : in Edinburgh, So called from its accommodating that number of persons at once (Hotten). [Long a thing of the past.] Forty - winks. A short sleep or nap : see Dog's sleep. Fossed. Thrown. Fossick. To work an abandoned claim, or to wash old dirt ; hence to search persistently. [Halliwell, to take trouble, but cf. fosse, a ditch or excavation.] Also Fossicking, a living got as aforesaid ; Fossicker, a man that works abandoned claims ; Fossicking about (American), Shinning around, or in England, Ferreting (q.v.). Fou (or Fow). Drunk ; variants are Bitch - fou, greetin' - fou, piper-fou, roaring-fou, fou as barty (Burns), pissing-fou, and so forth : see Screwed. Also (Scots), full of food or drink. Foul. A running into or down. As verb, to run against, run down ; also to come (or fall) foul of. [Foul, adj. and verb, is used in two senses : (1), dirty, as a foul word, a foul shrew (Dickens), to foul the bed, etc. ; and (2) unfair, as a foul (i.e. a felon) stroke, a foul blow, and so forth.] To fold a plate with, to dine or sup with (Grose). Foulcher. A purse. Foul-mouthed. Obscene or blasphemous in speech. Found. Found in a parsley-bed : see Parsley-bed and Gooseberry-bush. Four - and - nine (or Four - and ninepenny). A hat. [So - called from the price at which an enterpris- ing Bread Street hatter sold his hats, circa 1844, at which date London was hideous with posters displaying a large black hat and ' 4s. and 9d.' in white letters.] Four -bones. The knees. Four - eyes. A person in spec- tacles : ' a chap that can't believe his own eyes.' Four - holed Middlings (Win- chester College). Ordinary walking shoes : cf. Beeswaxers : obsolete. Four Kings. The history (or book) of the four kings, a pack of cards ; otherwise, A child's best guide to the gallows, or The Devil's picture books : Fr., livre des quatre rois. Four - legged burglar - alarm. A watch dog. Four - poster. A four-post bed- stead. Four Seams and a Bit of Soap. A pair of trousers : see Kicks. 173 Four Ita. Four (or Three) Sheets in the Wind. Drunk ; cf. Half seas over : see Screwed. Fourteen Hundred (Stock Exchange). A warning cry that a stranger is in the House. The cry is said to have had its origin in the fact that for a long while the number of members never exceeded 1399 ; and it was customary to hail every new comer as the fourteen hundredth. It has, in its primary sense, long since lost significance, for there are now nearly three thousand members of the close corporation which has its home in Capet Court. Fourteenth Amendment Persua- sion. Negroes. [From the number of the clause amending the Constitu- tion at the abolition of slavery.] Fourth (Cambridge University). A Rear (q.v.) or jakes. [Origin un- certain ; said to have been first used at St. John's or Trinity, where the closets were situated in the Fourth Court. Whatever its derivation, the term is now the only one in use at Cambridge, and is frequently heard outside the University.] The verbal phrase is To keep a fourth (see Keep). On his fourth, hopelessly drunk : see Screwed. Fourth Estate. The body of journalists ; the Press. [Literally the Fourth Estate of the realm, the other three being the Queen, Lords, and Commons.] Four-wheeler. 1. A steak. 2. A four-wheeled cab ; a Growler (q.v.). F o u s t y. Stinking [probably de- rived from foist, sense 3]. Pouter (Foutering). To meddle, importune, waste time and tongue ; the act of meddling, importunity, wasting time and tongue : e.g. Don't come foutering here ! From the French : the sense of which is intensi- fied in a vulgarism of still fuller flavour]. Fox. A sword ; specifically, the old English broadsword (1598). As verb, 1. to intoxicate. Foxed, drunk ; to catch a fox, to be very drunk ; while to play the fox (Urquhart), to vomit, to shed your liquor, i.e. to get rid of the beast (1611). 2. To cheat, trick, rob (colloquial at Eton) : see Gammon (1631). 3. To watch closely : also to fox about. 4. To sham. 6. To play truant. 6. To stain, discolour with damp ; said of books and engravings. Foxed, stained or discoloured. 7. To criticise a brother pro's perform- ance. 8. To mend a boot by capping it. To get a fox to keep one's geese, to entrust one's money, or one's circum- stances, to the care of sharpers. To make a fox paw, to make a mistake or a wrong move ; specifically (of women) to be seduced. Fr., faux pas. (Grose). Foz's-sleep. A state of feigned yet very vigilant indifference to one's surroundings. [Foxes were supposed to sleep with one eye open.] Foxy. 1. Red-haired : cf. Car- roty. 2. Cunning, vulpine in char- acter and look. Once literary. Jonson (1605) calls his arch-foist Volpone, the second title of his play being The Fox; and Florio (1598) defines Volpone as : an old fox, an old reinard, an old, crafty, sly, subtle, companion, sneaking, larking, wilie deceiver. 3. Repaired with new toe- caps. 4. A term applied to prints and books discoloured by damp. 5. Inclined to reddishness (1792). 6. Strong-smelling : of a red-haired man or woman. Foy . A cheat, swindle (1615). Foyl-cloy. A pickpocket ; a rogue (B. E.). Foyst. See Foist Foyster. See Foister. Fraggle. To rob. Fragment (Winchester College). A dinner for six (served in College Hall, after the ordinary dinner), ordered by a Fellow in favour of a particular boy, who was at liberty to invite five others to join him. [Obs. A fragment was supposed to consist of three dishes. Winchester Ward-book 1891]. Framer. A shawl (1859). Frater. A beggar working with a false petition (1567). Fraud. A failure, anything or body disappointing expectation ; e.g. an acquaintance, a picture, a book, a play, a picture, a bottle of wine. Actual dishonesty is not necessarily implied. Fraze. See Vessel. Freak. A living curiosity : as the Siamese Twins, the Two-headed Night- ingale. [Short for Freak of nature.] Free. Impudent, self-possessed. As verb, to steal ; cf. Annex and Convey. Free of fumbler't hall, im- potent. Free, gratis, for nothing, a 174 Free-and-easy. Freshmanship. pleonastic vulgarism. Free of the house, intimate ; privileged to come and go at will. For the rest, the commonest sense of free is one of liberality : e.g. Free of his foolishness, full of chaff ; Free-handed, lavish in giving ; free- hearted, generously disposed ; free of his patter, full of talk. Free-and-easy. A social gathering where smoke, drink, and song is the order of the day : generally held at a public house. Freebooker. A' pirate ' book- seller or publisher ; a play on ' free- booter.' Free fight. A general mellay. Freeholder. 1. A prostitute's lover or fancyman. 2. A man whose wife insists on accompanying him to a public house (1696). Free-lance. An habitual adulteress. Also said of a journalist attached to no particular paper. Freeman. A married woman's lover. Freeman of bucks, a cuckold. Freeman' s Quay. To drink (or lush), at freeman's quay, to drink at another's expense. [Freeman's Quay was a celebrated wharf near London Bridge.] Freeze. 1. The act or state of freezing, a frost. 2. Hard cider (Grose). As verb, (1) to long for intensely e.g. to freeze to go back, said of the home-sick ; to freeze for meat. (2) Hence, to appropriate, steal, stick to. (3) To adulterate or Balderdash (q.v.) wine with Freeze (q.v. sense 2) (Grose). To freeze to (or on to), to take a strong fancy to, cling to, keep fast hold of ; and (of persons) button-hole or shadow. To freeze out, to compel to withdraw from society by cold and contemptuous treatment ; from busi- ness by competition or opposition ; from the market by depressing prices or rates of exchange. Freezer. 1. A tailless Eton jacket: cf. Bum-perisher. 2. A very cold day. By analogy, a chilling look, address, or retort. French - elixir (cream, lace, or article). Brandy. [The custom of taking of brandy with tea and coffee was originally French. Whence French Cream. Laced tea, tea dashed with spirits]. English synonyms : ball- of-fire, bingo, cold tea, cold nantz, red ribbon. French fake. The fashion of coiling a rope by taking it backwards and forwards in parallel bands, so that it may run easily. French-gout (disease, or fever). Sometimes gonorrhoea, but more generally and correctly syphilis, the Morbus Gallicus of older writers (1598). French Leave. To take French leave, (1) to decamp without notice; (2) to do anything without permission ; (3) to purloin or steal ; (4) to run away (as from an enemy). [Derivation ob- scure ; French, probably traceable to the contempt engendered during the wars with France ; the compliment is returned in similar expressions.] (1771). French-pigeon. A pheasant killed by mistake in the partridge season, a Moko or Oriental (q.v.). French - pig. A venereal bubo ; a Blue boar (q.v.), or Winchester goose (q.v.). French-prints. Generic for indecent pictures. French -vice. A euphemism for all sexual malpractices. Frenchy. A Frenchman. Fresh. 1. Said of an under- graduate in his first term (1803). 2. Slightly intoxicated, elevated : see Screwed. (Scots, sober). 3. Inex- perienced, but conceited and presump- tuous ; hence, forward, impudent (1596). 4. Fasting ; opposed to eating or drinking. Fresh as paint (as a rose, as a daisy, etc.), full of health, strength, and activity ; Fit (q.v.). Fresh on the graft, new to the work. Fresh -bit. A beginner. Freshen. To freshen one's way, to hurry, quicken one's movements. To freshen up, to clean, vamp, revive, smarten. Fresher. An undergraduate in his first term. The freshers, that part of the Cam which lies between the Mill and Byron's Pool. So called because it is frequented by Freshmen (q.v.). Freshman (or Fresher). A University man during his first year. In Dublin University he is a junior freshman during his first year, and a senior freshman the second year. At Oxford the title lasts for the first term : Ger., Fuchs (1596). As adj., of, or pertaining to, a freshman,[or a first year student. Freshmanship. Of the quality or state of being a freshman ( 1 605). 175 Freshman's Bible. Froudacious. Freshman's Bible. The Univer- sity Calendar : cf. Post-office Bible. Freshman's - church. The Pitt Press at Cambridge. [From its ecclesiastical architecture.] Freshman's - landmark. King's College Chapel, Cambridge. [From the situation.] Freshwater -mariner (or seaman). A beggar shamming sailor, a turnpike sailor (q.v.) (1567). Freshwater-soldier. A raw recruit ( 1598). Fret To fret one's gizzard (guts, giblets, kidneys, cream, etc.), to get harassed and worried about trifles, Tear one's shirt (q.v.). Friar. A pale spot in a printed sheet : FT., moine (monk). Frib. A stick : see Toko (1754). Fribble. A trifler, a contempt- ible fop. [From the character in Carriers Miss in her Teens (1747)]. Friday-face. A gloomy, dejected- looking man or woman: Fr., figure de carfme. [Probably from Friday being, ecclesiastically, the banyan day of the week.] (1592). Whence, Friday- faced, mortified, melancholy, sour- featured (Scott). Friendly- lead. An entertain- ment (as a sing-song) got up to assist a companion in Trouble (q.v.), or to raise money for the wife and children of a ' quodded pal.' Friends-in-need. Lace : see Chates. Frigate. A woman. Frightfully. Very. An expletive used as are Awfully, Beastly, Bloody, etc. (q.v.). F r i g - p i g. A finnicking trifler (Grose). Frillery. Feminine under- clothing : see Snowy. Frills. Swagger, conceit ; also accomplishments (as music, languages, etc.), and culture. To put on one's frills, to exaggerate, chant the poker, swagger, put on side (q.v.) ; sing it (q.v.): Fr., se gonfler le jabot, and faire son lard. Print. A pawnbroker : see Uncle. Frisco. Short for San Francisco. Frisk. 1. A frolic, outinp. Lark (q.v.), mischief generally (1697). 2. A dance (1719). As verb (thieves'), (1) to search, run the rule over (q.v.). Especially applied to the search made, after arrest, for evidence of char- acter, antecedents, or identity. Hence, careful examination of any kind (1781). 2. To pick pockets, rob. To frisk a cly, to empty a pocket. To dance the Paddington frisk, to dance on nothing ; i.e. to be hanged : see Ladder. [Tyburn Tree was in Pad- dington.] Frisker. A dancer. Frivol (orFrivvle). To act frivolously, trifle. [A resuscitation of an old word used in another sense, viz. to annul, to set aside]. Frog. 1. A policeman : see Beak. 2. A Frenchman. Also Froggy and Frog-eater. [Formerly a Parisian ; the shield of whose city bore three toads, while the quaggy state of the streets gave point to a jest common at Versailles before 1791 : Qu'en di- sent les grenouilles ? i.e. What do the frogs (the people of Pahs) say ? ] 3. A foot : see Creepers. To frog on, to get on, prosper. Frogging-on, success. Frog - and - Toad (rhyming). The main road. Frog-and-Toe. The city of New York. Froglander. A Dutchman : cf. Frog, sense 2. (1696.) Frog-salad. A ballet ; i.e. a Leg- piece (q.v.). Frog's-march. To give the frog's march, to carry a man face down- wards to the station ; a device adopted with drunken or turbulent prisoners. Frog's-wine. Gin : see Drinks. Frolic. A merry-making. Frosty-face. A pox-pitted man (Orose). Front To conceal the operations of a pickpocket ; to cover (q.v.). Frontispiece. The face : see Dial Front-windows. The eyes ; also the face. Frost 1. A complete failure: of. Fr., four noir, temps noir. 2. A dearth of work, to have a frost, to be idle. Froudacious (Froudacity). The word ' Froudacity,' invented by Mr. Darnell Davis in his able review of The Bow of Ulysses, by Mr. T. A. Fronde, reached the height of popu- larity in the Australasian Colonies, where it was in everyday use, the author being accused of ignorance, misleading, and careless treatment in his book on the Australasian colonies. 17. Froust. Full. Froust (Harrow School). 1. Extra sleep allowed on Sunday morn- ings and whole holidays : FT., faire du lard. 2. A stink, stuffiness (in a room). Frousty. Stinking. F r o u t (Winchester College). Angry, vexed. Frow (Froe, or Vroe). A woman, wife, mistress. [From the Dutch.] (1607). Frummagemed. Choked, strangled, spoilt (1671). Frump. 1. A contemptuous speech or piece of conduct, sneer, a jest (1553). 2. A slattern ; more com- monly a prim old lady ; the correlative of Fogey (q.v.): Fr., graitton. 3. A cheat, a trick. As verb, to mock, in- sult (1589). Frumper. A sturdy man, good blade (1825). Frumpish. Cross-grained, old- fashioned and severe in dress, manners, morals, and notions : also ill-natured, given to frumps. Also Frumpy (1589). Frushee. An open jam tart. Fry. To translate into plain English : cf. Boil down. Go and fry your face, a retort expressive of in- credulity, derision, or contempt. Frying - pan. To leap (or jump) from the frying-pan into the fire, to go from bad to worse : cf. from the smoke into the smother ('As You Like It,' I. ii. ) : Fr., tomber de la poele dans la braise (1684). To fry the pewter, to melt down pewter measures. F-sharp. A flea : cf. B-flat. Fuant. Excrement. Fub. To cheat, steal, put off with false excuses. Also Fubbery, cheat- ing, stealing, deception. Fubsey (or Fubsy). Plump, fat, well - filled. Fubsy dummy, a well- filled pocket - book ; fubsy wench, a plump girl (Grose). Fubsiness. Any sort of fat- ness. Fuddle. 1. Drink. [Wedgwood: A corruption of Fuzz.] (1621). 2. A drunken bout ; a Drunk. As verb, to be drunk: see Screwed. Fuddlecap (or Fuddler). A drunkard, boon companion : see Lush- ington (1607). Fuddled. Stupid with drink : see Screwed (1G61). Fudge. Nonsense, humbug, ex- aggeration, falsehood (1700). Also as an exclamation of contempt. As verb, (1) to fabricate, interpolate, contrive without proper materials. (2) To copy, to crib. (3) To botch, bungle, muff (q.v.). (4) To advance the hand unfairly at marbles. Fug (Shrewsbury School). To stay in a stuffy room. As adj., stuffy. Fuggy. A hot roll. Fugo. The rectum (Cotgrave). Fulhams (or Fullams). 1. Loaded dice ; called ' high ' or ' low ' Fulhams as they were intended to turn up high of low. [Conjecturally, because manufactured at Fulham, or because that village was a notorious resort of blacklegs.] (1594). 2. A sham, a Make-believe (q.v.) (1664). Fulham - virgin. A prostitute : cf. Bankside lady, Covent Garden nun, St. John's Wood vestal, etc. Fulk. To use an unfair motion of the hand in plumping at taw (Grose). F u 1 k e r. A pawnbroker : see Uncle (1566). Full. 1. Drunk : see Screwed. 2. Used by bookmakers to signify that they have laid all the money they wish against a particular horse. Full guts, a swag - bellied man or woman. A full hand, five large beers. Full in the belly, with child. Full in the pasterns (or the hocks), thick - ankled. Full team, an eulogium. A man is a full team when of consequence in the community. Variants are whole team, or whole team and a horse to spare : cf. One-horse=mean, insignificant, or strikingly small. Full in the waist- coat, swag-bellied. Full of 'em, lousy, nitty, full of fleas. Full to the bung, very drunk : see Screwed. To have (or wear) a full suit of mourning, to have two black eyes. Half -mourning, one black eye : see Mouse. To come full bob, to come suddenly, full tilt. Full against, (1) dead, or decidedly opposed to, a person, thing, or place. Full-flavoured, peculiarly rank : as a story, an exhibition of profane swear- ing. Full-gutted, stout, swag-bellied. Full of emptiness, utterly void. Full on, set strongly in a given direction, especially in an obscene sense. At full chisel, at full speed ; with the greatest violence or impetuosity. Also Full drive ; Full split. In full blast (swing), etc., in the height of success ; in hot pursuit. In full dig, on full pay. In full feather : see 177 Fuller's Earth. Furk. Feather. In full fig : see Fig. Full of it, with child. Pull of guts, full of vigour, excellently inspired and done : as a picture, a novel, and BO forth : see Guts. Full of beans : see Beans. Full of bread : nee Bread. Fuller's Earth. Gin : see Satin. Fullied. To be fullied, to be com- mitted for trial : Fr., i-tre mis tur la planche au pain. [From the news- paper expression, Fully committed.] Fulness. There's not fulness enough in the sleeve top, a derisive answer to a threat. F u m b 1 e r. An impotent man (1690). Fumbles. Gloves. Fun. LA cheat, a trick. As verb, ( 1 ) to cheat, trick : also (2) To put the fun on. 2. The posteriors, or Western End (Marvett). Probably an abbreviation of fundament. To poke fun at, to joke, ridicule, make a butt. To have been making fun, intoxicated : see Screwed. Functior (or Puncture) (Win- chester College). An iron bracket candlestick, used for the nightlight in college chambers. [The word, says Winchester Notions, looks like fulc- tura, an earlier form of fulture, mean- ing a prop or stay, with phonetic change of I into n.] Fundamental -features. The posteriors (1818). Funds. Finances ; e.g. My funds are very low. Funeral. It's not my (or your) funeral, it is no business of mine, or yours : Fr., nib dans mes blots (that is not my affair). Also used affirm- atively. Fungus. An old man. Funk. 1. Tobacco smoke ; also a powerful stink. 2. A state of fear, trepidation, nervousness, or cowardice, a stew (q.v.). Generally, with an intensitive, e.g. a mortal, awful, bloody, or blue funk : Fr., guenette, flubart, frousse. 3. A coward. As verb, (1) to smoke out : see Funk the cobbler. (2) To terrify, shrink or quail through nervousness or coward- ice. (3) To fear, hesitate, shirk ; and (among pugilists) to come it (q.v.). English jynonyms : to come it, to lose one's guts, to get the needle (athletic), (4) To be nervous, lose heart. (5) To move the hand forward unfairly in playing marbles; to fudge (q.v.). To funk the cobbler, to smoke out a schoolmate : a trick performed with asafoetida and cotton stuffed into a hollow tube or cow's horn ; the cotton being lighted, the smoke is blown through the keyhole (1698). See also Peter Funk. k'Funker. 1. A pipe, a cigar; a fire. 2. A low thief. 3. A coward. Funking - room. The room at the Royal College of Surgeons where the students collect on the last even- ing of their final during the addition of their marks, and whence each is summoned by an official announcing failure or success. Funkster (Winchester College). A coward ; one that funks (q.v.). Funky. Nervous, frightened, timid (1845)- Funnel. The throat : see Gutter Alley. Funniment. A joke, either practical or verbal. Funny. A clinker-built, narrow boat for sculls. To feel funny, to be overtaken with (1) emotion, or (2) drink : e.g. to wax amorous, or get the flavour (q.v.); to begin to be the worse for liquor. Funny Bone. The elbow, with the passage of the ulnar nerve connecting the two bones : the extremity of the humerus (1837). Funny - man. A circus clown. Also a joker in private life. Fur. To make the fur fly : see Fly. To have one's fur out, to be angry. Fur - and - feathers. Generic for game. Furioso. A blusterer. Ital., furioso = raving (1692). English synonyms: barker, blower, bodadil, bouncer, bulldozer (American), caca- fogo, Captain Bounce, Captain Bluff, Captain Grand, Captain Hackam, cutter, fire-eater, hector, huff-cap, humguffin, gasser, gasman, mouth, mouth - almighty, pissfire, pump- thunder, ramper, roarer, ruffler, shite- fire, slangwhanger, spitfire, swash- buckler, swasher, teazer, Timothy Tearcat. Furk (Ferk, Firk) (Winchester College). To expel, send (as on a message), drive away. Also To furk up, and furk down. [Old English fercian, High German ferken. Middle English, to lead or send away.] 178 Fur men. Gaffer. Furmen. Aldermen. From their fur-trimmed robes. Furmity-f aced. White-faced : e.g. to simper like a furmity kitten (Grose). Furnish. To fill out, improve in strength and appearance. Furniture-picture. A picture sold not as a piece of art but as a piece of upholstery, such things being turned out by the score, as pianos are, or three - legged stools ; the worst and cheapest kind of Pot-boiler (q.v.). Furry - tail. A non-unionist ; a Eat (q.v.). Specifically, a workman accepting employment at less than Society wages : cf. Dung, Flint, etc. Further. Til see you further first, a denial. Fur-trade. Barristers. F u s s o c k (or Fussocks). Op- probrious term for a fat woman (1690). Fust (or Fust out). To end in smoke, go to waste, end in nothing : cf. Fizzle. Fustian. 1. Bombast, bad rhetoric, sound without sense, bom- bastic ranting : now accepted (1598). 2. Wine. White fustian, champagne ; red fustian, port. Fustilarian. A low fellow, a common scoundrel (1598). Fustilug (Fustilugs). A piece of grossness male or female, a coarse and dirty Blowzalinda, a foul slut, a fat stinkard (1696). Future. To deed in futures, to speculate for a rise or fall. Fuzz. 1. To shuffle cards min- utely ; also to change the pack (Grose). 2. To be, or make, drunk (1685). Fuzziness. The condition of being in drink. Hence blurredness, incoherence, bewilderment. Fuzzy. 1. Drunk : see Screwed. Hence blurred (as a picture), tangled, incoherent or inconsequent. 2. Rough, as in a fuzzy head, a fuzzy cloth, a fuzzy bit (a full - grown wench), a fuzzy carpet, etc. Fuzzy-wuzzy. A Soudanese tribes- man. Fye-buck. A sixpence : see Rhino (1781). Fylche. See Filch. Fyst. See Foist. Gab. 1. The mouth ; also Gob : see Potato trap. 2. Talk, idle babble : also Gabb, Gabber, and Gabble (1712). As verb, to talk fluently or brilliantly, to lie (1383). Gift of the gab (or gob), the gift of conversation, the talent for speech: Fr., ri" avoir pas sa languedans sa poche. To blow the gab, to inform, peach (q.v.). Also to blow the gaff (q.v.). To flash the gab, to show off (q. v. ) in talk ; cf. Air one's vocabulary. Gabble. 1. A gossip : also Gabbler, Gabble - grinder, Gabble- merchant, and Gabble - monger. 2. A voluble talker. Gabble-mill. 1. The United States Congress : also Gabble-manufactory. 2. A pulpit : see Humbox. 3. The mouth : see Potato-trap. Gable. The head : also Gable- end : see Crumpet. Gabster. A voluble talker, whether eloquent or vain ; one having the Gift of the gab (q.v.). Gab-string. See Gob-string. Gaby (also Gabbey and Gabby). A fool, babbler, boor : see Buffle. Gad. An idle slattern : i.e. Gad- about (q.v.). As intj., an abbrevia- tion of By Gad ! On the gad, 1. on the spur of the moment. 2. On the move, on the gossip. 3. On the spree (especi- ally of women) ; and, by implication, on the town. To gad the hoof, to walk or go without shoes, Pad the hoof (q.v.). Also, more loosely, to walk or roam about. Gadabout. A trapesing gossip ; as a housewife seldom seen at home, but very often at her neighbours' doors. Also as adjective ; e.g. A Gad-about hussey. G a ff. 1. A fair (1754). 2. A cheap, low music - hall or theatre ; frequently Penny-gaff. 3. A hoax, an imposture. 4. (American cock- pit) A steel spur. 5. (anglers') A landing spear, barbed in the iron. As verb, (1) to toss for liquor. (2) To play in a gaff (q.v. sense 2). To blow the gaff (or gab), to give information, let out a secret (1185). G a ff e r. 1. An old man ; the masculine of Gammer (q.v.). Also a 179 Gaffing. Call <i,.t. title of address: e.g. Good day, gaffer! Cf. Uncle and Daddy. Also, by implication, a husband. 2. A master, employer, BOBS (q.v.) ; (athletic) a pedestrian trainer and 'farmer'; and (navvies') a gang- master or Ganger (q.v.) (1719). 3. A toss-penny, a gambler. G a ffi n g. A mode of tossing for drinks, etc., in which three coins are placed in a hat, shaken up, and then thrown on the table. If the party to call, calls heads (or tails) and all three coins are as he calls them, he wins ; if not, he pays a settled amount towards drinks (Kgan). Gag. 1. A joke, invention, hoax. Also as verb, to hoax, puff ( 1 78 1 ). 2. Expressions interpolated by an actor in his part : especially such as can be repeated again and again in the course of performance. Certain plays, as 'The Critic,' are recognised 'gag-pieces,' and in these the practice is accounted legitimate. Cf. ' Hamlet,' m. ii. 'And let those that play your clowns, say no more than is set down for them.' Cf. Wheeze. A typical example is the ' I believe you, my boy ! ' of the late Paul Bedford. Occasionally gag = patter (q.v.). Also as verb. 3. A commonwealth of players in which the profits are shared : cf. Conscience. 4. A fool ; i.e. a thing to laugh at : see Buffle. 5. (Christ's Hospital). Boiled fat beef. Gag-eater, a term of reproach (1813). 6. (Winchester College). An exercise (said to have been invented by Dr. Gabell) which consists in writing Latin criticisms on some celebrated piece, in a book sent in about once a month. In the Parts below Sixth Book and Senior Part, the gags consisted in historical analysis. [An abbreviation of gathering.] As verb, (1) see supra, and (2) to in- form, Round on (q.v.); also to blow the gag. On the high gag, on the whisper, telling secrets. On the low gag, on the last rungs of beggary, ill- luck, or despair. To strike the gag, to cease from chaffing. Gage (Gauge, or Gag). 1. A quart pot (i.e. a measure) : also a drink or Go (q.v.). (1567). 2. (18th century). A chamber-pot 3. A pipe (1696). 4. A man : see Cove. Gagers. The eyes : see Glims. Gagga. A cheat, who by sham pretence and wonderful stories of suffering imposes on the credulity of people. G a g g e r. A player dealing in Gags (q.v.), sense 2. Also Gaggist, Gag- master, and Gagster. Gaggery. The practice of Gag- ging (q.v.), sense 3. Gagging. 1. Bluff (q.v.) ; speci- fically, Bunco-steering (q.v.), the art of talking over and persuading a stranger that he is an old acquaintance. 2. Loitering about for fares, ' crawling.' 3. Dealing in Gags (q.v.), sense 1. Also as ppl. adj. Gaggler's-coach. A hurdle. Gail. A horse : see Prad. Gaily - like. Showy, expensive, Bang-up (q.v.). Gain-pain. A sword ; specifically, in the Middle Ages, that of a nired soldier. FT., gagner = to gain + pain, bread. Cf. Breadwinner and Potboiler (artists').] Gait Walk in life, profession, mode of making a living, Game (q.v.). Gaiters. Half boots, shoes. Gal. 1. A girl, servant-maid, sweet- heart. Beat girl, favourite flame. 2. A prostitute. 3. A female rough. Galaney. See Galeny. Galanty- (Gallanty- or Gal an tee-) show. A shadow pantomime : silhou- ettes shown on a transparency or thrown on a white sheet by a magic lantern : specifically, the former. Gal-boy. A romp, Tom-boy (q.v.). Galen. An apothecary : see Gallipot Galena. Salt pork. [Galen, 111., a chief hog-raising and pork- packing centre.] Galeny (or Galany). The domestic hen ; now (West of England) a guinea fowl : see Cackling - cheat [Latin, goliina.] Galimaufrey. 1. A medley, jumble, chaos of differences. [Fr. , gaUimaufree, a hash.] (1592). 2. A hodge-podge of scraps and leavings (1724). 3. A mistress (1596). Gall. Effrontery, Cheek (q.v.), Brass (q.v.) ; e.g. Ain't he got a gall on him ? (1789). Gallant A Dandy (q.v.), ladies' man, lover, cuckold-maker, whether in posse or in ease. (Shakespeare). As adj., (1) valiant ; (2) showy ; (3) amor- ous. As verb, to sweetheart, squire, escort, pursue, or enjoy. To gallant a fan, to break with design. 180 Gallant Fiftieth. Galoot. to afford an opportunity of presenting a better (B. E.) (1690). Gallant Fiftieth. The Fiftieth Foot. [For its share in Vimiera, 1808.] Also, Blind half - hundred (q.v.); and Dirty half-hundred (q.v.). Gallantry. (1) Sparkishness (q.v.), dandyism; and (2) the habit, or pursuit, of sexuality. A life of gallantry, a life devoted to the other sex. Gallery (Winchester College) A commoner bedroom. [From a tra- dition of galleries in Commoners.] See Gallery -nymphs. To play to the gattery, to act so as to win the applause of the vulgar : i.e. to abandon distinc- tion and art for coarseness of means and cheapness of effect. Said indif- ferently of any one in any profession who exerts himself to win the suffrages of the mob ; as a political demagogue, a ' popular ' preacher, a ' fashion- able ' painter, and so on. Hence, Gattery -hit (shot, stroke, etc.), a touch designed for, and exclusively ad- dressed to, the non-critical. To play the gallery, to make an audience, ap- plaud. Gallery-nymph (Winchester Col- lege). A housemaid : see Gallery. Galley. Put a brass galley down your back (printers'), an admonition to appear before a principal, implying that the galley will serve as a screen. Galley-foist. The state barge, used by the Lord Mayor when sworn in at Westminster (1609). Galley - growler (or stoker). A loafer, Malingerer (q.v.), Grumble- guts (q.v.). Galley - halfpenny. A base coin, temp. Henry IV. Because commonly imported in Genoese galleys.] Galley-slave. A compositor : see Donkey (1683). Galleywest. An indefinite super- lative : cf. About-east. Galley-yarn (or news). A lying story, a swindle or Take-in (q.v.). Frequently abbreviated to ' G.Y.' Gallied. Harried, vexed, over- fatigued, perhaps like a galley-slave (Grose). In Australia, frightened. Gallinipper. A large mosquito. Gallipot. An apothecary. Eng- lish synonyms: bolus, bum-tender, clyster-giver, clyster-pipe, croaker, crocus, drugs, OUapod (from a crea- tion of the Younger Coleman's), gagemonger, Galen (from the great physician), jakes- provider, pill- box, pill - merchant, pills, squirt, salts- and-senna, squire of the pot. Gallivant. 1. To gad about with, or after, one of the other sex, play the gallant, do the agreeable. 2. To Trapes (q.v.), fuss, bustle about. Gallivate. To frisk, figure about: cf. Gallivant. Gallon. What's a gallon of rum among one ? The retort sarcastic ; applied, e.g. to those with ' eyes too big for their stomach,' to dispro- portionate ideas of the fitness of things, and so forth. Gallon - distemper. 1. Delirium tremens ; 2. the lighter after-effects of drinking. English synonyms : ( 1 ) For the former barrel-fever, black-dog, blue-devils, blue Johnnies (Australian), B. J. (idem), blues, bottle-ache, D. T. ; horrors, jim-jams, jumps, pink-spiders, quart - mania, rams, rats, shakes, snakes in the boots, trembles, triangles, uglies. (2) For the latter a head, hot- coppers, a mouth, a touch of the brewer, a sore head (Scots). Galloper. 1. A blood horse, a hunter. 2. An aide-de-camp. Gallow-grass. Hemp [i.e. halters in the rough.] (1578). Gallows. 1. A rascal, a wretch deserving the rope (1594). 2. gener- ally in. pi., Gallowses, a pair of braces. As adv., excessively : cf. Bloody, Bleeding (q.v.), etc. As adj., great, uncommon, real (1551). Gallows-bird (also Newgate- bird). 1. A son of the rope, habitual criminal, vagabond or scoundrel old or young, crack-rope or wag-halter (Cotgrave ; a gallows clapper ( Florio) : FT., gibier de Cayenne (or de potence). 2. (common). A corpse on, or from, the gallows. Gallows-faced. Evil-looking, hang- dog : also Gallows-looking (1766). Gallows - minded. Criminal in habit and idea, evil-hearted. Gallowsness. Rascality, reck- lessness, mischievousness. Gallows-ripe. Ripe for the rope. Callus. See Gallows. Gally-foist. See Galley-foist. Gallyslopes. Breeches: see Kicks. Galoot (also Galloot and Geeloot). A man (sometimes in contempt) ; also (in America) a worthless fellow (or 181 Galoptious. Gammon. thing), rowdy, Cad (q.v.)- On the gay galoot, on the spree. Galoptious (or Galuptious). Delightful : a general superlative. Galore (also Gallore and Golore). In abundance, plenty. Galumph. To bump along : ono- matopoeia. Galvanised-Yankee. A Greyback (q.v.) who took the oath to the North and served in its armies. Gam. 1. Pluck, gameness. 2. Stealing ( MaUdl, 1859). As verb, ( 1 ) to steal. (2) To engage in social inter- course, make a call, have a chat. Gamaliel. A pedant, a person curious of the letter and the form : e.g. these Gamaliels of the theory = these ultra- puritans, to whom the spirit is nothing. Gamb (or Gam). A leg: an heraldic term. [It., gambe ; Fr., jambe ; prob- ably through Lingua Franca.] Gamble. A venture, Flutter (q.v.). Gambler. ' A guinea - dropper ; one class of sharpers ' (Bailey). ' A tricking gamester ' (Grose). ' A cant word, I suppose. A knave whose practice it is to invite the unwary to game and cheat them ' (Johnson). Gambol. A railway ticket Gam-cases. Stockings. Game. 1. The proceeds of a robbery, Swag (q.v.). 2. A company of harlots. A game - pullet, a young B restitute. 3. A gull, simpleton : see uffle. 4. Specifically, the game, thieving ; also (nautical), slave trading. Hen of the game, a shrew, a fighting woman (1639). 5. A source of amuse- ment, Lark (q.v.), Barney (q.v.) ; as, e.g. It was such a game ! 6. A design, trick, object, line of conduct : e.g. What's your little game, What are you after ? Also, None of your little games ! None of your tricks ! As adj., ( 1 ) plucky, enduring, full of spirit and Bottom (q.v.). [Cock-pit and pugil- ists. The word may be said to have passed into the language with the rise to renown of Harry Pearce, sur- named the Game Chicken.] (1747). (2) Beady, willing, prepared. [Also from cock-fighting. See sense 1.] (3) Lame, crooked, disabled : as in Game leg. (4) Knowing, wide-awake, and (of women) Flash (q.v.) : e.g. Qame-cove, an associate of thieves ; Game-woman, a prdstitute; Game-ship (old), a ship whose commander and officers could be corrupted by bribes to allow the cargo to be stolen (Clark Rwtsell). Cock of the game, a champ- ion, an undoubted blood, a star of magnitude (cock-pit) (1719). To mate game of, to turn into ridicule, delude, humbug (1671). To die game, to maintain a resolute attitude to the last, to show no contrition. To get against the game, to take a risk, chance it. [From the game of poker.] To play the game, to do a thing properly, do what is right and proper. Gamecock. Hectoring, angry, valiant out of place. Gameness. Pluck, endurance, the mixture of spirit and bottom. Gamester. 1. A prostitute (1598). 2. A ruffler, gallant, wencher ; a man fit and ready for anything ; also a player (1639). G a m e y. 1. High - smelling, offensive to the nose, half-rotten. 2. Frisky, plucky. Gaminess. The malodorousness proceeding from decay and by im- plication filthiness. Gaming-house. A house of ill-re- pute hell, tavern, or stews (1611). Gammer. An old wife : a familiar address the correlative of Gaffer (q.v.) (1551). Gamming. A whaleman's term for visits paid by crews to each other at sea. Gammon. 1. Nonsense, humbug, deceit : sometimes Gammon and spinach. No gammon, no error, no lies (1363). Also as verb, English synonyms : to bam, to bamblustercate, to bamboozle, to bambosh, to barney, to be on the job, to best, to bilk, to blarney, to blow, to bosh, to bounce, to cob, to cod, to cog, to chaff, to come over (or the artful, or Paddy, or the old soldier over) one, to cram, to do, to do brown, to doctor, to do Taffy, to fake the kidment, to flare up, to flam, to flummox, to get at (round, or to windward of) one, to gild the pill, to give a cock's egg, to gravel, to gull, to haze, to jimmify, to jaw, to jockey, to jolly, to kid, to make believe the moon is made of green cheese (Cotgrave). to mogue, to palm off on, to pickle, to plant, to plum, to poke bogey (or fun) at, to promoss, to put the kibosh on, to put in the chair, cart, or basket, to pull the leg, to queer, to quiz, to roast, to roor- Gamtnoner. Gapeseed. back, to run a bluff, or the shenani- gan, to sell, to send for pigeon's milk, to sit upon, to send for oil of strappum, etc., to shave, to slum, or slumguzzle, to smoke, to snack, to soap, soft soap, sawder, or soft sawder, to spoof, to stick, to stall, to string, or get on a string, to stuff, to sawdust, or get on sawdust and treacle, to suck, to suck up, to sugar, to swap off, to take a rise out of, to rot, to tommy-rot, to take in, or down, to take to town, to take to the fair, to tip the traveller, to try it on, to throw dust in the eyes, to throw a tub to a whale, to pepper, to throw pepper in the eyes, to use the pepper box, to whiffle, to work the poppycock racket (Irish-American). [Note. Many of the foregoing are used substantively.] 2. A confederate whose duty is to engage the attention of a victim during robbery, Bonnet (q.v.), Cover (q.v.). Also as verb, to humbug : deceive, to take in. As intj., nonsense, Skittles (q.v.). Gam- mon and Patter, (I) the language used by thieves ; (2) (modern), a meeting, a Palaver (q.v.) ; (3) commonplace talk of any kind. To give (or keep) in gammon, to engage a person's atten- tion while a confederate is robbing him (1719). To gammon lushy (or queer, etc.), to feign drunkenness, sickness, etc. To gammon the twelve, to deceive the jury. Gammoner. 1. One who Gam- mons (q.v.), a nonsense-monger: Fr., bonisseur de loffitudes, blagueur, man- geur de frimes. 2. A confederate who covers the action of his chief, Bonnet Cover, Stall, all which see. Gammy. 1. Cant. 2. A nick- name for a lameter ; a Hopping Jesus (q.v.). 3. A fool : see Buffle. As adj., (1) bad, impossible. Applied to householders of whom it is known that nothing can be got. Gammy- vial, a town in which the police will not allow unlicensed hawking. (Vial, Fr., ViUe). (2) Forged, false, spurious : as a gammy -moneker, a forged signa- ture ; gammy-lour, counterfeit money, etc. (3) Old, ugly. (4) Same as Game, sense 3 : e.g. a gammy arm, an arm in dock. Gammy-eyed, blind, sore- eyed ; or afflicted with ecchymosis in the region of the eyes. Gammey-leg, a lame leg. Also (subs.) a term of derision for the halt and the maimed. Gamp. 1. A monthly nurse, Fingersmith (q.v.). Mrs. Sarah Gamp, a character in Martin Chuzzle- wit (1843).] Also a fussy and gossip- ing busybody. 2. An umbrella ; specifically, one large and loosely tied, Lettuce (q.v.). [The original Sarah always carried one of this said pattern.] Sometimes a Sarah Gamp. Mrs. Gamp, The Standard. As adj., bulging : also Gampish. Gamut. Tone, general scheme, Swim (q.v.). Thus in the gamut, a picture, a detail, or a shade of colour, in tone with its environment. Gan (also Gane). The mouth : occasionally, throat, lip : see Potato trap (1572). Gander. A married man ; in America one not living with his wife, Grass- widower (q.v.). As verb, to ramble, waddle (as a goose). Also, to quest for women. Gone gander : see Gone coon. To see how the gander hops, to watch events, see how the cat jumps. What's sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander, a plea for consist- ency. Gander-month. The month after confinement ; when a certain license (or so it was held) is excusable in the male. Also Gander-moon, the hus- band at such a period being called a Gander-mooner : of. Buck-hutch, and Goose-month (1617). Gander - party. A gathering of men, Stag-party (q.v.) ; also Bull- dance, Gander-gang, etc. : cf. Hen- party, an assembly of women. Gander-pulling. See Goose-riding. Gander 's-wool. Feathers. Gang. A troop, a company (1639). Ganger. An overseer or foreman of a gang of workmen, a superin- tendent. Ganymede. A pot-boy (i.e. a cup-bearer) : the masculine of Hebe (q.v.) (1659). Gaol-bird. A person often in gaol, an incorrigible rogue : Fr., chevronnt. Gaoler's - coach. A hurdle to the place of execution (1785). Gap. To blow the gap, to blow the Gaff (q.v.). Gapes. A fit of yawning ; also the open mouth of astonishment (1818). Gapeseed. 1. A cause of aston- ishment, anything provoking the ignorant to stare with open mouth : also to seek a gape's nest ( 1598). 2. An open-mouthed loiterer. 183 Gapped. Gapped. Worsted, Floored (q.v.). Gar. See By gar ! Garble. Garbling the coinage, a practice amongst money-lenders of picking out the newest coins of full weight for export or re-melting, and passing the light ones into circula- tion. Garden (The). 1. (greengrocers', fruiterers', etc.), Covent Garden Market ; 2. (theatrical), Covent Gar- den Theatre ; 3. (diamond merchants'), Hatton Garden. Cf. House, Lane, etc. The Garden (Covent Garden) was frequently used for the whole neighbourhood, which was notorious as a place of strumpets and stews. Thus, Garden house, a brothel ; Garden-goddess, a woman of pleasure ; Garden-gout, venereal disease ; Gar- den-whore, a low prostitute, etc.] To put one in the garden, to defraud a confederate, keep back part of the Regulars (q.v.), or Swag (q.v.). Gardener. An awkward coach- man : cf. Tea-kettle Coachman. Garden-gate (rhyming). A magistrate : see Beak. Garden Latin. Barbarous or sham Latin ; also Apothecaries', Bog, Dog, and Kitchen Latin. Garden - rake. A tooth - comb : also Scratching-rake, or Rake. Gardy-loo. A warning cry ; take care ! [Fr., gardez (vous de) Veau 1 Used before emptying slops out of window into the street. Hence the act of emptying slops itself.] Gargle. A drink : generic : cf. Lotion, and see Go. As verb, to drink, liquor up : see Lush. Gargle-factory. A public house : see Lush-crib. Gam. A corruption of Go on I Get away with you ! Garnish. 1. A fee, Footing (q.v.) ; specifically when exacted by gaolers and old prisoners from a newcomer. The practice was forbidden by 4 Geo. IV., c. 43, sec. 12. Also Garnish- money (1592). 2. Fetters, handcuffs : see Darbies. As verb, to fetter, handcuff. Garret 1. The head, Cockloft (q.v.), Upper storey (q.v.) : see Crumpet (1625). 2. The fob-pocket. To have one's garret unfurnished, to be crazy, stupid, lumpish : Balmy (q.v.). Garreteer. LA thief robbing houses by entering skylights or garret- windows : also Dancer and Dancing- master. 2. An impecunious author, literary hack. Garret-master. A cabinet - maker working on his own account, and selling his manufacture to the dealers direct. Garrison-hack. 1. A woman given to indiscriminate flirtation with officers at a garrison. 2. A prostitute, a soldier's trull. Garrotte. A form of strangula- tion (see verb). [From the Spanish la garrota, a method of capital punish- ment, which consists in strangulation by means of an iron collar.] As verb, ( 1 ) a method of robbery with violence, much practised some years ago. The victims were generally old or feeble men and women. Three hands were engaged : the Front-stall who looked out in that quarter, the Back-stall at the rear, and the Ugly or Nasty- man who did the work by passing his arm round his subject's neck from behind, and so throttling him to insensibility. (2) To cheat by concealing certain cards at the back of the neck. Garrotte r. A practitioner of garrotting (under verb, sense 1). Garrotting. 1. See Garrotte (verb, sense 1). 2. Hiding a part of one's hand at the back of the neck for purposes of cheating. Garter. In pi. the irons, or bilboes : see Darbies. To fly (or prick) the garter : see Prick. G a r v i e s. 1. Sprats : some- times Garvie-herring. 2. The Garvies t the Ninety-fourth Foot. [From the small stature of earlier recruits.] Gas. Empty talk, bounce, bombast. As verb, (1) to talk idly, brag, bounce, talk for talking' s sake : Fr., faire son cheval de corbvUard (in American, To be on the tall grass) : see Long Bow. (2) To impose on, to Pill t (q.v.), to Splash (q.v.) : see Gammon. To take the gas out of one, to take the conceit out of, take down a peg. To turn on the gas, to bounce, Gas (q.v.). To turn off the gas, to cease, or cause to cease, from bouncing, vapouring, or Gas (q.v.). To gas round, to seek information on the sly, Gas (q.v.). Gas-bag. A man of words or Gas (q- v -) gasconader : also Gasometer. Gash. The mouth : sea Potato- trap. Gashly. A vulgarism for Ghastly. G a s k i n s. Wide hose, wide 181 Gasp. Gawk. breeches. From Galligaskins, An old ludicrous word (Johnson). Gasp. A dram of spirits : see Go. As verb, to drink a dram, e.g. Will you gasp ? Will you take something neat. G a s p i p e. 1. An iron steamer, whose length is nine or ten times her beam. [At one time a ship's length but rarely exceeded four and a half to five times the beam.] 2. A bad roller. 3. A rifle, specifically the old Snider. Gaspipe- crawler. A thin man : see Lamp-post. Gasser. A braggart. Gassy (or Gaseous). 1. Likely to take umbrage or to flare up. 2. Full of empty talk or Gas (q.v.). Gaster. A fine and curious eater (Thackeray). In Rabelais, the belly and the needs thereof : a coinage adopted by Urquhart. Gat. A quantity ; e.g. a gat of grub, plenty to eat : also Gats. Gate. 1. The attendance at a race or athletic meeting, held in enclosed grounds ; the number of persons who pass the gate. 2. Money paid for ad- mission to athletic sports, race course, etc., the same as Gate-money (q.v.). 3. in. pi. (University). The being for- bidden to pass outside the gate of a college : as verb, to confine wholly or during certain hours within the college gate for some infraction of discipline. To break gates, to stay out of college after hours. The gate, among fishmongers, Billingsgate ; among thieves, Newgate : cf. Lane, Row, Garden, etc. To be at gates (Winchester College). To assemble in Seventh Chamber passage, prepara- tory to going Hills or Cathedral. On the gate, on remand. Gate-bill. The record of an under- graduate's failure to be within the precincts of his college at, or before, a specified time at night. Gate - money. The charge for admission to a race - meeting: see Gate. G a t e r (Winchester College). A plunge head foremost into a Pot (q.v.). Gate - race (or meeting). For- merly, a contest not got up for sport but entrance money ; now a race or athletic meeting to which admission is by payment. Gath. A city or district in Philistia (q.v.); often used, like Askelon (q.v.)for Philistia itself. Hence, to be in Oath, to be a Philistine (q.v.) of the first magnitude ; to prevail against Oath, to smite the Philistines hip and thigh, as becomes a valiant companion of the Davidsbund ; and so forth. Tell it not in Oath, an interjection of derision, signifying that the person exclaimed against has done something the know- ledge of which would bring on him the wrath, or the amazement, of his friends. Gather. To gather up, to lead away. To gather the taxes, to go from workshop to workshop seeking employ- ment. Hence, Tax gatherer, a man out of work and looking for a job : cf. Inspector of public buildings. Out of gathers, in distress : cf. Out at elbows. Gatherings. See Gags. Gatter. Beer ; also liquor gener- ally. Shant of gatter, a pot of beer : Fr., moussante : see Drinks. Gaudeamus. A feast, drinking bout, any sort of merry-making. [German students', but now general and popu- lar.] From the first word of the mediaeval (students') ditty. Gaudy (or Gaudy-day). A feast or entertainment : specifically the annual dinner of the fellows of a college in memory of founders or benefactors ; or a festival of. the Inns of Court (Lat., gander e, to rejoice). (1724). As adj., good, frolicsome, festive : cf. Shakespeare's ' Let's have one other gaudy night ('Ant. and Cleo.,' m. xiii.). Neat but not gaudy, as the devil said, of ancient ladies dressed in flaming colours. Gauge. See Gage. To get the gauge of, to divine an intention, to read a character, to Size (or Reckon) up (q.v.). Hence, That's about the gauge of it, That's a fair descrip- tion. Gauley. See By golly. Gawf. A red-skinned apple. Gawk. A simpleton, especially an awkward fool, male or female : see Buffle. [Scots Gowk, a cuckoo, fool ; whence, to gowk, to play the fool. As in the ' Derision of Wanton Women ' (Bannatyne, MS., 1667), ' To gar them ga in gucking,' to make them play the fool.] As verb, to loiter round ; to Play the goat. [The same verb is used by Jonson (Magnetic Lady, iii. 4, 1632) in the sense of amazed, or bamboozled, i.e. absolutely befooled : 185 ' Nay, look how the man stands, as he were gowked ! '] Gawkiness. Awkwardness, silli- ness, Greenness (q.v.). Gawking. Loitering and staring, Gathering hayseed (q.v.). Gawky. An awkward booby, a fool : e.g. Now squire gawky, a chal- lenge to a clumsy lout : see Buffle (1686). As adj., lanky, awkward, stupid (1759). Gawney (or Goney). A fool : see Buffle. Gay. 1. Dissipated, specifically, given to venery : as in the French, avoir la cuisse gate. Hence Qay woman (girl, or bit), a strumpet ; Gay house, a brothel ; To be gay, to be in continent, etc., etc. (1383). 2. In drink : see Screwed. All gay (or all so gay), all right, first-rate, All serene (q.v.). To feel gay, inclined for sport. Gay-tyke Boy. A dog fancier. Gazebo. A summer-house com- manding an extensive view. [Dog- Latin, Gazebo, I will gaze.] Geach. A thief. Gear. Work, Business (q.v.). Thus: Here's goodly gear, Here's fine doings ; Here's a pretty kettle of fish (' Romeo and Juliet,' n. ii. 106). Gee. See Gee-gee. As verb, (1) to go or turn to the off -side ; used as a direction to horses. (2) To move faster : as a teemster to his horses, Gee-up! (3) To stop: as Gee whoa ! To gee with, to agree with, fit, be congenial, go on all fours with, do (1696). Gee-gee (or Gee). 1. A horse : see Prad. 2. The nickname among jour- nalists (of the interviewer type) of Mr. G(eorge) G(rossmith), better known, perhaps, as the Society Clown. Gee-gee Dodge. Selling horseflesh for beef. Geekie. A police-station. \ Geeloot. See Galoot Geese. All his geese are auxins, he habitually exaggerates, or Embroi- ders (q.v.) ; or, He is always wrong in his estimates of persons and things. The old woman's picking her geese, said of a snowstorm : the other leg of the couplet (schoolboys') runs: 'And selling the feathers a penny a piece.' Like geese on a common, wandering in a body, aggressive and at large : e.g. as Faddists (q.v.) in pursuit of a Fad ; or members of Parliament in re- cess, when both sides go about to say the thing which is in them. Geewhilikens 1 An exclamation of surprise : also Jeewhilikens. Geezer. An appellation, some- times, but not necessarily, of derision and contempt ; applied to both sexes, but generally to women : usually, Old geezer. Gelding. A eunuch. To enter for the geldings' stakes, to castrate a man ; also used to describe a eunuch. Gelt Money, Gilt (q.v.), Gelter : generic: see Rhino. Gemini ! (Geminy ! or Jiminy !) An exclamation of surprise, a mild oath : also O Jimminy ! O Jimminy Figs ! O Jimminy Gig ! etc. : for the phrase has pleased the cockney mind, and been vulgarised accordingly (1672). Gemman. A contraction of gentle- man (1550). Gen. A shilling : see Rhino. Back slang, but cf. Fr., argent.} Generalize. A shilling : see Rhino and Gen. Geneva Print Gin : see Drinks and Satin (1584). G e n - n e t (back slang). Ten shillings. Gennitraf (back slang). A farthing. Genol (back slang). Long. Gent 1. A showily-dressed vul- garian. [A contraction of gentle- man.] (1635). 2. Money: see Rhino [Fr., argent.} 3. A sweetheart, mistress : e.g. My gent, my particular friend. As adj., elegant, comely, genteel (1383). Gentile. Any sort of stranger, native or foreign ; among the Mormons, any person not professing the Gospel according to Joe Smith. Hence, In the land of the Gentiles, (1) in foreign parts ; and (2) in strange neighbour- hoods or alien society. Gentle. A maggot ; vulgarly, Gentile. Gentle-craft 1. Shoemaking. [From the romance of Prince Crispin.] 2. Angling. Gentleman. A crowbar : see Jemmy. To put a churl (or beggar) upon a gentleman, to drink malt liquor immediately after wine (Grose). Gentleman of the (three, four, or five) outs (or ins), a varying and ancient 186 Gentleman Commoner. Get. wheeze, of which the following are representative : Out of money, and out of clothes ; Out at the heels, and out at the toes ; Out of credit, and in debt. A man in debt, in danger, and in poverty ; or in gaol indicted, and in danger of being hanged. Out of pocket, out of elbows, and out of credit. Without wit, without money, without manners. Gentleman of fortune, an adventurer. Oentleman of observation, a tout. Gentleman of the round, an invalided or disabled soldier, making his living by begging (1596). Gentleman of the short staff, a constable. Gentleman of the fist, a prize-fighter. Gentleman in brown, a bed bug : see Norfolk Howard. The little gentleman in brown velvet, a mole. [The Tory toast after the death of William III., whose horse was said to have stumbled over a mole hill.] Gen- tleman of the green baize road, a card sharper. Gentleman Commoner. 1. A privileged class of commoners at Oxford, wearing a special cut of gown and a velvet cap. 2. An empty bottle; also Fellow-commoner (q.v.). Gentleman - ranker. A broken gentleman serving in the ranks. Gentleman 's-companion. A louse : see Chates. Gentleman's - master. A high- wayman (Grose). Gentleman's (or Ladies'-) piece. A small or delicate portion, a Tit-bit. Gentlemen's - sons. The three regiments of Guards. Gently ! An interjection, Stand still (q.v.) ; hence, colloquially, don't get into a passion, Go slow (q.v.). Gentry-cove (or cofe). A gentle- man, Nib-cove (q.v.) : Fr., messire de la haute (1567). Gentry-cove's Ken (Gentry-ken). A gentleman's house (1567). Gentry-mort. A lady (1567). Genuine (Winchester College). Praise. As adj., trustworthy, not false nor double-faced. As verb, to praise. He was awfully quilled and genuined my task. G e o r d i e (North Country). 1. A pitman ; also (generally), a North- umbrian. 2. A North-country col- lier. 3. See George. George (or Geordie). 1. A half- crown : also (obsolete), the noble (6s. 8d.), temp. Henry VIII. 2. A guinea : also Yellow George : see Rhino. 3. A penny : see Rhino. Brown George. See Ante. By fore (or By George). See By George. George Home. A derisive retort on a piece of stale news : also G. H. ! [From a romancing compositor of the name.] Georgy-porgy. To pet, fondle, be- slobber. German. The German, a round dance. German Duck. 1. Half a sheep's head, stewed with onions (Grose). 2. A bed bug : see Norfolk Howard. German - flutes (rhyming). A pair of boots. Germantowner. A pushing shot when balls in play jar together : cf. Whitechapel. Gerry. Excrement (1567). Gerry Gan. A retort forcible, Stow it ! (q.v.) (1567). Gerrymander (the g hard as in get). To arrange the electoral sub- divisions of a State to the profit and advantage of a particular party. The term, says Norton, is derived from the name of Governor Gerry, of Massa- chusetts, who, in 1811, signed a Bill re- adjusting the representative districts so as to favour the Democrats and weaken the Federalists, although the last-named party polled nearly two- thirds of the votes cast. A fancied resemblance of a map of the districts thus treated led Stuart, the painter, to add a few lines with his pencil, and say to Mr. Russell, editor of the Boston Sentinel, ' That will do for a Sala- mander.' Russell glanced at it : ' Salamander,' said he, ' call it a Gerrymander ! ' The epithet took at once, and became a Federalist war- cry, the caricature being published as a campaign document. Gerund-grinder. A schoolmaster, especially a pedant (1759). Get. 1. A cheating contrivance, a Have (q.v.). 2. A child : e.g. One of his gets, one of his making ; Whose get is that ? who's the father ? It's his get, anyhow ; at all events he got it ( 1570). Get I (or You get .') Short for Get out ! Usually, Git ! To get at, (1) to quiz, banter, aggravate, take a rise out of : also To get back at. (2) To influence, bribe, nobble (of horses), and to corrupt (of persons) : applied to horse, owner, trainer, jockey, 187 Get. and vet. alike. To get back at, to satirise, call to account. Get back into your box I an injunction to silence, Stow it! (q.v.). To get encored, to have a job returned for alterations. To get even with, to take one's revenge, give tit for tat. To get it, to be punished (morally or physically), to be called over the coals. To get off, to (1) escape punishment, be let off ; (2) to utter, deliver oneself of, per- petrate as to get off a joke ; and (3) get married. To get on, (I) to back a horse, put a Bit on (q.v.). (2) To succeed, or, simply, to fare. Thus, How are you getting on ? may signify ( 1 ) To what extent are you prospering ? or (2) How are you doing ? To get one in the cold, to have at an advantage, be on the Windward side ( q. v. ). Have on toast (q.v.). To get one on, to land a blow. To get down fine (or close), to know all about one's ante- cedents ; and (police) know where to find one's man. To get over, to seduce, fascinate, dupe : also To come over and To get round. To get outside of, to eat or drink, accomplish one's pur- pose. To get out of bed on the wrong aide, to be testy or cross-grained. [A corruption of an old saying, To rise on the right side is accounted lucky ; hence the reverse meant trials to temper, patience, and luck.] (1607). To get out (or round), to back a horse against which one has previously laid, Hedge (q.v.). To get set, (1) to warm to one's work, get one's eye well in. To get there, to attain one's object, succeed, make one's Jack (q.v.), To get there with both feet, to be very successful ; (2) to get drunk : see Screwed. To get through, to pass an examination, to accomplish. To get up and dust, to depart hastily : see Ske- daddle. To get up behind (or get behind) a man, to endorse or back a bill. To get up the mail, to find money (as counsel's fees, etc.) for defence. Oct enters into many other combinations : see Back teeth, Bag or Sack, Bead, Beans, Beat, Big bird, and Goose, Big head, Billet, Bit, Boat, Bolt, Books, Bulge, Bullet, Bull's feather, Crockette, Dander and Mon- key, Dark, Drop, Eye, Flannels, Flint, Game, Grand Bounce, Gravel - rash, Grind, Grindstone, Hand, Hang, Hat, Head, Hip or Hop, Home, Horn, Hot, Jack, Keen, Length of one's foot, Measure, Mitten, Needle, Religion, Rise, Run, Scot, Swot or Scrape, Set, Shut of, Silk, Snuff, Straight, Sun, Ticket of Leave, Wool, Wrong box.] Getaway. A locomotive or train, Puffer (q.v.). Getter. A sure getter, a procreant male. Get-up. Drees, constitution and appearance, disguise : see Get-up. As verb, phr., (1) to prepare (a part, a paper, a case) ; (2) to arrange (a concert) ; (3) to dress (as Got up regardless (to the nines, knocker, to kill, within an inch of one's life) ; (4) to disguise (as a sailor, a soldier, Henry VIII., a butcher, a nun) : see also Get into. G.H. See George Home. Ghastly. Very : a popular inten- sitive : cf. Awful, Bloody, etc. Ghost. One who secretly does artistic or literary work for another who takes the credit and receives the price : cf. DeviL [The term was popularised during the trial of Lawes v. Belt in 188(?).] As verb, to prowl, spy upon, shadow (q.v.). The ghost walks (or does not walk), there is (or is not) money in the treasury. The ghost of a chance, the faintest likeli- hood, or the slightest trace : e.g. He hasn't the ghost of a chance. Ghoul. 1. A spy ; specifically a man who preys on married women who addict themselves to assignation houses. 2. A newspaper chronicler of the small talk and tittle-tattle. Gib. 1. Gibraltar : once a penal station : whence, 2. a gaol. To hang one's gib, to pout : see Jib. Gibberish (Gebberish, Gibberidge, Gibrige, etc. ). Originally the lingo of gipsies, beggars, etc. Now, any kind of inarticulate nonsense (1594). Gibble-gabble. Nonsense, Gibber- ish (q.v.) (1600). Gib-cat. A tom-cat. [An ab- breviation of Gilbert^ 0. FT., Tibert the cat in the fable of Reynard the Fox.] (1360). Gibe. To go well with, be accept- able. Gibel. To bring. Gib-face. A heavy jowl, Ugly-mug (q.v.). Giblets. 1. The intestines gen- erally, the Manifold (q.v.). 2. A fat man, Forty-guts (q.v.) : also Duke of Giblets. To fret one's giblets: see Fret. 1SS Gibraltar. Gilt. Gibraltar. A party stronghold : e.g. the Gibraltar of Democracy (Norton). Gibson (or Sir John Gibson). A rest to support the body of a build- ing coach. Gibus. An opera, or crush hat : Fr., accordeon. [From the name of the inventor.] Giddy. Flighty, wanton : e.g. To play the giddy goat, to live a fast life, be happy-go-lucky. Giffle-gaffle. Nonsense ; a variant of Gibble-gabble (q.v.). Gif-gaf (or Giff-gaff). A bargain on equal terms : whence the proverb : Gif-gaf makes guid friens : Fr., Posse-mot la casse et je t'enverrai la senne. Gift. 1. Anything lightly gained or easily won. 2. A white speck on the finger nails, supposed to portend a gift. 3. See Gift-house. As full of gifts as a brazen horse of farts, mean, miserly, disinclined to Part (q.v.). Gift of the gab : see Gab. Gift-house (or Gift). A club, a house of call ; specifically for the purpose of finding employment, or providing allowances to members. Gig (Gigg, Gigge). 1. A wanton, mistress, flighty girl : cf. Giglet. 2. A jest, piece of nonsense, anything fanciful or frivolous : hence, generally, in contempt (1590). 3. The nose : see Conk. To snitcheU the gig, to pull the nose. Grunter's gig, a hog's snout. 4. A light two-wheeled vehicle drawn by one horse : now recognised. 5. A door : see Gigger. 6. A fool, an over- dressed person : see Buffle. 7. Fun, frolic, a spree. Full of gig, full of laughter, ripe for mischief. 8. The mouth : see Potato-trap. 9. A far- thing : see Rhino. 10. See Policy dealing. As verb, to hamstring. By gigs ! an oath (1551). Gigamaree. A thing of little worth, a pretty but useless toy, a Gimcrack (q.v.). Gigantomachize. To rise in revolt against one's betters : Gr., Oiganto- machia, the War of the Giants against the Gods. [Probably a coinage of Ben Jonson's.] Gigger. LA sewing machine. [In allusion to noise and movement). 2. See Jigger. Giggles - nest. Have you found a giggles-nest ? Asked of one tittering, or given to immoderate or senseless laughter. Gig - lamps. 1. Spectacles : see Barnacles. 2. One who wears spec- tacles, a Four eyes (q.v. ). [Popularised by Verdant Green.] G i g 1 e r (Giglet, Goglet, Gigle, Gig). A wanton, a mistress. Giglet (West of England), a giddy, romping girl ; and in Salop a flighty person is called a Giggle (1533). As adj., loose in word and deed : also Giglet-like, and Giglet-wise, like a wanton (1598). Gild. To make drunk, flush with drink (1609). To gild the, pill, to say (or do) unpleasant things as gently as may be, impose upon, Bamboozle (q.v.). Gilded-rooster. A man of importance ; a Howling swell (q.v.) ; sometimes the Gilded rooster on the top of the steeple : cf. Big- bug, Big dog of the tanyard, etc. G i 1 d e r o y 's -k i t e. To be hung higher than GUderoy's kite, to be punished more severely than the very worst criminals, The greater the crime the higher the gallows, was at one time a practical legal axiom. Hence, out of sight, completely gone. Giles' Greek. See St. Giles' Greek. G i 1 g u y. Anything which hap- pens to have slipped the memory ; equivalent to What's - his - name or Thingamytight. Gilkes. Skeleton keys (1610). Gill (or Jill). 1. A girl ; (1) a sweetheart : e.g. every Jack must have his Gill ; (2) a wanton, a strumpet (an abbreviation of Gillian) (1586). 2. a drink, a Go (q.v. ). 3. (in pi. g hard). The mouth, jaws, or face : see Potato- trap (1622). 4. in. pi. A very large shirt collar ; also Stick-ups and Side- boards: Fr., cache-bonbon- d-liqueur. To grease the gills, to have a good meal, to Wolf (q.v.). To look blue (queer, or green) about the gill-s, to be downcast, dejected ; also to suffer from the effects of a debauch. Hence, con- versely, To be rosy about the gills, to be cheerful. A cant (or dig) in the gills, a punch in the face. Gill-flirt. A wanton, flirt (1598). Gilly. A fool : see Buffle. Gilly - gaupus. A tall, loutish fellow. Gilt. 1. Money : generic : see 189 Gilt-dubber. Git. Rhino. [Ger. : Geld ; Du. : Gelt.] 2. A thief, pick-lock; also Gilt- (or rum-) clubber, gilter, etc. 3. Formerly a pick-lock or skeleton key ; now a crow-bar: see Jemmy (1671). To take the gilt off the gingerbread, to destroy an illusion, discount heavily. Gilt-dubber. See Gilt, sense 2. Gilt - edged. First-class, the best of its kind : see Fizzing. Gilter. See Gilt, sense 2. Gilt-tick. Gold : see Rhino. G i m b a 1- (or gimber-) jawed. Loquacious, talking Nineteen to the dozen (q.v.). [Gimbals are a com- bination of rings for free suspension.] Gimcrack (Gincrack, or Jim- crack). 1. A showy simpleton, male or female : see Buffle (1618). 2. A showy trifle, anything pretty but of little worth (1632). 3. A handy man, Jack - of - all - trades (q.v.). As adj., trivial, showy, worthless. Gimcrackery. The world of Jim- crack (q.v.). Gimlet-eye. A squint-eye, Piercer (q.v.) : Fr., des yeux en trou de pine. Gimlet-eyed. Squinting, or squinny-eyed, cock-eyed : as in the old rhyme : Gimlet eye, sausage nose, Hip awry, bandy toes. G i m m e r. An old woman : a variant of cummer. Gin. 1. An Australian native woman. 2. An old woman : see Geezer. To gin up, to work hard, make things Hum (q.v.): see Wire in. Gin - and - Gospel Gazette. The Morning Advertiser : as the organ of the Licensed Victualling and Church of England party : also the Tap-tub and Beer-ana- Bible Gazette. Gin - and - tidy. Decked out in best bib and tucker : a pun on neat spirits. Gin-crawl. A tipple (q.v.) on gin. Gingambobs (or Jiggumbobs). Toys, baubles (1696). Ginger. 1. A showy horse, a beast that looks Figged (q.v.). 2. A red-haired person ; Carrota (q.v.). [Whence the phrase, Black for beauty, ginger for pluck.] 3. Spirit, dash, Go (q.v.). To want ginger, to lack energy and Pluck (q.v.). As adj., red-haired, Foxy (q.v.), Judas-haired (q.v.); also ginger-pated, ginger- hackled, and gingery (1785). Gingerbread. 1. Money: e.g. He has the gingerbread, he is rich (1696). 2. Brummagem (q.v.), showy, but worthless ware. As adj. showy but worthless, tinsel : Fr., en pain d"epice. Gingerbread work (nauti- cal), carved and gilded decorations ; Gingerbread quarters (nautical), lux- urious living (1757). To take the gilt off the gingerbread : see Gilt. Gingerly (old : now recognised) delicate, fastidious, dainty, as adv., with great care, softly (1533). Ginger - pop. 1. Ginger- beer. 2. (rhyming), A policeman, Slop (q.v.). Ginger-snap. A hot-tempered per- son, especially one with carroty hair. Gingham. An umbrella ; speci- fically one of this material : see Mush- room. Gingle - boy. A coin ; latterly a gold piece : also ginglers : see Rhino (1622). Gin-lane (or Trap). 1. The throat: see Gutter-alley. Gin- trap also = the mouth: see Potato-trap (1827). 2. Generic for drunkenness. Gin-mill. A drinking saloon : see Lush-crib. Ginnified. Dazed, stupid with liquor. Ginnums. An old woman : spec, one fond of drink. Ginny. A housebreaker's tool ; an instrument to lift up a grate or grating (1690). Gin-penny. Extra profit : gener- ally spent in drink. Gin-slinger. A tippler on gin : see Lushington. Gin - spinner. A distiller; a dealer in spirituous liquors : cf. Ale- spinner (1785). Gin-twist. A drink composed of gin and sugar, with lemon and water (1841). Gip. 1. A thief. 2. (Cambridge University) a college servant : see Gyp. Girl-and-boy. A saveloy. Girl-getter. A mincing, womanish male. Girl - show. A ballet, burlesque, Leg-j>iece (q.v.). Git ! (or You Git ! ) Be off with you ! an injunction to immediate departure, Walker ! (q.v.). Sometimes a con- traction of Get out ! Also Get out and dust (1851). To hare no git up and git, to be weak, vain, mean, slow generally deprecatory. 190 Give. Glib. Give. 'l^To lead to, conduct, open upon : e.g. The door gave upon tiie streji. Cf. French, aonner. (> Ah aff round auxiliary to active verbs : e.g. To give on praying, to excel at prayer ; To give on the make, to be clever at making money, etc. To give it to, (1) to rob, defraud (Grose) ; (2) to scold, thrash : also To give what for, To give it hot, To give something for oneself, To give one in the eye, etc. : Fr., oiler en donner (1612). To give in (or out), to admit defeat, yield, be exhausted throw up the sponge (1748); to give away, to betray or expose inadvertently, Blow upon (q.v.), Peach (q.v.) : also to Give dead away : largely used in com- bination : e.g. give-away, an ex- posure ; give-away cue, an underhand revelation of secrets ; to give one best, (1) to acknowledge inferiority, defeat : also (thieves') to leave, To cut (q.v.) ; to give the collar, to seize, arrest, Collar (q.v.) : see Nab ; to give the bullet (sack, bag, kick-out, pike, road, etc. ), to discharge from an employ ; give us a rest ! cease talking ! an in- junction upon a bore ; to give, nature, a fillip, verb. phr. (old), to indulge, in wine, etc. (1696). Other combina- tions will be found under the following ; Auctioneer, Back cap, Bag, Bail, Baste, Beans, Beef, Biff, Black eye, Bone, Bucket, Bullet, Bull's feather, Clinch, Double, Fig, Gas, Go by, Gravy, Hoist, Hot beef, Jesse, Ken- nedy, Key of the Street, Land, Leg up, Lip, Miller, Mitten, Mouth, Needle, Office, Points, Pussy, Rub of the thumb, Sack, Sky-high, Slip, Tail, Taste of Cream, Turnips, Weight, White alley, Word. Giver. A good boxer, an artist in punishment (q.v.) (1824). G i x i e. A wanton, strumpet, affected mincing woman (1598). Gizzard. To fret one's gizzard, to worry ; To stick in one's gizzard, to remain as something unpleasant (dis- tasteful or offensive), be hard of digestion, disagreeable or unpalat- able ; To grumble in the gizzard, to be secretly displeased ; Hence, Grumble- gizzard (q.v.). Gladstone. 1. Cheap claret (Mr. Gladstone, when in office in 1869, reduced the duty on French wines) : see Drinks. 2. A travelling bag (named in honour of Mr. Gladstone). Gladstonize. To talk about and round, evade, prevaricate, speak much and mean nothing. Glanthorne. Money : see Rhino. (1789). Glasgow Greys. The 70th Foot, now the 2nd battalion East Surrey regiment : in the beginning it was largely recruited in Glasgow. Glasgow Magistrate. A herring, fresh or salted, of the finest (from the practice of sending samples to the Bailie of the River for approval) : also Glasgow bailie. English synonyms (for herrings generally); Atlantic ranger, Californian, Cornish duck, Digby chicken, Dunbar wether, gen- darme, Gourock ham, magistrate, pheasant, (or Billingsgate pheasant), reds, sea-rover, soldier, Taunton turkey, two-eyed steak, Yarmouth capon : Fr., gendarme. Glass. An hour : an abbreviation of hour-glass. There's a deal of glass about, (1) applied to vulgar display, It's the thing (q.v.) ; (2) said in answer to an achievement in assertion : a memory of the proverb, People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. Who's to pay for the broken glass ? (stand the racket) ; been looking through a glass, drunk : see Screwed. Glass-eyes. A man wearing spec- tacles, Four-eyes (q.v.), Gig-lamps (q.v.) (1811). Glass-house. To live in a glass house, to lay oneself open to attack or adverse criticism. Glass-work. An obsolete method of cheating at cards : a convex mirror the size of a small coin was fastened with shellac to the lower corner of the left palm opposite the thumb, enabling the dealer to ascertain by reflection the value of the cards he dealt. Glaze. A window (1696). As verb, to cheat at cards by means of glass-work (q.v.), or by means of a mirror at the back of one's antagonist. To mill (or star a glaze), to break a window (1823) ; on the glaze, robbing jewellers' shops by smashing the windows: see Glazier (1724). Glazier. 1. The eye : see Glims : Fr., les ardents ( 1567). 2. A window thief : see Thief. Gleaner. A thief (q.v.): cf. Hooker, Angler, etc. Glib. The tongue : e.g. Slacken 191 flfjfc, Go. your glib, loose your tongue : aee Clack. 2. A ribbon (1754). As adj., smooth, slippery, voluble ; Ql\b- tongued (or Glib-gabbit), talkative, ready of speech (1605). Glibe. Writing ; spec, a written statement. Glim (or Glym). 1. A candle, dark lanthorn, fire, or light of any kind. To douse the glim, to put out the light : FT., estourbir la cabande ; also short for Glimmer or Glymmar(q.v.)( 1696). 2. A sham account of a fire, sold by the Flying stationers (q.v.). 3. In pi., the eyes. English synonyms : blinkers, daylights, deadlights, glaziers, lights, lamps, ogles, optics, orbs, peepers, sees, squmters, toplights, windows, winkers. 4. In. pi., a pair of spectacles, Barnacles (q.v.). As verb, to brand, burn in the hand (1696). To puff the glims, to fill the hollow over the eyes of old horses by pricking the skin and blowing air into the loose tissues underneath, thus giving the full effect of youth. Glim-fenders. 1. Andirons, fire- dogs (1696). 2. Handcuffs (a pun on sense 1). G 1 i m fl a s h 1 y (or Glim-flashey ). Angry : see Nab the Rust (1696). Glim - jack. A link boy, Moon- curser (q.v.) ; but, in any sense, a thief (1696). Glim -lurk. A beggars' petition, based on a fictitious fire or Glim (sense 2). Glimmer (Glymmar). Fire. Glimmerer. A beggar working with a petition giving out that he is ruined by fire : also Glimmering mort, a female glimmerer (1696). Glimstick. A candlestick : Fr., occasion. Glister. Glister of fish hooks, a glass of Irish whisky. Glistner. A sovereign : 20s. : see Rhino. Gloak (or Gloach). A man : see Chum and Cove. Globe. 1. A pewter pot, pewter (1704). 2. In. pi., the paps: see Dairy. Globe-rangers. The Royal Marines. Globe-trotter. A traveller ; prim- arily one who races from place to place, with the object of covering ground or making a record : Fr., pacquelineur. Whence, Olobe-trotting, travelling after the manner of Globe-trotters (q.v.). G 1 o p e (Winchester College). To spit : obsolete. Glorious. Excited with drink, in one's altitudes, Boozed : see Screwed (1791). Glorious-sinner. A dinner. Glory. The after life, Kingdom come (q.v.): usually, the coming glory. In one's glory, in the full flush of vanity, pride, taste, notion, or idio- syncrasy. Gloves. To go for the gloves, to bet recklessly, bet against a horse without having the wherewithal to pay if one loses the last resource of the plung- ing turfite : the term is derived from the frequent habit of ladies to bet in pairs of gloves, expecting to be paid if they win, but not to be called upon to pay if they lose. Glow. Ashamed. Glue. Thick soup : which sticks to the ribs. English synonyms: de- ferred stock, belly-gum, giblets-twist, gut-concrete, rib-tickler, stick-in-the- ribs. Glue - pot A parson : see Devil- dodger and Sky-pilot (1785). Glum. Sullen, down in the mouth, stern : Fr., faire son nez, to look glum ; also, n'en pas mener large (1712). Glump. To sulk : hence glumpy, glumping, and glumpish, sullen, stubborn (1787). Glutman. An inferior officer of the Customs, and particularly a super- numerary tide waiter, employed temp- orarily when there is a stress or hurry of business. These glutmen were generally without regular employment, and also without character, their prin- cipal recommendation the fact of being able to write (1797). Glutton. 1. A horse which lasts well, Stayer (q.v.). 2. A pugilist who can take a lot of punishment (q.v.). Gnarler. A watch dog. Gnasp. To vex: see Rile. (1728). Gnoff. See Gonnof. Gnostic. A knowing one, Downy cove (q.v.), Whipster (q.v.) (1819). As adj., knowing, Artful (q.v.) ; whence Qnostically, knowing. Go. 1. A drink ; specifically a quartern of gin : formerly Go-down (1690). English synonyms: bender, caulker, coffin nail, common - sewer, cooler, crack, cry, damp, dandy, dash, dewhank, dewdrop, dodger, drain, dam, facer, falsh, gargle, gasp, go- 192 Go. Go. down, hair of the dog, etc., Johnny, lip, liquor up, livener, lotion, lounce, modest quencher, muzzier, nail from one's coffin, night-cap, nip or nipper, nobbier, old crow, a one, a two, or a three out, peg, pick-me-up, pony, quencher, reviver, rince, sensation, settler, shift, shove in the mouth, slug, small cheque, smile, snifter, something damp, something short, swig, thimbleful, tiddly, top up, tot, warmer, waxer, wet, whitewash, yard. 2. An incident, occurrence : e.g. a Rum go, a strange affair, queer start ; a Pretty go, a startling business ; a Capital go, a pleasant business (1803). 3. The fashion, the Cheese (q.v.), the correct thing : generally in the phrase All the go. 4. Life, spirit, energy, enterprise, impetus : e.g. Plenty of go, full of spirit and dash : Fr., du chien (1825). 5. A turn, attempt, chance : cf. No go : hence, to have a go at, to make essay of anything : as a man in a fight, a shot at billiards, etc. 6. A success : hence To make a go of it, to bring things to a satisfactory termin- ation. 7. The last card at cribbage, or the last piece at dominoes : when a player is unable to follow the lead, he calls a Go ! 8. A dandy (q.v.), a very heavy swell, one in the extreme of fashion. As verb, (1) to vote, be in favour of : cf. Go for ; (2) to succeed, achieve, cf. Go down ; (3) to wager, risk : hence to stand treat, afford (1768) ; (4) to ride to hounds ; (5) to be pregnant, to be anticipating child- birth (1561). Phrases: Go down, (1) to be accepted, received, swallowed, to Wash (q.v.) (1609) ; (2) to be under discipline, rusticated ; (3) to become bankrupt ; also, To go under ; To go due north, to go bankrupt (i.e. to go to White-cross Street Prison, once situate in north London) ; to go on the dub, to house-break, pick locks (1696) ; to go to the dogs, to go to ruin ; to go off on the ear, to get angry, fly into a tantrum : see Nab the rust ; to go for, (1) to attempt, tackle, resolve upon, to make for (q.v.) ; (2) to attack vio- lently and directly, by word or deed ; (3) to support, favour, vote for ; (4) to criticise ; specifically, to run down ; to go in for (or at), to enter for, apply oneself to (e.g. to go in for honours) ; also to devote oneself to (e.g. to pay court), to take up (as a pastime, pur- '.t, hobby, or principle) ; to go it, to act with vigour and daring, advocate or speak strongly, live freely : also to go it blind, fast, bald-headed, strong, etc. (1689). As intj. phrase, Keep at it ! keep it up ! a general (some- times ironical) expression of encourage- ment : also Go it ye cripples, crutches are cheap ! (or Newgate's on fire), Go it, my tulip, Go it, my gay and festive cuss ! (Artemus Ward), or (Ameri- can), Go it boots ! go it rags ! I'll hold your bonnet ! g'lang ! (usually to a man making the pace on foot or horse- back) ; to go out, to fall into disuse ; to go over, ( 1 ) to desert from one side to another : specifically (clerical) to join the Church of Rome, to 'Vert (q.v.) ; (2) to die, i.e. to go over, to join the majority : also to go off, to go off the hooks (go under, go aloft, to go up) ; (3) to attack, rifle, rob ; to go off, (1) to take place, occur; (2) to be disposed of (as goods on sale, or a woman in marriage) ; (3) to deteriorate (as fish by keeping, or a woman with years) ; (4) to die : see Hop the twig (1606) ; Go as you please, applied to races where competitors run, walk, or rest at will : e.g. in time and distance races : hence, general freedom of action ; to go to Bath, Putney, etc. (see Bath, Blazes, Hell, Halifax, etc.) ; to go through, to rob : i.e. to turn inside out : hence, to master violently and completely, make an end of ; to go up (or under), (1) to go to wreck and ruin, become bankrupt, disappear from society ; also (2) to die ; to go up, to die ; specifically to die by the rope ; to go up for, to enter for (as an exam- ination) ; to go with, to agree, har- monise with ; on the go, on the move, restlessly active ; no go, of no use, not to be done, complete failure : frequently contracted to N.G. ; a little bit on the go, slightly inebriated, elevated : see Screwed. For other combinations see Abroad, All fours, Aloft, Aunt, Baby, Back on, Bad, Bail, Baldheaded, Bath, Batter, Bed- fordshire, Beggar's bush, Better, Blazes, Blind, Board, Bodkin, Bulge, Bungay, Bury, Bust, By-by, Call, Camp, Chump, College, Cracked, Dead broke, Devil, Ding, Ding-dong, Dock, Doss, Drag, Flouch, Flue, Gamble, Glaze, Glory, Gloves, Grain, Grass, Ground, Hairyfordshire, Hall, Halves, Hang, Hell, High fly, High toby, Hooks, Hoop, Jericho, Jump, 193 Good. God's-mercy. Kitchen, Man, Majority, Mill, Murphy, Pace, Pieces, Pile, Pot, Queen, Raker, Range, Rope-walk, Salt river, Shallow, Shop, Slow, Smash, Snacks, Snooks, Spout, Star - gazing, Sweet violets, Top, Walker's 'bus, West, Whole animal, Woodbine, Woolgathering, Wrong. Goad. 1. A decoy at auctions, a horse- c haunter, a Peter funk (q.v.). 2, In pi., false dice. Goal (Winchester College). (1) At football the boy who stands at the centre of each end, acting as umpire ; and (2) the score of three points made when the ball is kicked between his legs, or over his head, without his touching it. Coaler's Coach. See Gaoler's Coach. Go - along. A fool, Flat (q.v.) : see Buffle. Goat. A lecher (1599). As verb, to thrash. To play the goat, to play the fool, Monkey (q.v.) : Fr., jaire Voiseau ; to ride the goat, to be initiated into a secret society (the vulgar error is that a live goat, for candidates to ride, is one of the standing properties of a Masonic lodge). Goatee. A tufted beard on the point of a shaven chin (in imitation of the tuft of hair on a goat's chin). English synonyms (for a beard gener- ally): charley, imperial, Newgate (or sweep's) frill, or fringe. Goater. Dress. Goatish adj. (old, now recog- nised). Lecherous [as vicing with a goat in lust.] Hence Goatishly, adv., and Ooatishness, subs. Go-away. A railway-train. Gob (or Gobbett). 1. A portion, mouthful, a morsel ; also a gulp, Bolt (q.v.) (1380). 2. The mouth: e.g. Shut your gob, an injunction to silence : see Gab ; a spank on the gob, a blow on the mouth ; gob-full of claret, a bleeding at the mouth ; gift of the gab (or gob) : see Gab. (1696.) 3. A mouthful of spittle: Fr., copeau: It., tmalzo di cavio (gutter-butter). As verb, (1) to swallow in mouthfuls, gulp down: also Gobble (q.v.). (2) to expectorate : Fr., glaviotcr, molar der. Gobbie. A coastguardsman ; whence gobble - ship, a man-of-war engaged in the preventive service. Gobble (or Gobble-up). To swallow hastily or greedily ; hence (American) to seize, capture, appropriate : also gob: e.g. Gob that! (1602). Gobbler. 1. A duck (Harmon) ; 2. A turkey cock, Bubbly-jock (q.v.) : also Gobble -cock (1785). 3. The mouth : see Potato-trap. 4. A greedy eater ; hence gobbling, gorging. Go - between. A pimp or bawd : now an intermediary of any kind (1596). Goblin. A sovereign, 20s. : see Rhino. Gob-box. The mouth : see Potato- trap (1773). Gob-stick. A silver table-spoon (in America, either spoon or fork) ; also (nautical), a horn or wooden spoon. Gob - string (or Gab-string). A bridle (Orose). Go-by. The act of passing, an evasion, a deception. To give one the go-by, to cut, leave in the lurch. Go-by-the-ground. A dumpy man or woman (Orose). God. 1. In pi., the occupants of a theatre gallery (said to have been first used by Garrick because they were seated on high, and close to the sky- painted ceiling : Fr., paradis, also poulaiUer (1772). 2. In pL, Quadrate used in Jeffing (q.v.). 3. A block pattern. Gods of cloth, classical tailors (Orose). 4. A boy in the sixth form (Eton). A tight for the gods, a matter of wonderment ; God pays ! an expression at one time much in the mouth of disbanded soldiers and sailors (who assumed a right to live on the public charity) : the modern form is, If I don't pay you, God Al- mighty will (1605); God (or Bramah) knows, I don't ; an emphatic rejoinder (1598). Goddess Diana. A sixpence, Tanner (q.v.) : see Rhino. Godfather. A juryman (1598). To stand Godfather, to pay the reckon- ing (godfathers being the objects of much solicitude and expectation) (1811). Go-down. 1. A draught of liquor, Go (q.v.). 2. (American), a cutting in the bank of a stream for enabling animals to cross or to get to water. God-permit. A stage coach (which was advertised to start Deo volente) (Orose). God's-mercy. Ham (or bacon) and eggs (There's nothing in the house but 104 God's-penny. Gone. God's mercy : at one time a common answer in country inns to travellers in quest of provant). God's-penny. An earnest penny (1696). Go-easter. A portmanteau, Peter (q.v.) (because seldom used except in going city- or east-wards). Goer. 1. The foot : see Creepers, 2. An expert or adept ; as in drawing, talking, riding ; one well up to his (or her) work : generally with an ad- jective, as e.g. a fast goer, a good workman. Goff. See Mrs. Goff. Goggles. 1. A goggle-eyed person : also Goggler (1647). 2. In pi. The eyes : also Goggle-eyes. Goggle-eyed, squint-eyed (1598). 3. In pi. spec-, tacles, Barnacles (q.v.). As verb (Goggle), to roll the eyes, stare (1577). Gogmagog. A goblin, monster, a frightful apparition (Hood). Going. The condition of a road, piece of ground, cinder-path : i.e. the accommodation for travelling : e.g. the going is bad. Goings - on. Behaviour, proceed- ings, conduct : cf. Carryings on. Goldarned (Goldurned, Gol- dasted, etc.). A mild form of oath. Gold-backed 'Un. A louse : also Grey-backed 'un : see Chates. Gold-bug. A man of wealth and (inferentially) distinction, a million- aire : see Bug. Gold-dropper. A sharper : an old- time worker of the confidence trick : also Gold-finder (1696). Golden-cream. Rum. Gold-end Man. An itinerant jewel- ler, a buyer of old gold and silver : also Goldsmith's apprentice (1610). Golden Grease. A fee, a bribe : see Palm oil. Goldfinch. 1. A well-to-do man, a Warm 'un (q.v.) (1696). 2. A guinea, a sovereign; see Rhino (1700). Gold - finder. 1. An emptier of privies : also Gong-man, and Night- man: Pr., fouillemerde, fifi (1611). 2. A thief, Gold-dropper (q.v. ) : see Thief. Gold Hat - band. A nobleman undergraduate, Tuft (q.v.) (1628). Goldie - locks. A flaxen - haired woman. Ooldu-locked, golden haired (1598). Gold Mine. A profitable investment, store of wealth material or intel- lectual (1664). Golgotha. 1. The Dons' gallery at Cambridge ; also applied to a certain part of the theatre at Oxford (that is, The place of skulls : cf. Luke xxiii. 33, and Matthew xxvii. 33, whence the pun : Dons being the heads of houses) (1730). 2. A hat. English synonyms : battle of the Nile (rhyming, i.e. a tile (q.v.), bell-topper, bUly-cock, beaver, box-hat, cady, canister cap, castor, chummy, cathedral, chimney, chimney-pot, cock, colleger, cock-and- pinch, cowshooter, David, deer-stalker, digger's delight, fantail, felt, Gibus, gomer (Winchester), goss, moab, molocher, mortar-board, muffin-cap, mushroom, nab, nap, napper, pantile, pimple-cover, pill-box, plug-hat, pot, shako, shovel, sleepless hat, sou'- wester, stove-pipe, strawer, thatch, tile, topper, truck, upper-crust, wash- pot, wee-jee, wide-awake. Goliath. 1. A big man. .2. A man of mark among the Philistines (q.v.). [Mr. Swinburne described the late Matthew Arnold as David, the son of Goliath.] Goll. The hand ; usually in pi. See Daddle (1601). G o 1 1 o p. To swallow greedily, gulp : see Wolf. Gollumpus. A clumsy lout (Grose). Golly. A contraction of By Golly ! (q.v.). Goloptious (or Golopshus). Splendid, fine, delicious, luscious. Gombeen-man. A usurer, money- lender, sharking middleman. Gomer (Winchester College). 1. A large pewter dish used in college. Also, 2. A new hat. Gommy. A dandy : Fr., gommeux. 2. One who calls Mr. Gladstone a G.O.M. [Grand Old Man], and thinks he has made a good joke. 3. A fool : see Buffle. Gomus. A fool : see Buffle. Gondola. 1. A railway plat- form car, sideless or low-sided : also a flat-bottomed boat. Gondola of London. A hansom cab, Shoful (q.v.). [The description is Lord Beaconsfield's.] Gone. 1. Ruined, totally undone : also, adv., an expression of complete- ness : e.g. Gone beaver, corbie, coon, gander, or goose, a man or an event past praying for (1406). Gone on, enamoured of, infatuated with, 195 Cutler. Mashed v on T ( q.v.), Sweet on (q.v.): generally in contempt : Fr., aimer comme sea petite boyaux. Goner (Gones, Gonus, or Goney). 1. A fool, simpleton ; also Gauney (q.v.) : see Buffle. 2. A person past recovery, utterly ruined, or done for in any way. Gong (or Gong-house). A privy : see Airs. Jones. Gong-farmer (or Gong-man). An emptier of cess-pools, Gold-finder (q.v.) (1598). G o n o f (Gonnof, Gonoph, or Gnof). 1. A thief (q.v.) ; specifically a pick - pocket, and especially an adept. [Prom the Hebrew. Ancient English ; a legacy from the old time Jews. It came into use again with the moderns who employ it commonly. Cf. gonov, thief in Ex. xxii. 2 and 6, viz. If the gonov be found.] 2. A bumpkin, churl, clumsy hand, shame- less simpleton (1383). As verb, to wheedle, cheat, steal Hence, gonoph- ing, picking pockets. Gooby. A simpleton, blockhead: see Buffle. G o o d 1 An abbreviation of Good-night ! As adj., responsible, solvent : principally with for ; e.g. He is good for any amount : also, expert (1598). Good goods, in pi., something worth trying for, a success : in superlative, best goods. Bit (or piece) of goods, a woman : see Petti- coat. Good old ... A familiar address, derisive or affectionate ac- cording to circumstances. To fed good, to be jolly, comfortable, in form, on perfect terms with oneself ; to be in one's good books, to be in favour, in good opinion : conversely, to be in one s bad books, to be in disfavour ; good at it (or at the game), an expert, male or female ; to have a good swim : Bee Swim ; for good (or for good and all), completely, entirely, finally (1672); good as wheat: see Wheat; good as a play : see Play ; good as gold, very good ; as good as they make 'em, see Make 'em ; good-bye, John, it's no go ; all's U.P. ; good cess, good luck (probably an abbreviation of success : bad cess, the reverse. Goodfellow (Good-boy, or Good- man). 1. A roysterer, a boon com- panion(1570). 2. A thief (q.v.) (1608). Good Girl (or Good One). A wanton (1611). Goodman. 1. A gaoler, Dubs- man (q.v.) (1721). 2. The devil. Goodman - turd. A contemptible fellow, Bad-egg (q.v.) (1598). Good Night! The dovetail to an incredible statement or surprising piece of news. Good-people. The fairies (1828). Good (or Good old) Sort. A man of social or other parts. Good Thing. Something worth having or backing, a bon mot, Good goods (q.v.) : in racing a Cert (q.v.) (1844). Good Time. A carouse, friendly gathering, enjoyable bout at any- thing. Hence, To have a good time, to be fortunate or lucky, enjoy oneself, make merry (1596). Good 'un. 1. A man, woman, or thing of decided and undoubted merit. 2. An expression of derisive unbelief : e.g. a lie. Good-wooled. Of unflinching cour- age, the greatest merit, thoroughly dependable. Goody. 1. A matron : the corre- lative of goodman, husband : used like auntie, mother, and gammer, in addressing or describing an inferior (1598). Hence goodyship, ladyship. 2. A religious hypocrite male or female, the 'unco guid' of Burns; hence oody - goodyism, sentimental piety. . Generally in pi., sweetmeats, bon- bons, cakes and Duns. 4. The kernel of a nut. As adj., well-meaning but petty, officiously pious : also Goody- goody. G o o k. A low prostitute : see Tart. Goose. 1. A tailor's smoothing iron (whose handle is shaped like the neck of the bird) : hence the old ditton, A tayler be he ever so poor is sure to have a goose at his fire (Grose) : Fr., gendarme (1606). 2. A simpleton: usually only of women : also Goose- cap (q.v.) (1591). 3. A reprimand, Wigging (q.v.). 4. See Wayz goose. 5. A woman. As verb, ( 1 ) to hiss, con- demn by hissing : also to get the goose or the big bird (q.v.) : Fr., appeler (or siffler) Azor (to whistle a dog, Azor being a common canine appellation), boire une govtte (to be goosed) ; (2) to ruin, spoil : see Cook one's goose ; (3) to mend boots by putting on a i front half-way up, and a new bottom ; otherwise to L foot boots : cf. Fo 196 Goose-and-gridiron. Gorger. Goose without gravy, a severe but bloodless blow : see Wipe ; to be tound on the goose, before the civil war, to be sound on the pro-slavery question ; now, to be generally staunch on party matters, to be politically orthodox ; to find fault with a fat goose, to grumble without rhyme or reason (1690); to kill the goose for the golden eggs, to grasp at more than is due, over-reach oneself (from the Greek fable) ; every- thing is lovely and the goose hangs high : see Everything ; hett be a man among the geese when the gander is gone, ironical, He'll be a man before his mother ; Go I shoe the goose, a retort, derisive or incredulous, the modern To hell and pump thunder. Unable to say boh ! to a goose, said of a bashful, person (Orose) ; see also Wild - goose chase. Goose-and-gridiron. The American eagle, and the United States flag : see Gridiron. Gooseberry. 1. A fool : see Buffle. 2. A chaperon, one who takes third place to save appearances or play propriety (q.v.), a daisy- or goose- berry-picker. 3. A marvellous tale, a Munchausen (q.v.), flim-flam : also gigantic and giant gooseberry. Hence Gooseberry season, the dull time of journalism, when the appearance of monstrous vegetables, sea serpents, showers of frogs, and other portents is chronicled in default of news : also Silly season (q.v.). To play (or do) gooseberry, to play propriety ; also to sit third in a hansom : cf . Bodkin ; to flay old gooseberry, to play the deuce, upset, spoil, throw everything into confusion ; also (Lex. Bal.), said of a person who, by force or threats, sud- denly puts an end to a riot or dis- turbance ; Old gooseberry, the devil (see Skipper). Gooseberry-eyed. Grey-eyed (Lex. Bal., 1811). Gooseberry-grinder. The breech. Gooseberry - lay. Stealing linen from a line. Gooseberry - picker. 1. A person whose labour profits, and is credited to, another, a Ghost (q.v.). 2. A chaperon : see Gooseberry. Gooseberry-pudding. A woman : see Petticoat. Gooseberry-wig. A large frizzled wig; Perhaps (Orose) from a supposed likeness to a gooseberry bush. Goosecap. A booby male or female, Noodle (q.v.) : see Buffle (1593). Goose-egg. No score, Love (q.v.): also Gooser. Goose-flesh (or Goose-skin). A peculiar tingling of the skin pro- duced by cold or fear, etc., the sensa- tion described as Cold water down the back, the Creeps (q.v.) (1824). Goose - gog (or Goose - gob). A gooseberry. Goose - month. The lying - in month : cf. Gander-month. Goose-persuader. A tailor : see Snip. Gooser. 1. A settler, knock- out blow, the act of death. 2. No score, a Goose-egg (q.v.). Goose-riding. See Gander-pulling. Goose's Gazette. A lying story, flim-flam tale : that is, a piece of reading for a goose. Goose-shearer. A beggar. Goose-step. 1. Balancing on one foot and moving the other back and forwards without taking a step : a preliminary in military drill, the pons asinorum of the raw recruit. Also, 2. (more loosely) marking time : that is, lifting the feet alternately without advancing. Goose - turd Green. A light yellowish green (Cotgrave). Goosey - gander. A fool : see Buffle. Gopher. 1. A young thief ; spec, a boy employed by biirglars to enter houses through windows, sky- lights, etc. (in natural history, Gopher, a burrowing squirrel). 2. A rude wooden plough : Southern! States. G o r e e. Money ; spec, gold or gold-dust : Fort Goree is on the Gold Coast : see Rhino (1696). Gorge. 1. A heavy meal, Tuck- in (q.v.), Blow-out (q.v.) (1553). 2. A theatrical manager : an abbrevia- tion of Gorger (q.v.). As verb, to eat voraciously ; also to gulp as a fish does when it swallows (or gorges) a bait : see Wolf (1572). Gorger. 1. A voracious eater, Scruncher (q.v.). Rotten gorger, a lad who hangs about Covent Garden or other markets, eating refuse fruit. 2. A well-dressed man, a gentleman : FT., un grating. Gipsy, gorgio, gentle men.] 3. An employer : a principal : spec, the manager of a theatre : also 197 Gorgonzola Hall. GraJ>. Cully-gorger : Fr., amendicr. 4. A neckerchief (1320). Gorgonzola Hall. Formerly the New Hall of the Stock Exchange ; now the corporation generally. [From the veinings of the marble.] G o r m. To Gorge (q.v.) : see Wolf. I'm gormed, a profane oath : see Gaum (1849). Gormagon. 'A monster with six eyes, three mouths, four arms, eight legs, five on one side and three on the other, three arses, two tarses, and a cunt upon its back: a man on horseback with a woman behind him ' (Grose). Gormy-ruddles. The intestines. Gorram (or Goram). See By goldam. Gorry. See By Gorry ! Goschens. The 2} per cent Government Stock created by Mr. Goschen in 1888. Gosh. See By gosh. Gospel. I. Anything offered as absolutely true : also Gospel-truth. To do gospel, to go to church. Gospel - gab. Insincere talk con- cerning religion, cant. Gospel-grinder (postilion, sharp, or shark). A paison, devil-dodger, sky-pilot. Gospeller. An Evangelist preacher : in contempt : also Hot- gospeller, a preaching fanatic. Gospel-mill (or shop). A church or chapel, Doxology - works (q.v.) (1785). G o s s (or Gossamer). A hat : at first a make of peculiar light- ness called a Four-and-nine (q.v.) : occasionally, a white hat : see Gol- gotha (1836). To give (or get) goss, to requite an injury, kill, go strong, get an opportunity, put in big licks (q.v.) : sometimes ejaculatory, as Give me goss and let me rip ! Gossoon. A boy : Fr., garron. Gotch-gutted. Pot-bellied; a gotch in Norfolk, signifying a pitcher or large round jug (Grose). Got 'em bad. A superlative of earnestness or excess : e.g. any one doing his work thoroughly, a horse straining every nerve, a very sick person, spec, a subject of the Horrors (q.T.). Got 'em on (all on). Dressed in the height of fashion, rigged out. Goth. A frumpish or uncultured person ; one behind the times or ignorant of the ways of society (171-'). Hence Gothic, rustic, rude, uncultnro'l. Gotham. New York city : hence, Gothamite, a New Yorker : first used by Washington Irving in Salmagundi (1807). Go - to - meeting bags (clothes, dress, etc.). Best clothes : as worn on Sundays, or holiday occasions (1837). Gouge. An imposture, swindle, method of cheating (1845). As verb, ( 1 ) to defraud ; also (2) to squeeze out a man's eye with the thumb, a cruel practice used by the Bostonians in America (Orose). Gouger. A cheat, swindler, rook. Gourd. Hollow dice filled with lead to give a bias (1544). Gourock ham. A salt herring (Gourock was formerly a great fishing village) : see Glasgow Magistrate. Government-man. A convict. Government - securities. Hand- cuffs, fetters generally : see Darbies. Government - signpost The gal- lows: see Nubbing-cneat Governor (or Guv). 1. A father, relieving officer, old 'un, pater, nibso : also applied to elderly people in general : Fr., gtniteur and Fancien (the old 'un) (1836). 2. A mode address : Fr., bourgeois. 3. A master < superior, an employer. English 8} onyms: boss, captain, chief, color commander, head-cook and bot washer, gorger, omee, rum-cull. Governor 's-stiff. A pardon. Gower-street Dialect See ' Greek. Gowk. A simpleton (Scot Gowk, a cuckoo) : see Buffle. Also countryman : see Joskin. To hit the gowk, to go on a fool's errand. Gowler. A dog ; spec, a howler. Gown (Winchester College) 1. Coarse brown paper : obeolet 2. (University). The schools as tinguished from the Town (q.v.) : e.j Town and gown. Hence, a student Grab. 1. A sudden clutch. A robbery, steal (q.v.): cf. Grab-s 3. A body - steaJer, resurrectac (q.v.). 4. A boisterous game cards. As verb, (1) to pinch (q.v. seize, apprehend, snatch or Grabbed, arrested (1811); (2) to on, get along, live. Grab-ail, Grass. Grab-all. 1. An avaricious person, greedy-guts (q.v.). 2. A bag to carry odds and ends parcels, books, and so forth. Grabber. In pi., the hands : see Daddle. Grabble. To seize, grab (q.v.) (1811). Crabby. An infantry - man : in contempt by the mounted arm : Fr., marionnette. Grab-gains. The trick of snatch- ing a purse, etc., and making off. Grab - game (coup, or racket). A mode of swindling : the sharpers start by betting among themselves ; then the bystanders are induced to join, stakes are deposited, and lastly, there is a row, when one of the gang grabs the stakes and decamps. Grace - card. The six of hearts (for origin see N. and Q., 5th Series, iv. 137). Gracemans. Gracechurch Street Market (1610). Graduate. 1. A horse that has been 2. An adept, artful member (q.v.). As verb, to seek and acquire experience in life, love, society, or rade ; and so on. Gradus. A mode of cheating : particular card is so placed by the luffler that when he hands the pack be cut, it projects a little beyond lie rest ; the chance being that it forms lie turn-up. Also called the step (q.v.). Gradus - ad - parnassum. The eadmill : see Wheel-of-life. Graft. Work, employment, lay (q.v.) : e.g. what graft are you on low ? Great-graft, profitable labour, 1 biz (q.v.). As verb, (1) to work : bausser, membrer ; (2) to steal ; (3) to cuckold, plant horns (1696) ; (4) sole old boots : cf. Goose and ranslate. Grampus. A fat man : see Forty- its. To blow the grampus, to drench ; Iso to sport in the water. Grand. Short for grand piano, adj., a general superlative. To do ; grand, to put on airs. Grand Bounce. See Bounce. Grandmother. To see one's indmother, to have a nightmare. I'o shoot one's grandmother, to be listaken, find a mare's nest, be lisappointecl : commonly, You've shot jrour grannie. To teach owe'a grand- mother (or grannie) how to suck eggs, to instruct an expert in his own particular line of business, Vtalk old to one's seniors (1811). My Grand- mother's Review, the British Review : the nickname was Lord Byron's. Grand -strut. The Broad Walk in Hyde Park (1823). Granger. 1. A member of the Farmers' Alliance ; a secret American society, nominally non- political, but really taking a hand in politics when occasion offered to favour agricultural interests : during the decade of years ending 1870 it attained to great numerical strength, and extended throughout the United States : see Agricultural wheel. 2. Hence, a farmer, countryman, any one from the rural districts. Grangerise. To fill out a book with portraits, landscapes, title-pages, and illustrations generally, not done for it. Hence Grangerism, the prac- tice of illustrating a book with engravings, etc., from other sources : from the practice of illustrating Granger's Bibliographical History of England. Also Grangerite, a practi- tioner in Grangerism. Grannam. Corn (1563). Grannam 's-gold. Inherited wealth. Granny. 1. A bad knot with the second tie across ; as opposed to a reef knot in which the end and outer part are in line : also Granny's knot or Granny's bend. 2. Conceit of super- ior knowledge. As verb, to know, recognise, swindle (1851). Grape-shot. Drunk : see Screwed. Grape-vine. A hold in wrestling. Grape - vine Telegraph. News mysteriously conveyed : during the civil war bogus reports from the front were said to be by the grape-vine telegraph : also clothes-line telegraph. Grapple. The hand : also grappler : see Daddle. Grapple-the-rails. Whisky : see Drinks (1783). Grappling - irons (or hooks), 1. Handcuffs: see Darbies (1811). 2. The fingers : see Fork : also grap- plers and grappling-hooks. Grass (Royal Military Academy). 1. Vegetables : bunny - grub : Fr., gargousses de la canonniere. 2. Fresh mint (American). 3. Short for sparrow-grass (q.v.), asparagus. 4. A temporary newspaper hand ; hence 199 dross-comber. Grayhound. the proverb, A grass on news waits dead men's shoes (Australian printers). Grass-hand, a raw worker, green hand. As verb, to throw (or be thrown), bring (or be brought) to ground : hence, to knock down, defeat, kill. To give grata, to yield ; to go to grass, (1) to abscond, disappear: also to hunt grass ; (2) to fall sprawling, be ruined, die; (3) to waste away (as of limbs) ; to hunt grass (1) to decamp ; (2) to field, to hunt leather (q.v.) ; (3) to fall, go to ground ; hence, to be puzzled or bewildered ; to cut one's own grass, to earn one's own living ; to be sent to grass, to be rusticated, receive a travelling scholarship (q.v.) ; go to grass I be off ! You be hanged f to let the grass grow under one's feet, to proceed or work leisurely : Fr., limer. Grass - comber. A countryman shipped as a sailor. Crasser. A fall. Grasshopper. 1. A waiter in a tea-garden. 2. A policeman, copper (q.v.). 3. A thief (q.v.) Grassing. Casual work away from a printing office. Grassville. The country ; cf . Daisyville. Grass - widow. 1. An unmarried mother, a deserted mistress (1696). 2. A married woman temporarily separated from her husband. [The usually accepted derivation that grass is Fr., grdce, is doubtful. Hall (says J. C. Atkinson, in Glossary of Cleveland Words) gives as the defini- tion of this word, An unmarried woman who has had a child ; in Moor's Suffolk Words and Phrases, Grace-widow, A woman who baa had a child for her cradle ere she has had a husband for her bed; and corre- sponding with this is the N. 8. or Low Ger., gras-wedewe. Again, Sw. D., gras - anka, or -enka grass - widow, occurs in the same sense as with us : A low, dissolute, unmarried woman living by herself. The original mean- ing of the word seems to have been A woman whose husband is away, either travelling or living apart. The people of Belgium call a woman of this description haeck-wedeive, from haecken, to feel strong desire It seems probable, therefore, from the ety- mology, taken in connection with the Clcvel, signification, that our word may rather be from the Scand. source than from the German ; only with a translation of the word enka into its English equivalent. Dan. D., grots- enka, is a female whose betrothed lover (fast man) is dead ; nearly equivalent to which is German, strohwittwe, literally straw - widow. See N. and Q., 6 8 viii., 268, 414 : x. 333, 436, 526; xi. 78, 178.] English synonyms : Calif ornian widow, widow- bewitched, wife in water colours (1700). Grass - widower. A man away from his wife. Gravel. 1. To confound, puzzle, floor (q.v.). 2. To go against the grain. Gravel-crusher. A soldier doing defaulter's drill. Gravel - grinder. A drunkard : see Lushington. Gravel - rash. The lacerations caused by a fall To have the gravel rash, to be reeling drunk : see Screwed. Gravesend-bus. A hearse. Gravesend- sweetmeats. Shrimps. Gravesend - twins. Solid lumps of sewage. Grave - yard. The mouth : see Potato-trap. To keep a private grave- yard, to affect ferocity, bluster. Gravy - eye. A derisive epithet : e.g. Well Old gravy -eye. Crawler. A beggar : see Cadger. Gray. 1. A coin showing either two heads or two tails, pony (q.v.) (1828). 2. See Grayback. 3. In pL, yawning, listlessness : cf. Blues. Grayback. 1. A louse : Scots Greys : Fr., grenadier : Chates. 2. A Confederate soldier: from the colour of the uniform : Blue-belly. Gray-beard. 1. An old man: mostly in contempt (1593). 2. Origin- ally a stoneware drinking jug ; now a large earthenware jar for hold- ing wine or spirits : with a bearded face in relief. Gray-cloak. An alderman above the chair : his proper robe is a cloak furred with grey amis. Gray-goose. A big field stone on the surface of the ground (1816). Grayhound. 1. A fast Atlant liner ; one especially built for speed : also ocean grayhound. 2. (Cam- bridge University). A member Clare College, a Clarian (obsolete). 200 Gray-mare. Green. Gray - mare. A wife ; spec, one wearing the breeches (q.v.) (1546). Gray-parson (or Gray-coat parson). A lay impropriator, or lessee of tithes (Grose). Grease. 1. A bribe, palm- oil (or grease), boodle (q.v.): greasing, bribing. 2. Well-paid work, fat (q.v.): printers'. 3. Fawning, flat- tery. As verb, (1) to bribe, corrupt by presents, tip (q.v.): also, to grease the fist, hand, or palm : Fr., coquer la boucanade (1557). (2) To fawn, to flatter : formerly, to grease one's boots ( 1598). (3) To gull, cheat, do (q.v.). To grease a fat sow, to bribe a rich man (Grose) ; to grease one's gills, to make a good or luxuri- ous meal. Greased Lightning. An express train. Like greased lightning, very quick. Greaser. 1. A Mexican ; also a Spanish American. The Mexicans are called greasers from their greasy appearance, by the Western people (Buzton) : Greasers, Californian slang for a mixed race of Mexicans and Indians (Bret Harte). 2. In pi. (Royal Military Academy), fried pot- atoes, as distinguished from boilers, boiled potatoes. To give one greaser (Winchester College), to rub the back of the hand hard with the knuckles. Grease-spot. The imaginary result of a passage at arms, physical or intellectual (1844). Greasy - chin. A dinner (Grose). Great Cry and Little Wool. See Cry. Great Go (or Greats). The final examination for the B.A. degree at Cambridge : cf. Little-go : at Oxford, Greater. Great Gun. 1. A person of dis- tinction, a thing of importance. English synonyms : big bug, big dog of the tanyard, big dog with the brass collar, big gun, big head, big one, big (or great) pot, big wig, biggest toad in the puddle, cock of the walk, don, large potato, nob, rumbusticator, stunner, swell, swell-head, topper, top-sawyer. 2. A peculiar practice, trick of particular usefulness and importance, favourite wheeze (q.v.). To blow great guns, to blow a gale ; also, to blow great guns and small arms (1839). Great-house. See Big House. Great- Joseph. An overcoat. Great Scott 1 An exclamation of surprise an apology for an oath : possibly a memory of the name of Gen. Winfield Scott, a presidential candidate whose dignity and style were such as to win him the nickname Fuss-and-Feathers. Great Shakes. See Shakes. Great Smoke. London. Great Sun. An exclamation. Great - unwashed. The lower classes, the rabble : also the un- washed : first used by Burke ; popul- arised by Scott. Great Whipper-in (The). Death, >Old floorer (q.v.). Grecian. 1. A roysterer, Greek (q.v.). 2. (Christ's Hospital). A senior boy. 3. An Irishman. Hence Grecian accent, a brogue. Grecian-bend. An affected stoop in walking (1821) : cf. Alexandra limp, Roman fall, Italian wriggle, Kangaroo droop. Greed. Money : see Rhino. Greedy-gut (or guts). A voracious eater, a glutton : as in the old (schoolboys') rhyme : Guy-hi, Greedy-gut, Eat all the pudding up : Fr., un glafdtre (1598). Greek. 1. Slang, or Flash (q.v.) ; usually St. Giles' Greek (q.v.): cf. Cant, Gibberish, etc. 2. A card- sharper, cheat (1528). 3. An Irish- man (1823). 4. A gambler; also a highwayman. Merry Greek, a roy- sterer, drunkard (Cotgrave) (1602). Greek-fire. Bad whisky, rotgut (q.v.). Greek Kalends. Never. To defer to the Greek Kalends, to put off sine die : the Greeks used no kalends in their reckoning of time (1649). English synonyms : in the reign of Queen Dick, when the devil is bund, when two Sundays come in a week, at Domesday, at Tib's eve, one of these odd-come-shortly's, when the ducks have eaten up the dirt, when pigs fly, in a month of Sundays, once in a blue moon. Green. Rawness, simplicity. Generally in the phrase, Do you see any green in my eye ? Do you take me for a fool ? As adj., simple, in- experienced, gullible, unsalted (q.v.) (1596). As verb, to hoax, swindle: at Eton to green up : see Gammon. 201 Green-apron. Gridiron. To send to Dr. Green, to put out to grass (1811). 8" dp me greens I (or taturs /) a veiled oath of an obscene origin. Just for greens, for no reason in particular. G r e e n-a p r o n. A lay preacher : also as adj. Green-back. 1. A frog. 2. One of Todhunter's series of mathe- matical text-books : bound in green cloth : cf. Blue-ruin. 3. The paper issue of the Treasury of the United States ; first sent out in 1862 during the civil war, the backs are printed in green. Hence green - backer, an advocate for an unlimited issue of paper money. Green-bag. A lawyer ; robes and briefs were carried in a green bag ; the colour is now blue, or, in cases of presentation from seniors to juniors, red (1696). English synonyms: black box, bramble (provincial), devil's own, gentlemen of the long robe, land- shark, limb of the law, mouth-piece, Philadelphia lawyer (q.v.), quitam, six and-eightpence, snipe, sublime rascal. Green-bonnet. To have (or wear) a green bonnet, to fail in busi- ness, go bankrupt : a green cloth cap was once worn by bankrupts. Green Cheese. See Cream Cheese and Moon. Green Cloth. See Board of Green Cloth. Green Dragoons. The Fifth Dragoon Guards ; also known as the Green Horse : from their green facings. Greener. A new, or raw hand ; spec, an inexperienced workman intro- duced to fill the place of a striker. Green-goods. Counterfeit greenbacks ; hence green-goods man (or operator), a counterfeiter of green- backs, snide-pitcher (q.v.). Green -goose. 1. A cuckold. 2. A prostitute. Green - gown. To give a green gown, to rough and tumble with a girl- Green - head. A greenhorn : see Buffle (1696). Greenhorn (Green-head, or Greenlander). A simpleton, fool, gull (q.v.) ; also a new hand : see Buffle. To come from Greenland, to be fresh to things, raw (q.v.) ; Green- lander, sometimes an Irishman (1753). Greenhouse. An omnibus. Green Howards. The Nine- teenth Foot, now the Princess of Wales's Own Yorkshire Regiment: from its facings and its Colonel's name (1738-48), and to distinguish it from the Third Foot, also commanded by, a Col. Howard. Also Howard's Garbage. Green Kingsman. A silk pocket- handkerchief : any pattern on a green ground. Green Linnets. The 39th Foot, now the first battalion Dorsetshire Regiment : from the facings. Greenly. Like a greenhorn, foolishly (1596). Greenmans. 1. The fields, the country (1610). 2. In sing., a con- tractor who speculates with other people's money. Greenness. Immaturity of judgment, inexperience, gullibility (1748). Green-rag. See Greeny. Green-river. To send a man up Green-river, to kill : from a once famous factory on Green River, where a favourite hunting knife was made. Green-sickness. Chlorosis. Green - turtle. To live up to green-turtle, to do, and give, one's best Greenwich Barber. A retailer of sand from the Greenwich pits : a pun upon shaving the banks (Grose). Greenwich - goose. A pensioner of Greenwich Hospital (Grose). Greeny. 1. The curtain : from the colour : also green-rag (1821). 2. A freshman (q.v.). 3. A simpleton, greenhorn (q.v.) : see Buffle. Greetin Fu'. Drunk: literally crying drunk : see Screwed. G r e e z e (Westminster School). A crowd, push (q.v.). Gregorian. A kind of wig worn in the 17th century : after the inventor one Gregory, a barber in the Strand. Gregorian - tree. The gallows : there was a sequence of three men of the name : see Nubbing-cl Gregorine. A louse ; specifically head vermin : see Chates. Greshamite. A fellow of the '. Society (1690). Grey. See Gray, paseim. Griddle. To sing in the street Whence, griddling, street-singing ; griddler, a street singer (1851). Gridiron. 1. The United St 202 Grief, Grip. flag ; the Stars and Stripes : also Gridiron and Doughboys ; also speak- ing of the Eagle in conjunction with the flag, the Goose and Gridiron. 2. A County Court Summons : originally applied to writs of the Westminster Court, the arms of which resemble a gridiron (1859). 3. The bars on a cell window : Fr., ler gaules de Schtard. The Gridiron, the Graf ton Club: the grill was a speciality. On the gridiron, troubled, harassed, in a bad way, on toast (q.v.). The whole gridiron: see Whole animal. Grief. To come to grief, to come to ruin, meet with an accident, fail. Griffin (or Griff). 1. A new- comer, raw hand, greenhorn (q.v.). Specific uses are (Anglo-Indian), a new arrival from Europe ; (military), a young subaltern ; (Anglo-Chinese), an unbroken horse. Griffinage (or Griffinism), the state of greenhornism (1859). 2. A woman of forbidding manners or appearance, a Gorgon : also a caretaker, chaperon, or sheep- dog (q.v. ). [A reflection of the several griffins of ornithology and of heraldry : the former a feeder on birds, small mammals, and even children ; the latter (as in Milton) a perfection of vigilance.] 3. A signal : e.g. to tip the griffin, to warn, give the office (q.v.), or tip (q.v.) ; the straight griffin, the straight tip. 4. In pi. the scraps and leavings from a contract feast, which are removed by the purveyor. Griff-metoll. Sixpence, a tanner (q.v.) : see Rhino (1754). Grig. 1. An active, lively, and jocose person : as in the phrase Merry as a Grig (1611). 2. A farthing, a gigg (q.v.) : see Rhino (1696). As verb, to vex, worry (1855). Grim. A skeleton : also Grin. Whence Old Mr. Grim, death. Grin. To strike on plates with knives and forks, beat with the feet, and shout at the top of the voice, in an effort to make the victim grin. To grin in a glass case, to be shown as an anatomical preparation : the bodies and skeletons of criminals were once preserved in glass cases at Surgeons' Hall (Grose). Grinagpg, the Cat's Uncle. A .grinning simpleton (Grose). Grind. 1. A walk, constitutional : e.g. to take a grind, or (University) to go on the Grandchester (or Gog Magog Halls) grind. 2. Daily routine, hard or distasteful work (1853). 3. Study, reading for an examination; also a plodding student, i.e. a grinder. 4. A demonstration : as (1) a ' public grind,' given to a class and free to all ; and (2) a private grind, for which a student pays an individual teacher: in America, a quiz (q.v.). 5. (Oxford University) Athletic sports : also, a training run. The grind (Cambridge University), the ferry-boat at Chester- ton. As verb, (1) to prepare for examination, study, read, teach, in- struct, coach (q.v.), do a round of hard and distasteful work, apply one- self to daily routine ; (2) to vex, put out. To grind an axe, see Axe. To get a grind on one, to play practical jokes, tell a story against one, annoy or vex. To grind wind, to work the treadwill : see Everlasting staircase. Grinder. 1. A private tutor, Coach (q.v.) : cf. Crammer (1812). 2. Usually in pi., the teeth. English synonyms : bones, chatterers, cogs, crashing cheats, dining-room furni- ture (or chairs), dinner-set, dominoes, front-rails, Hampstead Heath (rhym- ing), head-rails, ivories, park-palings (or railings), snagglers, tushes (or tusks), tomb-stones (1597). To take a grinder, to apply the left -thumb to the nose, and revolve the right hand round it, as if to work a hand-organ or coffee-mill ; also to take a sight (q.v.), to work the coffee mill (q.v.) : a street retort on an attempt to impose on good faith or credulity (1836). Grinding - house. The House of Correction : see Cage (1614). Grinding-mill. The house of a tutor or coach (q.v.) where students are prepared for an examination. Grind-off (or Grindo). A miller : from a character in The Mitter and his Men. Grindstone. A tutor, a coach (q.v.). To bring (hold, put, or keep) one's nose to the grindstone, to oppress, harass, punish, treat harshly. To have one's nose kept to the grindstone, to be held to a bargain, or task (1578). To have the grindstone on one's back, said of a man going to fetch the monthly nurse (Grose). Grinning-stitches. Slovenly sewing, stitches wide apart, ladders (q.v.). Grip (or Gripsack). A hand-bag, 203 Gripe. Grow. satchell. To lose one's grip, to fail, lose one's control. Gripe. 1. A miser, usurer : also griper or gripe-fist (q.v.). Qrip- ing, extortion. 2. In pi., the colic, stomach ache, collywobbles : see Jerry-go-nimble (1684). Gripe-fist A miser, grasping broker : also gripe-penny. Grist. A large number or quan- tity : Swift uses grist, a supply ; a provision. To bnng grist to ike mill, to bring profitable business, be a source of profit (1719). Grit. 1. Character, pluck, spirit, sand (q.v.): also clear grit. No grit, lacking in stamina, wanting in courage (1826). 2. A member of the Liberal party (Canadian political). Gritty. Plucky, courageous, resolute, full of character. Grizzle. To fret ; also to grizzle one's guts. Grizzle -guts (Grizzle- or Glum- pot). A melancholy or ill-tempered person, sulking ton (q.v.). Groan er. A thief (q.v.) plying his trade at funerals or religious gatherings. Groaning. The act of parturition : also adj., parturient, or appertaining to parturition: as in groaning -malt (Scots'), drink for a lying-in ; groaning pains, the pangs of delivery; groaning wife, a woman ready to lie-in (1594). Groats. A naval chaplain's monthly allowance. To save, one's groats, to come off handsomely : at the University nine groats were formerly deposited in the hands of an academic officer by every person stand- ing for a degree, which, if obtained with honour, were returned to him (Grose). Grocery. 1. Small chance (1728). 2. A drinking bar ; also confectionery and groggery. 3. Sugar : a restricted use of a colloquialism. Grog. Spirits and water, strong drink generally : till Admiral Vernon's time (1745) rum was served neat, but he ordered it to be diluted, and was therefore nicknamed Old Grog, in allusion to his grogram coat : a phrase that was presently adapted to the mixture he had introduced : Groggy, drunk : see Screwed. As verb, to dilute or adulterate with water. To have grog on board (or to be grogged), to be drunk : see Screwed. Grog-blossom. A pimple caused by excessive drinking : also copper- nose and jolly-nose : Fr., nez culottt, and nez de pompettes (1811). Grog-fight A drinking party : cf. Tea-fight Groggery. A public bar, grog shop. Groggy. 1. Under the influence of drink: see Screwed (1829). 2. (stable) Moving as with tender feet 3. (pugilists') Unsteady from punish- ment and exhaustion : Fr., locher (1831). Grogham. A horse, daisy- kicker (q.v.): now mostly in con- tempt: see Prad (Grose). Grog-shop. The mouth : see Potato-trap (1843). Grog-tub. A brandy bottle. Groom. A croupier. Groomed. See Well-groomed. Groovy. A sardine. As adj., settled in habit, limited in mind. Groper. 1. A blind man, Hood- man (q.v.) (1696). 2. A pocket (Grose). 3. A midwife, fingersmith (q.v.) (Grose). Ground. To suit down to the ground, to be thoroughly becoming or acceptable. To wipe (or mop) up the ground (or floor) with one, to adminis- ter the soundest of thrashings, prove oneself absolutely superior to one's opponent To go (or get) well to the ground, to defalcate, rear (q.v.) : see Mrs. Jones (1608). Grounder. A ball with a ground de- livery, sneak, grub ; and (in America) at base ball, a ball struck low, or flying near the ground. Ground-floor. To be let in on the ground-floor, to share in a specula- tion on equal terms with the original promoters. Ground-squirrel. A hog, grunter (Lex. Bal.). Ground-sweat. To have (or take) a ground-sweat, to be buried (1696). Grouser. 1. A grumbler rusty - gute (q.v.). 2. A rowing man, wet- bob (q.v.). G r o u t e (Marlborough and Cheltenham Colleges). To work or study hard, swot (q.v.). Grouty. Crabbed, sulky. Grove of the Evangelist St John's Wood ; also Apostle's Grove, and the Baptist's Wood. Grow. To be accorded the privi- 204 Growler. Gudgeon. lege of letting one's hair and beard grow : also to grow one's feathers. Growler. A four-wheeled cab : cf. Sulky. English synonyms : bird- cage, blucher, bounder, fever- trap, flounder - and-dab (rhyming), four- wheeler, groping hutch, mab (an old hackney), rattler, rumbler. To rush (or work) the growler, to fetch beer (workman's). Grown -man's -dose. A lot of liquor: also a long drink (q.v.) : see Go. ^ Grown-up. An adult : also (under- takers') a grown (1864). Grub. 1. Food. English synonyms : belly-cheer (or chere), belly-furniture, belly- timber, Kaffir's tightener (speci- fically, a full meal), chuck, corn, gorge - grease, manablins (broken victuals), mouth harness, mungarly, peck, prog, scoff (S. African), scran, stodge, tack, tommy (specifically bread), tuck, yam. Also, verbally, to bung the cask, to grease the gills, to have the run of one's teeth, to yam. 2. A short thick-set man, a dwarf : in contempt : see Hop-o'-my-Thumb. 3. A sloven, generally of elderly people. 4. A careful student, hard reader. 5. Roots and stumps : whatever is grubbed up. 6. A ball delivered along the ground, grounder (q.v.), daisy-cutter (q.v.): see Lob-sneak. As verb, (1) to take or supply with food (1725). Whence grubbing, eat- ing. (2) To beg, ask alms, especially food. (3) To study, read hard, sweat (q.v.). To ride grub, to be sulky, crusty (q.v.), disagreeable (Grose). To grub along, to make one's way as best one can, rub along. Grubbery. (1) An eating-house: also (2) a dining-room, and (3) the mouth. Grubbing-crib. 1. An eat- ing-house. Orubbing-crib faker, the landlord of a cheap cookshop : Fr., nourrisseur. English synonyms : grubbery, grubby (or grubbing-ken), grub-shop, guttle-shop, hash-house, mungarly casa, prog-shop, slap-bang shop, tuck-shop, waste-butt. 2. A workhouse : sometimes Orubbiken : see Spinniken. Grubble. To feel for at random, or in the dark. Grubby. Food : a diminutive of grub (q.v.). As adj., dirty, slovenly. Grub-hunting. Begging for food. Grub - shop (crib, trap, etc.). 1. The mouth ; and 2. a grubbery (q.v.) : see Potato-trap. 3. See Grub- bing-crib in both senses. Grub - stake. Food and other necessaries furnished to mining pro- spectors in return for a share in the finds. Hence, to grub-stake, to specu- late after this fashion. Grub Street. The world of cheap, mean, needy authors : originally a street near Moorfields, changed in 1830 to Milton Street (1696). Gruel. 1. A beating, punish- ment (q.v.). Hence, to get (or give) one's gruel, to castigate, be well beaten, killed. In the prize ring, to knock a man out for good. Gruetted, floored; also gruetting (1815). 2. Coffee. Crueller. A knock - down blow, settler (q.v.), a floorer (q.v.). Grumble - guts. An inveterate croaker: also grumble-gizzard. Grumbles. To be all on the grumbles, to be discontented, cross, on the snarley-yow (q.v.). Grumbletonian. A pattern of discontent, one ever on the grumble. Grumbleton (during the reigns of the later Stuarts), an imaginary centre of discontent ; hence, Grumbletonian, a nickname of the County party, dis- tinguished from the Court, as being in opposition.] (1690). Grumpy (or Grumpish). Surly, cross, angry. Grundy. A short fat man, forty- guts (q.v.) : see Mrs. Grundy. Grunter. 1. A pig, grunting- cheat (q.v.) : also pork (1656). 2. A sixpence : formerly (Grose) Is. : see Rhino. 3. A policeman, trap (q.v.): pig (q.v.). 4. A constant grumbler, grumble-guts (q.v.). Grunter 's - gig. A smoked pig's chap (Grose). Grunting-cheat. A pig (1567). Grunting-peck. Pork or bacon. Gruts. Tea. G. T. T. Gone to Texas : abs- conded ; moonshining gentry used to mark G. T. T. on the doors of their abandoned dwellings as a consolation for inquiring creditors : Fr., otter en Belgique. Guage. See Gage. Gubbins. Fish offal (1611). Gudgeon. 1. A bait, an allure- ment : hence, to gudgeon (or to swallow) 205 Guerrilla. Gummy. a gudgeon, to be extremely credulous or gullible (1598). 2. An easy dupe, buffle (q-v.) (1785).! Guerrilla., This (name is applied by gamblers^ to fellows \ who skin suckers when 7 and where they can, who do not like the professional gamblers, but try to beat them, sometimes inform on them, and tell the suckers that they have been cheated (Matsell). Guff. Humbug, bluff, jabber : see Gammon. G u ff y. A soldier : see Mud- crusher. G u i d e r s. 1. Reins, ribbons (q.v.). 2. Sinews, leaders (q.v.). Guinea. A guinea to a goose- berry, long odds. Guinea-dropper. A sharper : spec, one who let drop counterfeit guineas in collusion with a Gold- finder (q.v.) (1712). Guinea-hen. A courtezan (1602). Guinea - pig. 1. A general re- proach (1748). 2. Any one whose nominal fee for professional services is a guinea : as vets; special jurymen, etc. Now mainly restricted to clergy- men acting as deputies, and (in contempt) to directors of public companies : hence guinea - trade, professional services (1821). 3. A midshipman. Guise's Geese. The Sixth Foot, or Saucy Sixth, now the Royal Warwick- shire Regiment : from >ts Colonel's name (1735-63). Guiver. 1. Flattery ; 2. Artfulness (q.v.). As adj., smart, fashionable, on it (q.v.). Quiver lad, a low- class dandy ; also an artful member (q.v.). As verb, to humbug, fool about (q.v.), show off. Gulf. 1. The throat, the maw: see Gutter-alley (1579). 2. (Cam- bridge Univ.). The bottom of a list of passes, with the names of those who only just succeed in 'getting their degree. 3. (Oxford Univ.). A man who, going in for honours, only gete a pass. As verb (Cambridge Univ.), to place in the gulf ; to be gulfed, to be on such a list : men so placed were not eligible for the Classical Tripos : cf. Pluck and Plough. Gulf-spin. A rascal, worth- less fellow, beat (q.v.), shyster (q.v.). Gull. 1. A ninny : see Buffle (1596). 2. A cheat, fraud, trick ( 1 600). 3. (Oxford Univ. ). A swindler, trickster. As verb, to cheat, dupe, vic- timise, take in (q.v.) in any fashion and to any purpose (1596). Hence, gullible, adj., easily duped. G u 1 1 a g e. The act of trickery, the state of being gulled (1605). Gull-catcher (Culler, Gull- sharper, etc.). A trickster, cheat (1602). Gullery. Dupery, fraud, cheat's device. Gullet. The throat: see Gutter- alley (1383). Gull - finch. A simpleton, fool : see Buffle (1630). Gull-groper. A gamester's money- lender (1609). J Gully. 1. The throat : see Gutter- alley. 2. A knife: see Chive (1633). As verb, to gull (q.v.), dupe, swindle. Gully-fluff. Pocket-filth, beggar's velvet (q.v.) : also flue (q.v.). Gully-gut. A glutton : see Stodger(1598). Gully-hole (or Gully). The throat : see Gutter-alley. Gully -raker. (1) A cattle- whip; also (2) a cattle-thief. Gulpin. A simpleton, gape-seed (q.v.): Fr., gobemouche, eponge: see Buffle. Gulpy. Easily duped. G u 1 s h. To hold one's gulsh, to hold one's tongue, keep quiet. Gum. 1. Chatter, talk, jaw (q.v.), abuse (1751). 2. A trick, piece of dupery, sell (q.v.): also gummation. 3. A golosh, india-rubber overshoe : short for gum-shoes. As verb, to cheat, take in (q.v.), roast (q.v.), quiz : see Gammon. Old Mother Gum, an old woman : in derision. By gum ! a mild oath. Blest your (or his, her, its, etc.) gums, a piece of banter : a facetious way of saying Bless your soul ! Gummagy. Snarling : of a scolding habit. Gummed. Said of a ball close to the cushion. Gummy. 1. A toothless person ; i.e. with nothing but gums to show : generally, Old Gummy. 2. Medicine : also gummy-stuff. 3. A dullard, fool : see Buffle. As adj., puffed, swollen, clumsy (Grose). To feel gummy, to perspire. Gump. Gutter-attey. Gump. A dolt : see Buffle (1825). Gumption. Cleverness, under- standing, nous (q.v.) : also rum gumption (Orose). Gumptious. Shrewd, intelligent, vain. Gum - smasher (or Tickler). A dentist: snag-catcher (q.v.). Gum-suck. To flatter, humbug, dupe : see Gammon. Gum-sucker. 1. A native of Tas- mania, who owes his nickname to the abundance of gum-trees in the Tas- manian forests : cf. Corn-stalk. 2. A fool : see Buffle. Gum-tickler. 1. A drink : spec, drop of short, or a dram : see Go (1814). 2. See Gum-smasher. Gum-tree. To be up a gum-tree, to be on one's last legs, at the end of one's rope : He has seen his last gum- tree, It is all up with him. Gun. 1. A lie (New Cant Diet., 1725). 2. A thief (q.v.); spec, a Magsman (q.v.) or street-artist : also gun-smith and gunner. Gunning, thieving. 3. A revolver : see Meat-in- the-pot. 4. A toddy glass. As verb, (1) to consider with attention. (2) To strive hard, make a violent effort : e.g. to gun a stock, to use every means to produce a break ; when supplies are heavy and holders would be unable to resist. In the gun, drunk : see Screwed (1696). Son of a gun: see Son. Sure as a gun, quite certain, inevitable (1633). Gundiguts. A fat man, forty- guts (q.v.) (1696). Gunner's-daughter. To kiss (or marry) the gunner's daughter, to be flogged. Gunner's daughter, the gun to which boys were lashed for punish- ment (Grose). Gunpowder. An old woman (1696). Gunter. See Cocker. Gup. Gossip, scandal. To be a gup, to be easy to take or steal. G u r t s e y. A fat man, podge (q.v.) : see Forty-guts. Gush. The expression of affected or extravagant sentiment. As verb, to overflow with extravagant or affected sentiment. Hence gusher, a practitioner of gush : also Gushing- tion ; gushing, extravagant, affected or irrational in expression, demonstra- tively affectionate : also gushingly. Gut. 1. The vice or habit of glut- tony ; the belly (as opposed to the groin). 2. In pi. the stomach and intestines (1609). 3. In pi. a fat man, forty-guts (q.v.) : also guts-and- garbage. More guts than brains, a fool (1598). 4. Spirit, quality, a touch of force, energy, or fire : e.g. a picture, a book, an actor. With guts, a strong thing ; put your guts into it (aquatic), row the very best you can. He (or it) has no guts in him (or it), he (or it) is a common rotter (q.v.). Hence, gutsy, adj., having guts, and gutsiness, subs., the condition of being gutsy (1738). As verb, (1) to plunder, or take out all or most of the contents (i.e. intes- tines) of a place or thing, drain, clean out : e.g. to gut a house (thieves'), to rifle it ; to gut an oyster, to eat it ; to gut a book, to empty it of interest- ing matter ; to gut a quart pot, to drain at a draught. Whence, gutted, dead- broke ( 1696). (2) To eat hard, fast, and badly, wolf (q.v.). To fret one's guts, to worry ; to have plenty of guts but no bowels, to be unfeeling, hard, merci- less ; my great guts are ready to eat my little ones, I am very hungry : also, my guts begin to think my throat's cut, my guts curse my teeth, and my guts chime twelve (Grose); not fit to carry guts to a bear, to be worthless, absolutely unmannerly, unfit for human food. Gut-foundered. Exceedingly hungry (1696). Gut-pudding. A sausage (Nomen- clator). Gut-puller. A poulterer, chicken- butcher (q.v.). Gut - scraper. A fiddler : also catgut-scraper and tormentor of cat- gut : see Rosin-the-bow (1719). Gutter. Porter (Matsell) : prob- ably a corruption of gatter (q.v.). As verb (Winchester College), to fall in the water flat on the stomach : Fr., piquer un platventre. To lap the gutter, to be in the last stage of in- toxication : see Screwed. Carry me out and leave me in the gutter: see Carry me out. Gutter-alley (or lane). 1. The throat. All goes down gutter-lane, He spends all on his stomach. Eng- lish synonyms: Beer Street, common sewer, drain, funnel, Gin Lane, gulf- gullet, gully-hole, gutter, Holloway, Peck Alley, Red Lane, the Red Sea, Spew Alley, swallow, thrapple, throttle, whistle. 2. A urinal. 207 Hack. Gutter-blood. (1) A ragged rascal (1822). Also (2) a vulgarian; an upstart from the rabble. Gutter-chaunter. A street singer. Gutter-hotel. The open air: see Hedge-square. Gutter-literature. See Blood-and- thunder, and Awful. Gutter - master. A term of re- proach (1607). Gutter - prowler. A street thief (q.v.). Gutter-snipe. 1. A street arab : also gutter-slush. 2. A poster for the kerb. 3. An outside broker who does business chiefly in the street ; a kerbstone broker (q.v.) : Fr., loup- cervier. Guttie. 1. A gutta-percha ball. 2. A glutton, stodger (q.v.). 3. A forty-guts (q.v.). Guttle. To eat greedily, Gormand- ize (q.v.). Also to drink: e.g. to guttle a pint, to take off, or do, a pint ; He's been guttling swipes, he's been drinking beer. Hence guttler, a coarse or greedy eater, a sturdy pot-companion, gorger (q.v.) : cf. Thackeray's Book of Snobs for Guttle- bury Fair : see Guzzle (1672). Guttle - shop. A pastry - cook's, tuck-shop (q.v.). Guv. An abbreviation of/governor (q-v.). Guy. 1. A Fifth of November effigy, whence, 2. an ill-dressed per- son : as in the old street cry, Hollo, boys, there goes another guy ! English synonyms: caution, Captain Queer- nabs, chivey, comic bird, ragamuffin, sight. 3. A dark lantern : obviously a reminiscence of the Gunpowder Plot 4. A jaunt, expedition. As verb, (1) to quiz, chaff, roast (q.v.), Josh (q.v.); (2) to escape, hedge (q.v.), run away : also to do a guy (which alsoto give a false name : see, Burk. (3) To spoil, muddle, disfigure, distort (4) To damn, bias, slate (q.v. ), give the bird (q.v.). Guzzle (or Guttle). 1. An insati- able eater or drinker. 2. A debauch. 3. Drink. As verb, to drink greedily, or to excess (1607). Guzzle-guts. A glutton, a hard drinker (Lex. Bal., 1811): see Guzzle. Guzzler. A hard drinker, a coarse voracious feeder : see Guzzle (1760). Guzzling. Eating or drinking to excess, also eating or drinking in a coarse unmannerly fashion (1696). Guzzum. Chatter, noise. G. Y. All a G.Y., crooked, all on one side, all of a hugh. Gybe. A written paper (1567). As verb, to whip, castigate : e.g. gybed at the cart's tail, whipped at the cart's tail (1696). Gybing (also Gibery). Jeering (1696). Gyger. See Jigger. Gyp (Cambridge University). 1. A college servant : at Oxford, a scout (q.v.) ; at Dublin, a skip (q.v.) Etymology doubtful : according to Sat. Rev. an abbreviation of Gipsy Joe ; according to Cambridge under- graduates from the Greek yi'>4 (Gups), a vulture ; from the creature's rapacity.] (1794). 2. A thief (q.v.). Gypsies of Science. The British Association (1846). Gyrotwistive. Full of evasions and tricks, a portmanteau word. Gyte. 1. A child : in contempt 2. A first year's pupil in the Edinburgh High School Haberdasher. A dealer in small wares ; specifically (a) a hatter, and (6), (humorously) a publican (i.e. a seller of tape, q.v.) ; now restricted to a retail draper (1599). Haberdasher of pronouns, a schoolmaster (1696). Habit (Old University). College habit, College dress, called of old, Livery : the dress of the master, fellows, and scholars (Qradus ad Canta- brigiam). Hab-nab (or Hob-nob). 1. At random, promiscuously, helter-skelter, ding-dong (1602). 2. By hook or by crook, by fair means or foul (1581). Hack (or Hackney). (1) A per- son or thing let out for promiscuous use : e.g. a horse, harlot, literary drudge. Whence (2) a coach that plies for hire ; (3) (stables') a horse for everyday use, as offered to one for a special purpose hunting, racing, JOS Hackle. Half-breed. polo. (4) (Cambridge Univ.), ' Hacks ; Hack preachers ; the common exhibi- tioners at St. Mary's, employed in the service of defaulters and absentees.' Also huckster. As verb, to kick shins. Hacking, the practice of kick- ing shins at football. Hackle. Pluck, spirit, bottom (q.v.). To show hackle, to show fight. Hackslaver. To stammer, splutter, hesitate in speech. Hackum (Captain Hackum, or Hackster). A bully, bravo : see Furioso (1657). Had. See Have. Haddock. 1. A purse. Had- dock of beans, & purse of money (1598). 2. In pi., North of Scotland Ordinary Stock. Hag (old : now recognised). (.1) A witch. Whence (2) an ugly old woman ; a she-monster. Also (3) a nightmare. At Charterhouse, a female of any description ; at Win- chester, a matron. Hence, Hag- ridden, troubled with nightmare ; hag born, witch born ; hag-seed (Shakes- peare, ' Tempest ' ), spawned of a witch ; hag-faced, foul-featured (1529). Your hag-ship! in contempt (of women). Hag-finder. A witch finder (1637). Hagged. Ugly, gaunt, hag - like (1696). Haggisland. Scotland. Haggle. To bargain keenly, stick at (or out for) trumpery points, debate small issues (1696). Haggler. Formerly a travel- ling merchant, a pedlar : now (in London vegetable markets) a middle- man (1662). Hail. To raise hail (Ned, Cain, or Hell), to make a disturbance ; to kick up a row. To be hail fellow well met, to be on very easy terms : also at hail fellow (1574). To be hailed for the last time, to die : see Aloft, Hop the twig. Hair. To go against the hair, to go against the grain, contrary to nature (1589). Both of a hair, very much alike, two of a trade, two in a tale. Not worth a hair, utterly worth- less : cf. Cent, Rap, Dump, etc. To a hair, exactly, to a nicety ; to fit to a hair, to fit perfectly ( 1697). To split hairs, to cavil about trifles, quibble, be over-nice in argument ( 1 693). Suit of hair : see Head of hair. To raise (or lift) hair, to scalp ; hence, idiom- atically, to defeat, kill ; to keep one's hair, to escape a danger. To comb one's hair, to castigate, monkey (q.v.). To hold (or keep) one's hair (or wool) on, to keep one's temper, avoid excite- ment, take things calmly : also, to keep one's shirt on, or, pull down one's jacket (or vest) : Fr., etre calme et inodore. A hair of the black bear (or b'ar), a spice of the devil. To make one's hair stand on end, to astonish (1697). A hair of the dog that bit one, a pick-me-up after a debauch. [Ap- parently a memory of the superstition, which was and still is common, that, being bitten by a dog, one cannot do better than pluck a handful of hair from him, and lay it on the wound.] (1531). Hair-butcher. A barber. Hair-pin. An individual, male or female : e.g. That's the sort of hair- pin I am, that's my style. Hairy. 1. Difficult. 2. Splendid, famous, conspicuous, uncommon. Halbert. To get the halbert, to rise to sergeant's rank : (the weapon was carried by sergeants of foot). To be brought to the halberts, to be flogged ; to carry the halbert in one's face, to show that one rose from the ranks (of officers in .commission) (1785). Half. It's half past kissing time and time to kiss again, the retort im- pudent (to females) when asked the time : a snatch from a ballad. [In Swift, Polite Conversation, an hour past hanging time.] Half - a - crack (jiffy, or tick). Half a second. Half-and-half. Equal quantities of ale and porter : cf. Four-half and Drinks (1824). As adj., half-drunk, half-on (q.v.): see Screwed. Half- and-half-coves (men, boys, etc.), cheap or linsey-woolsey dandies, half -bucks (q.v.), half -tigers (q.v.). Half-an-eye. To see with half an eye, to discern readily, be quick at conclusions. Half-baked (or Soft-baked). Half- witted, cracked, soft (q.v.), doughy (q.v.), half -rocked (q.v.): Fr., n' avoir pas la tte bien cuite (1825). Half-breed. A nickname ap- plied to certain New York Republicans who wavered in their allegiance during an election to the Senate in 1881 (Norton). 209 Half-cocked. Half - cocked. Half-drunk : see Screwed. To go off at half-cock (or half -cocked), to fail through hasty and ill-considered endeavours. Half-cracked. Lacking in intel- ligence. Half-crown Word. A difficult or uncommon vocable, jaw-breaker (q.v.), crack-jaw : see Sleeveboard. Half - crowner. A publication costing 2s. 6d. H a 1 f - c u t. Half -drunk : see Screwed. Half -fly Flat ( 1 ) A thief s jackal ; (2) a man (or woman) hired to do rough of dirty work. Half - grown Shad. A dolt : see Buffle. Half Laugh and Purser's Grin. A sneer, a half - and - half meaning (Clark Russell). Halflings. Betwixt and between: usually of a boy or girl just past childhood (1818). Half - man. A landsman rated asA.B. Half - marrow. 1. A faithless spouse ; also a parcel husband or wife (1600). 2. An incompetent seaman. Half-moon. A wig (1611). Half - mourning. A black eye. Putt-mourning, two black eyea, deep grief. Half-nab (or nap). At a venture, unsight unseen, hit or miss (Moore Carew). Half-on. Half-drunk. Half-rocked. Half-witted, silly: a West Country saying is that all idiots are nursed bottom upwards. Half-saved. Weak-minded, shallow- brained. Half-screwed. More or less in liquor : see Screwed. Half-seas Over. Loosely applied to various degrees of inebriety : for- merly, half way on one's course, or towards attainment : see Screwed. [In its specific sense Gifford says, A corruption of the Dutch op-zee zober, over-sea beer, a strong heady beverage introduced into Holland from Eng- land. Up-zee Freese is Friezeland beer. The German zauber means strong beer, and bewitchment. Thus (1610) in Jonson, Alchemist, iv. 2. I do not like the dulness of your eye, It hath a heavy cast, 'tis upsee Dutch. Other nautical terms drunk are Water-logged, Sprung, Slewed, With one's jib well bowsed, Three sheets in the wind, Channels under, etc.] Half-slewed. Parcel drunk : see Screwed. Half - snacks (or Half - snags). Half -shares (1683). Half-'un. Half a glass of spirit and water, half-a-go (q.v.). Half - widow. A woman with a lazy and thriftless husband. Halifax. Go to Halifax, be off! The full text is Go to Hell, Hull, or Halifax: cf. Bath, Blazes, Hull, Putney, etc. (1599). Hall. 1. Specifically The Hall, Leadenhall Market : cf. Garden Lane, etc. 2. (Oxford Univ.). Dinner: which is taken in College halL To hall, to dine. Go and hire a hall, a retort upon loquacious bores. Hall by the sea, the Examination Hall of the conjoined Board of the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons: situate on the Embankment at the foot of the Waterloo Bridge. Hall of delight, a music hall. Hallan-shaker (or Hallen-shaker). A vagabond, sturdy beggar (1503). Halliballo. See'Hulhballo. Hallion (or Hallyon). (1) A rogue, a clod, a gentleman's servant out of livery ; also (2) a shrew. Halloo. To halloo with the under dog, to take the losing side. Halo. To work the halo racket, to grumble, be dissatisfied : from the story of the saint in Heaven who got dissatisfied with his nimbus. Haltersack. A gallows - bird : a general term of reproach and con- tempt (1598). Halves (Winchester College) : (pro. Haves). Half - Wellington boots, which were strictly non licet (obs.). Notions. To go (or cry) halves, to take (or claim) a half share or chance : in America at the halves (1831), Ham. 1. (in. pi.) Trousers : also Ham-cases: see Kicks (1725). 2. A loafer : also Ham-fatter : also (Ameri- can Slang Diet.), a tenth-rate actor or variety performer. No ham and all hominy, of indifferent quality, no great shakes, all work and no play, much cry and little wool. Hamlet. A high constable, a chief of police (American). Ham-match. A stand - up luncheon. Hammer. 1. A hard-hitter : 210 Hammer-and-tongs. Handbasket-portion. especially a right-handed slogger, like Hammer Lane : also Hammerer and Hammer- man. 2. An unblushing Jlie. As verb, (1) to beat, punish (q.v.) ; (2) to bate, to drive down (prices, etc.); (3) to declare one a defaulter. Down as a hammer, (I) wide-awake, know- ing (q.v.), fly (q.v.) ; (2) instant, peremptory, merciless : cf. Like a thousand of bricks : also To be down ora ... like a hammer. At (or under) the hammer, for sale at auction. That's the hammer, an expression of approval or assent. To be hammers to one, to know what one means. To hammer out (or into), to be at pains to deceive, to reiterate, to force to hear (1596). Hammer - and - tongs. Violently, ding-dong (1781). Hammer - headed. 1. Oafish^ stupid (1600). 2. Hammer-shaped: i.e. long and narrow in the head. Hammering. 1. A beating, ex- cessive punishment (q.v.); 2. over- charging time-work (as corrections). Hammering-trade. Pugilism. Hammersmith. To go to Hammer- smith, to get a sound drubbing. Hampered (old : now recognised). Let or hindered, perplexed, entangled. Hampstead Donkey. A louse : see Chates. Hampstead-heath. 5,The teeth : see Grinders. Hampstead - heath Sailor. A landlubber (q.v.) ; freshwater sailor (q.v.) : Fr., marin d'eau douce or amiral Suisse (Swiss admiral : Switzer- land having no seaboard). Hanced. In liquor: see Screwed. (1630). Hand. 1. Properly a seaman : now a labourer, workman, agent (1658). 2. A light touch, sleight, knack, skill. Phrases : A good (cool, neat, old, fine, etc.) hand, an expert (1748). A hand like a foot, a large coarse hand ; also vulgar or uneducated handwriting (1738). A hand like a fist, , a hand full of trumps ; also (in derision) a hand there's no playing ; to take a hand with the outside music, to join in a free fight ; to get a hand on, to suspect, be distrustful ; to get one's hand in, to practise with a view to proficiency ; to bear a hand, to make haste ; to stand one's hand, to treat (q.v.), to stand Sam (q.v.) ; to hand in one's chips (or checks), see Cash one's checks ; to have (or get) the upper hand, to have at an advantage, get to windward (q.v.) ; to hand up (Winchester College), to give information against, betray (Notions) ; hands up 1 an injunction to desist, stow it ! (q.v.) : also (police), a command to surrender, bail up (q.v.). Amongst other colloquial usages of hand are the following : At hand, readily, hard by, At any hand (Shakespeare), on any account, At no hand, on no account, For one's own hand, for one's own purpose or interest, From hand to hand, from one to another, in hand, in a state of preparation, under consideration, or control ; Off one's hands, finished, On hand, in possession, In one's hands, in one's care, Out of hand, completed, without hesitation, To one's hand, ready, Hand over head, negligently, rashly, Hand to mouth, improvident, Hands off I stand off, Heavy on hand, hard to manage, Hot at hand, difficult to manage, Light in hand, easy to manage, To ask (or give) the hand of, to ask, (or give) in marriage, to be hand in glove with, to be very intimate with, To bear a hand, to help, To bear in (or on) hand, to cheat or mock by false promises, To change hands, to change owners, to come to hand, to be received, To get hand, to gain influence, To give a hand, to applaud, To give the hand to, to be reconciled to, To have a hand in, to have a share in, To have one's hands full, to be fully occupied, To hold hands with, to vie with, to hold one's own, To lay hands on, to assault, to seize, To\lend a hand,to help, To make a hand, to gain an advantage, To put (or stretch) forth the hand against, to use violence, To set the hand to, to undertake, To strike hands, to make a bargain, To take by the hand, to take under one's guidance, To take in hand, to attempt, To wash one's hands of, to disclaim responsibility, A heavy hand, severity, A light hand, gentleness, A slack hand, idleness, care- lessness, A strict hand, severe discip- line, Clean hands, freedom from guilt, To stand one in hand, to concern, to be of importance to, Hand to fist, tete-a-tete, hip to haunch, Hand over hand, easily, To get a hand, to be applauded.] Hand - and - pocket Shop. An eating house, where ready money is paid for what is called for. Handbasket - portion. A woman 211 Handbinder. whose husband receives frequent present from her father, or family, is said to have a hand-basket portion. Handbinder. A wrist - chain : see Darbies. Hander. A stroke on the hand with a cane, a palmie (q.v.). Handicap. An arrangement in racing, etc., by which every com- petitor is, or is supposed to be, brought on an equality as far as regards ms chance of winning by an adjustment of the weights to be carried, the distance to be run, etc. : extra weight or dis- tance being imposed in proportion to their supposed merits on those held better than the others. [A handicap is framed in accordance with the known performances of the competi- tors, and, in horse - racing, with regard to the age and sex of J the entries. The term is derived from the old game of hand-in-cap, or handicap.] (1660). As verb, (1) to adjust or proportion weights, starts, etc., in order to bring a number of competitors as nearly as possible to an equality ; (2) to make even or level, equalise between ; (3) to embarrass, burden, hinder, or impede in any way. Handle. 1. The nose : see Conk. 2. A title : Fr., queue, as Monsieur Sansqueue, Mr. Nobody (1865). 3. Occasion, opportunity, means (1753). As verb, (1) to conceal cards in the palm of the hand or up the sleeves, palm (q.v.) ; (2) to use, make use of, manage ( 1606). To handle the ribbons, to drive ( 1857). To fly off the handle : see Fly. Hand-me-downs (or Hand- ' em-downs). Second - hand clothes. Hand-me-down shop (or Never-too-late- to-mend-shop), a repairing tailor's : Fr., decrochez-moi-ra. English syno- nyms : reach-me-downs, translations, wall-flowers. Hand-out Food to a tramp at the door. Handpiece. A handkerchief, wipe (q.v.). Handsaw. A street vendor of knives and razors, chive- fencer (q.v.). Handsome. Sharp, severe, con- venient, fit, neat, graceful, dextrous, skilful, ready, ample, generous, liberal, manageable, in good or proper style, and (in America) grand or beautiful (1553). To do the handsome (or the handsome thing), to behave extremely well, be civil ; handsome is that hand- some does, actions, not words, arc the test of merit ; also ironically of ill- favoured persons (1811); handsome- bodied in the face, jeering commenda- tion of an ugly follow ; handsome as a last year's corpse, a sarcastic compli- ment ; handsomely I gently ! a cry to signify smartly, but carefully. Abo handsomely over the bricks, go cauti- ously. Handsome - reward. A horse- whipping. Handsprings. To chuck hand- springs, to turn somersaults. Handy. Handy as a pocket in a shirt, very convenient : also derisively. Handy-blows (or cuffs). Fisti- cuffs ; hence close quarters (1603). Handy-man. A servant or work- man doing odd jobs (1847). Hang. 1. General drift, tendency or bent : as in to get the hang of, to get conversant with, to acquire the trick, or knack, or knowledge of (1847). 2. A little bit, a bit : see Care. As verb, (generally Hang it !), an exclamation of vexation, disgust, or disappointment ; also, more forcibly, a euphemistic oath (1598). To hang in, to get to work, do one's best, wire in (q.v.); to hang in the bettropes, to defer marriage after being asked in church ; to hang on by one's eyelashes, to persist at any cost, and in the teeth of any discouragement ; to hang on by the splashboard, to catch a tram, omnibus, etc., when it is on the move ; hence to succeed by the skin of one's teeth : Fr., arcpincer V omnibus ;t to hang around (or about), to loiter, loaf, haunt ; to hang out, to live, reside : also (subs.), a residence, lodging ; and (American University) a feast, entertainment ; to hang out a shingle, to start or carry on business ; to hang one's latchpan, to be dejected, to pout : Fr., faire son aquilin ; to hang it out, to skulk, mike (q.v.) ; to hang up, (1) to give credit, score (or chalk) up : said of a reckon- ing : also to put on the slate, or (Ameri- can) on the ice (q.v.) (1725); (2) to bear in mind, remember ; (3) to pawn ; (4) to rob with violence on the street, hold up (q.v.) : Fr., la faire au pere Francois ; (5) to be in extremis, know not which way to turn for relief : e.g. a man hanging, one to whom any change must be for the better ; (6) to postpone, leave undecided ; to 212 Hang-bluff. Happy Hunting-grounds. hang on, (1) to sponge, and (2) to pursue an individual or a design (1601) ; to hang off, to fight shy off; to hang up one's fiddle, to retire, desist ; to hang up one's fiddle anywhere, to adapt oneself to circumstances; to hang up one's hat (1) to die : see Hop the twig ; (2) to make oneself per- manently at home. Hang-bluff. Snuff. Hang-by. A hanger-on, parasite, companion (1598). Hang-dog. A pitiful rascal, only fit for the rope for the hanging of superfluous curs : cf. Gallows - bird (1732). As adj., vile, suspicious in aspect, gallows-looking (q.v.). Hang - gallows. A thievish, or villainous appearance (Grose). Hanger. A side-arm short sword or cutlass hanging from the girdle. Also in pi., (1) ornamental loops from the girdle to suspend the sword and dagger (1596); (2) gloves, specifically gloves in the hand : (3) see Pothooks. Hang-in-chains. A vile, desperate fellow (Grose). Hanging. Fit for the halter. Hanging - bee. A gathering lynch-lawmongers, bent on the appli- cation of the rope. Hangman. A jocular endear- ment (1600). Hangman 's-day. Monday, and (in America) Friday. Hangman's - wages. Thirteen- pence-halfpenny. [The fee for an execution was a Scots mark : the value of which piece was settled, by a proclamation of James I., at 13d.] (1602). Hang - slang about. To abuse, slang (q.v.), Billingsgate (q.v.). Hank. 1. A tie, hold, advantage, difficulty. In a hank, in trouble (1696). 2. A spell of rest, easy time. As verb, to worry, bait, drive from pillar to post. Hanker. To desire eagerly, fret after, long or pine for : generally with after. Also, hankering, an impor- tunate and irritating longing (1696). Hankin. The trick of putting off bad work for good : cf . To play hanky- panky. Hanktelo. A silly fellow, a mere Codshead (B. E.), Hanky-panky. (1) Legerdemain ; whence (2) trickery, underhand (q.v.) work, cheating, any manner of double- dealing or intrigue. Hanky - panky business, conjuring; hanky-panky work (or tricks), double-dealing. A bit of hanky - panky, a trick ; a piece of knavery (1841). Hanky-panky-bloke. A conjurer. Hanky-spanky. Dashing, nobby (q.v.) : specifically of well-cut clothes. Hannah. That's the man aa married Hannah, That's the thing : used of a thing well begun and well ended ; or as an expressive of certainty. Varied sometimes by That's what's the matter with Hannah. Hansel (or Handsel). The first money taken in the morning, lucky money. Hence earnest money, first- fruits, etc. Hansel-Monday, the first Monday in the new year, when pre- sents were received by children and servants (1587). As verb, (1) to give handsel to ; also (2) to use for the first time. Hanseller. A street vendor, cheap Jack. Hans-en-Kelder. A child in the womb : literally Jack - in - the - cellar (q.v.) (1647). Hansom. A chop. Hap - harlot. A coarse stuff to make rugs or coverlets with, a rug : cf. Wrap-rascal, an overcoat (1577). Ha'porth o' Coppers. Habeas Corpus. Ha'porth of Liveliness. 1. Music. 2. A loitering Lawrence, slowcoach (q.v.). Happify. To please (1612). Happy. Slightly drunk, elevated (q.v.): see Screwed. Happy - despatch. Death, speci- fically a sudden or violent end. Happy-dosser. See Dosser. Happy Eliza. A female Salva- tionist : as in the Broadside Ballad (1887-8), They call me Happy Eliza, and I'm Converted Jane : We've been two hot 'uns in our time. Happy - family. Assemblages of animals of diverse habits and pro- pensities living amicably, or at least quietly, in one cage. Happy-go-lucky. Carelese,thought- less, improvident. Happy Hunting - grounds. 1. The future state ; glory (q.v.) : from the North-American Indian's con- ception of heaven. 2. A favourable place for v/ork or play. 213 Happy-land. Hard-up. Happy-land. The after life, glory (q.v.). Happy-returns. Vomiting. Hard. 1. Hard labour. 2. See Hard-shell. 3. Third-class : aa op- posed to soft (q.v.). Thus : Do you go hard or soft T Do you go Third or First ? As adj., (1) applied to metal of all kinds : e.g. hard (cole or stuff), silver or gold as compared to cheques or soft (q.v.) (1825). (2) sour or souring, as in hard-cider ; (3) hard drinks (American), intoxicating liquors, as wine, ale, etc., while lemon- ade, soda-water, ginger-beer, etc., are soft (1696). Phrases: Hard as a bone (nails, etc.), very hard, austere, unyielding ; hard at it, very busy, in the thick of a piece of work ; to die hard, to sell one's life dearly ; e.g. The Die-hards (q.v.), the 59th Regi- ment, so called from their gallantry at Albuera ; also in many combina- tions, generally with an unplea- sant intention, thus Hard-fisted (or handed), very niggardly ; hard - bit (or hard-mouthful), an unpleasant ex- perience ; hard-driven (or hard-run), sore bested ; hard-faced (favoured, or featured), grim, shrewish, or bony ; hard-headed (or hard-witted), shrewd and intelligent, but unimaginative and unsympathetic ; hard-hearted, in- capable of pity ; hard-lipped, obstinate, dour ; hard-master, a nigger - driver ; hard - nut, a dangerous antagonist ; hard-on, pitiless in severity ; hard- riding, selfish and reckless equestra- tion ; hard - service, the worst kind of employment ; hard-wrought, over- worked, etc., etc. Hard-a-weather. Tough, weather- proof. Hard -bake. A sweetmeat made of boiled brown sugar or treacle with blanched almonds. Hard-baked. 1. Constipated. 2. Stern, unflinching, strong. Hard - bargain (or Case). 1. A lazy fellow, bad-egg (q.v.), skulker. One of the Queen's hard bargains, a bad soldier. 2. A defaulting debtor. 3. A brutal mate or officer : also Hard-horse. Hard - bitten. Resolute, Game (q.v.), desperate (1815). Hard-cheese. Hard lines, bad luck : specifically at billiards. Hard-cole. See Hard and Cole. Hard-doings. ( 1 ) Rough fare ; and (2) hard work (1848). Hard-drinking. Drinking to excess (1696). Hard-head. A man of good parts, physical, intellectual, or moral (1824). Hard-hit To be hard hit, (1) to have experienced a heavy loss, as over a race, at cards, etc. ; (2) to be deeply in love, completely gone on (q.v.). Hard-lines. Hardship, difficulty, an unfortunate result or occurrence. Hard-mouthed. Difficult to deal with, wilful, obstinate : also coarse in speech (1686). Hard - neck. Brazen impudence, monumental cheek (q.v.). Hard-pan. The lowest point, bed-rock (q.v.). To get down to hard pan, to buckle to, get to business. Hard - puncher. The fur cap as worn by the London rough : formerly worn by men in training : a modi- fication of the Scotch cap with a peak. [From the nickname of a noted pugilist] Hard-pushed. In difficulties, hard- up (q.v.). Hard put to. In a difficulty monetary or other : e.g. He'd bo hard put to it to find a sovereign (or a word, or an excuse), It would take him all his time, etc. Hard-row. See Row. Hard - run. In want of money, hard-up (q.v.). Hard - shell. 1. A member of an extreme section of Baptists holding very strict and rigid views. [The Soft-shells are of more liberal mind.] Also Hards and Softs (1848). 2. (political American). A division of the Democratic Party in 1846-48, when the Hunkers (q.v.) received the name of Hards and their opponents, the Barnburners (q.v.), that of Softs (1847). As adj., extremely ortho- dox, unyielding, hide-bound. Hard-stuff. 1. Money. 2. Intoxi- cating liquors : see Hard (adj., sense 2). Hard -tack. 1. Ship's biscuits: specifically ordinary sea-fare as dis- tinguished from food ashore, or soft- tommy (q.v.) (1841). 2. Coarse or insufficient fare. Hard - up. 1. A collector of cigar- ends, a topper-hunter (q.v.). The refuse, untwisted and chopped up, is sold to the very poor : sometimes Hard-cut: FT., mfgottier. 2. A poor man, a stony-broke (q.v.) (1857). 214 Hard-upness. Harum-scarum. As adv. phr., 1. very badly in want of money, in urgent need of anything: also Hard - run and Hard - pushed (1809). English synonyms: many of the synonyms for floored apply equally to hard-up ; others are, at low - water - mark, cracked up, dead- broke, down on one's luck, fast, in Queer Street, in the last of pea time, in the last run of shad, low down, low in the lay, oofless, out of favour with the oof - bird, pebble - beached, seedy, short, sold-up, stony-broke, strapped, stuck, stumped, suffering from an attack of the week's (or month's) end, tight, on one's uppers, under a cloud, on one's beam ends. 2. Intoxicated : see Screwed. 3. (Winchester College). Out of counten- ance, exhausted (in swimming). Hard - upness (or Hard - uppish- ness). Poverty, a condition of im- poverishment. Hardware (or Hard). Counter- feit com (Matsdl). Hardware - bloke. A native of Birmingham, a Brum (q.v.). Hardy-annual. A bill that is brought before Parliament every year, but never passed into law; hence (journalistic), any stock subject. Hare. To dodge, double, be- wilder (1719). To hare it, to retrace one's steps, double back : from the way of a hare with the hounds ; to make a hare of, to make ridiculous, expose the ignorance of any person (1830) ; to swallow a hare, to get very drunk : see Screwed (1696) ; to hold with the hare and hunt with the hounds, to play a double game, keep on good terms with two conflicting parties (1696). To kiss the hare's foot, to be late, be a day after the fair, kiss the post. Hare-brained (or Hair-brained). Reckless, nighty, impudent, skittish : also, substantively, hare-brain, a hare- brained person (1534). Hared. Hurried. Hare-sleep. Sham slumber, foxes' sleep (q.v.) (1696). Harking. Whispering on one side to borrow money (B. E.). Harlequin. 1. A sovereign : see Rhino. 2. (Winchester College), the wooden nucleus of a red indiarubber ball. 3. A patchwork quilt. Har- lequin china, sets composed of several patterns and makes. Harlotry. A wanton (1529). As adj., disreputable. Harman-beck (or , Harman). An officer of justice : see Beak (1567). Harmans. The stocks : the suffix mans is common lightmans, dark- mans, roughmans, etc. (1567). Harness. In harness, in business, at work : as, to die in harness, to die at one's post ; to get back into harness, to resume work after a holiday. Harp. Harp is also the Irish ex- pression for woman or tail, used in tossing up in Ireland, from Hibernia being represented with a harp, on the reverse of the copper coins of that country, for which reason it is in hoist- ing the copper, i.e. tossing up, some- times likewise called music (Grose). To harp on, to dwell persistently and at any cost upon a subject (1596). Harper. A brass coin current in Ireland, temp. Elizabeth, value one penny : from the Irish Harp figured upon it. Have among you my blind harpers, an expression used in throw- ing or shooting at random among a crowd (Grose). Harridan. Orig. a foundered wanton : hence, a miserable, scraggy, worn-out woman (Grose). Harrington. A brass farthing. [Lord Harrington obtained a patent of manufacture under James I.] (1616). Harry. 1. A countryman, clown, Joskin. 2. See 'Arry. Old Harry, the devil (1693). Harry of the West, Henry Clay. To play old Harry, to annoy, ruin, play the devil. Tom, Dick, and Harry, generic for any and everybody, the mob. Harry-bluff. Snuff. Harry-common. A general wencher (1675). Harry - soph (Cambridge Univ. : obsolete). ' A Harry or errant Soph, I understand to be either a person, four- and-twenty years of age, and of an infirm state of health, who is per- mitted to dine with the fellows, and to wear a plain, black, full-sleeved gown ; or, else, he is one who, having kept all the terms by statute required previous to his law-act, is hoc ipso facto entitled to wear the same gar- ment, and, thenceforth, ranks as bachelor, by courtesy' (Gent. Mag.). Harum-scarum. 1. Giddy, care- less, wild, a thoughtless or reckless 215 flair. fellow (1740). 2. Four bones driven in a line, suicide (q.v.). Has-been. Anything antiquated : spec, in commendation, aa the good old Has-beens : of. Never was. Hash. 1. A mess ; spec, in the phrase To make a hash of : sixes- ancl sevens (1747). 2. Clandestine preparation for supper after hours (American cadets). 3. A sloven, blockhead (Burns). As verb, (1) to spoil, jumble, cook up and serve again ; (2) to vomit : also to flash the hash (q.v.). To go back on one's hash, to turn, succumb, weaken (q.v.) Hash - house. A cheap eating- house, grubbing -crib (q.v.). Haslar-hag. A nurse at Haslar Hospital Hastings. To be none of the Hastings sort, to be slow, deliberate, slothful (1696). Hasty. Rash, passionate, quick to move (1696: now recognised). Hasty O., hasty generalisation (Cambridge). Hasty pudding. 1. A bastard. 2. A muddy road, a quag (1811). Hat (Cambridge Univ.). 1. A gentleman commoner (who is per- mitted to wear a hat instead of the regulation mortar-board) : also Gold- Hatband (1628). 2. A prostitute of long standing. Phrases : To eat one's hat (or head), generally in phrase, FU eat my hat, used in strong emphasis ; to get a hat : see Hat-trick ; tb get into the hat, to get into trouble ; to have a brick in one's hat, to be top-heavy with drink : see Screwed ; to hang up one's hat : see Hang ; to pass (or send) round the hat, to make a collection ; to talk through one's hat, to rag, huff, bluster ; all round my hat, a derisive retort from a broadside ballad, popu- lar c. 1830 : All round my hat I wear a green willow, All round my hat for a twelvemonth and a day, And if anyone should ask you the reason why I wear it, Tell them my true love is gone far away ; sung to a tune adapted from a number in Zampa : also, all over, com- pletely, generally ; shoot that hat I & derisive retort : also Fll have your hat I well, you can take my hat / Well, that beats me, i.e. that is past belief ; what a shocking bad hat, said to have originated with a candidate for parliamentary honours, who made the remark to his poorer constituents and promised them new head-gear. Hatch. To be under hatches, to be in a state of trouble, poverty, or de- pression : also dead (1606). Hatchet. 1. An ill-favoured woman. 2. A bribe received by Customs officers in New York for per- mitting imported dutiable goods to remain on the wharf when they ought to go to the general store-house. To bury (or dig up) the hatchet : see Bury. To throw (or sling) the hatchet, ( 1 ) to tell lies, yarn, draw the long bow (q.v.) ; hence hatchet flinging (or throwing), lying or yarning (1789). To sulk. Hatchet - faced. Hard - favoured, ugly (B. E.). Hatch, Match, and Dispatch Column. The births, marriages, and deaths announcements : also Cradle, Altar, and Tomb Column. Hatchway. The mouth : see Potato-trap. Hate -out. To boycott, send to Coventry. Hatfield. A drink : the chief in- gredients are gin and ginger-beer. Hatful. A large quantity, heap (1859). Hatpeg. The head: see Crumpet Hatter. A gold-digger working alone. Who's your hatter f a catch-cry long out of vogue. Mad as a hatter, very mad. Hat-trick. Taking three wickets with three consecutive balls : which feat is held to entitle the bowler to a new hat at the cost of the club. Hat- work. Hack work, such stuff as may be turned out by the yard without reference to quality. Haulable (University). Used of a girl whose society authorities deem undesirable for the men : e.g. she's haulable, a man caught with her will be proctorised. Haul-bowline. A seaman. Haul-devil. A clergyman, devil- dodger, sky-pilot. Haul devil, pull baker : see DeviL :Haut-boy (or Ho -boy). A night scavenger, jakesman, gold - finder (q.v.). Have. 1. A swindle, take-in (q.v.), do (q.v.): see Sell. 2. In pi., The moneyed classes, as opposed to the have-nots, their antipodes. 3. (in pi.) (Winchester College). Half- boots : pronounced Haves. Is that a catch or a have ? a formula of ac- knowledgment that the speaker has 216 Haver cake-lads. Head. been had : if the person addressed be unwise enough to answer with a defini- tion, the dovetail is a vulgar retort. As verb, to cheat, take-in, do. To have (or take) it out of one, to punish, retaliate, extort a quid pro quo, give tit for tat ; to have it out with one, to speak freely in reproof, complete an explanation, settle a dispute with either words or blows ; to have on, to secure a person's interest, attention, sympathy : generally with a view to deceiving him (or her) ; to have towards (or with or at), (1) to pledge in drink- ing, toast (1637) ; (2) to agree with ; to have on toast, (1) to take in; (2) worst in argument ; to have on the raws, to teaze, touch to the quick ; to let one have it, to punish severely ; to have up, to bring before the authori- ties ; to summons (q.v.). Havercake-lads. The Thirty-third Foot, now the first battalion of the Duke of Wellington's (West Riding Regiment). [From the circumstance that its recruiting sergeants always preceded their party with an oatcake on their swords.] Havey-cavey. Uncertain, doubtful, shilly-shally (1811). Havil. A sheep, wool-bird (1811). H a v o c k. Devastation, waste (B. E.). Hawcubite. A roysterer, street bully. [After the Restoration there was a succession of these disturbers of the peace : first came the Muns, then followed the Tityre Tus, the Hectors, the Scourers, the Nickers, the Haw- cubites, and after them the Mohawks (q.v.).] Hawk. 1. A card-sharper, rook (q.v.) (1696). 2. A bailiff, constable : see Beak. As verb, To spit up the thick phlegm, called oysters, whence it is wit upon record to ask the person so doing whether he has a license, a punning allusion to the act of hawkers and pedlars (Grose). Ware hawk ! A warning: look sharp! (1529). Hawk-a-mouthed. Foul-mouthed. Hawker. A pedlar : now re- cognised (1696). Hawk-eye state. Iowa : after the famous Indian chief. Hawse. To fall athwart one's hawse, to obstruct, fall out with, counter and check. Hawse-holes. To come (or creep) in through the hawse-holes, to enter the service at the lowest grade, rise from the forecastle (1830). Hay. To make hay, to throw into confusion, turn topsy-turvy, knock to pieces in argument or single combat : also to kick up a row. To dance the hay, to make good use of one's time. Hay - bag. A woman : Fr., pail- laisse. Hay-band. A common cigar, a weed. Haymarket-hector. A prostitute's bully. Haymarket - ware. A common prostitute. Hay-pitcher (or Hay - seed). A countryman : cf. Gape-seed (1851). Hays ! An injunction to be gone, Git (q.v.). Haze. Bewilderment, confusion, fog (q.v.). As verb, (1) to play tricks or practical jokes, frolic : hence Hazing : also to mystify, fog (q.v.), (2) To harass with overwork or paltry orders : also to find fault (1840). Hazel-geld. To beat any one with a hazel-stick or plant (B. E.). Hazy. Stupid with drink, mixed (q.v.) : see Screwed (1824). He (Charterhouse). A cake. A young he, a small cake : see She. Head. 1. A man-of-war's privy. 2. The obverse of a coin or medal. Heads or tails ? Guess whether the coin spun will come down with head upper- most or not (the side not bearing the sovereign's head has various devices : Britannia, George and the Dragon, a harp, the Royal arms, an inscription, etc. all included in the word tail, i.e. the reverse of head. The Romans said Heads or ships ?) (1680). 3. An arrangement of the hair, a coiffure (1773). Phrases: To have at one's head, to cuckold (1640) ; to take one in the head, to come into one's mind (1609); to do on head, to act rashly (1559); to do on one's head, to do easily and with joy ; to fly at the head, to attack, go for (q.v.) (1614); to eat one's head : see Hat ; to eat one's (or if a) head off, to cost more than the worth in keep (1703) ; to run on head, to incite (1556) ; to give one's head (or one's beard) for washing, to yield tamely and without resistance : Fr., laver la tele, to reprimand, admonish with point, energy, and force (1615); to put a head (or new head) on one, (1) to change a man's aspect by punching 217 Head. Heap. his head : hence, to get the better of Bone's opponent, annihilate : also to put a new face on ; (2) to froth malt liquors : e.g. Put a head on it, Miss, addressed to the barmaid, is a request to work the engine briskly, and make the liquor take on a cauli- flower (q.v.) ; heads I win, tails you lose, a gage of certainty In no case can I fail : I hold all the trumps ; to get the head into chancery, to get the other fighter's head under one arm and hold it there : hence Chancery, a position of helplessness (1819); (2) hence to get, or be got, into a posture of absolute helplessness ; to knock on the head, to Mil, destroy, put an end to ; to get (or put) the head in a bag : see Bag ; to get (or have) a swelling in the (or a big-) head, to be or become con- ceited, put on airs ; to hit the right nail on the head, to speak or act with pre- cision and directness, do the right thing : the colloquialism is common to most languages : the French say, Vous avez frappe au but (You have hit the mark) ; the Italians, Havete dato in brocca (You have hit the pitcher : alluding to a game where a pitcher stood in the place of Aunt Sally, q.v.) : the Latins, Rem acu tetigisti, (You have touched the thing with a needle : referring to the custom of probing sores) (1719); to argue (or talk) one's head off, to be extremely disputative or loquacious, to be all jaw (q.v.) ; to bundle out head (or neck) and heels, to eject with violence ; to have no head, (1) to lack ballast, be crack-brained: hence, to have a head on, to be cute, or alert, have sand (q.v.) ; (2) to be flat (of malt-liquors) ; to have a head, to experience the after- effects of heavy drinking (cf. Mouth) ; also to have a head-ache : see Screwed ; to give one his head, to give one full and free play, let go ; to nave maggots in the head, to be crotchety, whimsical, freakish, have a bee in one's bonnet ; to hurt in the head, to cuckold, cornute ; to lie heads and tails, to sleep packed sardine fashion, i.e. heads to head- rail and foot-rail alternately ; over head and ears (in work, love, debt, etc.) completely engrossed in, infatuated with, to the fullest extent (1589); without head or tail, incoherent, neither one thing nor the other : e.g. I can't make head or tail of it, I cannot make it out (1728); to have a head like a sieve, to be unreliable, forgetful ; heads out I a warning cry on the ap- proach of a master ; mutton-head (or headed) : see Mutton-head ; fat (or soft) in the head, stupid ; off one's head, stupid, crazy ; shut your head, hold your jaw. Head-beetler. ( 1 ) A bully ; and (2) a foreman, ganger (q.v.). Head-bloke. See Head-screw. Head - bully (or cully). Head bully of the pass or passage bank, ' The Top Tilter of the Gang, throughout the whole Army, who Demands and receives Contribution from all the Pass Banks in the Army ' (B. E. and Grose). Head - cook and bottle - washer. 1. A general servant : in contempt. 2. One in authority, boss (q.v.). Head -clerk. Head clerk of dox- ology works, a parson. Header. A notability, big- wig (q.v. ). To take a header, ( 1 ) to plunge, or fall, headforemost, into water : and (theatrical), to take an apparently dangerous leap in sensational drama. Hence (2), to go straight and directly for one's object (1856). Head-fruit. Horns (1694). Head-guard. A hat : specifically a billy-cock. Heading. A pillow, any rest for the head. Heading 'em, tossing coins in gambling : in allusion to the head on the coin. Head-marked. Horned. To know by head-mark, to know a cuckold by his horns. Head-rails. The teeth: see Grinders (Grose). Head - robber. 1. A plagiarist. 2. A butler. Head-screw (or bloke). A chief warder. Heady. 1. Heady, strong liquors that immediately fly up into the noddle, and so quickly make drunk (B. E.). 2. Restive, full of arrogance and airs, opinionated. Heady-whop. A person with a very large head. Healtheries. The Health Exhibi- tion, held at South Kensington : others of the series were nicknamed The Fisheries, The Colinderies, The Forestries, etc. Heap. A large number, lots, a great deal (1371). As adv., a great deal. AU of a heap, astonished, con- 218 Heaped. Hedge. fused, taken aback, flabbergast (q.v.); and (pugilists') doubled up (1593). Heaped. Hard put to it, floored (q.v.). Hear. To hear a bird sing, to receive private communication : in modern parlance, A little bird told me so (1598). Hearing. A scolding, lecture, wigging. Hearing-cheats. The ears (1567). English synonyms: drums, flappers, leathers, lugs (Scots'), taps, wattles. Heart. Next the heart, fasting (1592). Other colloquial usages are at heart, in reality, truly, at bottom ; for one's heart, for one's life ; in one's heart of hearts, in the innermost re- cesses of oneself ; to break the heart of, (a) to cause great grief, or to kill by grief, and (&) to bring nearly to com- pletion ; to find in one's heart, to be willing ; to get or learn by heart, to commit to memory ; to have at heart, to feel strongly about ; to have in the heart, to design or to intend ; to lay or take to heart, to be concerned or anxious about ; to set the heart at rest, to tranquillize ; to set the heart on, to be desirous of, to be fond of ; to take heart of grace, to pluck up courage. Heartbreaker. A pendant curl, love lock (q.v.) : Fr., crevecceur (1663). Heartburn. A bad cigar. Heartsease. 1. A twenty - shilling piece (B. E.). 2. Gin : see Drinks (B. E.). Hearty. Drink, drunk : see Drinks and Screwed. My hearty, a familiar address. Hearty - choke. To have a hearty choke and caper sauce for breakfast, to be hanged : cf. Vegetable breakfast, and see Ladder (Grose). Heat. A bout, turn, trial : by this means the field is gradually re- duced : cf. Handicap (1681). ', \ Heathen - philosopher. ' A sorry poor tatter'd Fellow, whose Breech may be seen through his pocket- holes ' (B. E.). Heave. 1. An attempt to deceive or cajole ; a dead-heave, a flagrant attempt. 2. In pi., an attack of in- digestion or vomiting. As verb, (1) to vomit ; (2) to rob : old English ; has survived, in Shropshire, as a pro- vincialism : e.g. the heler (hider) is as bad as the heaver, the receiver is as bad as the thief (1567). To heave on (or ahead), to make haste, press forward. Heaven. See Wheelbarrow. Heavenly-collar (or lappel). A collar or lappel that turns the wrong way. Heaver. 1. The bosom, panter (q.v.) (1696). 2. A person in love : i.e. sighing, or making play with the heaver. 3. A thief : cf. Heave. Heavy. See Heavy wet. As adj., large : e.g. a heavy amount, a considerable sum of money. To come (or do) the heavy, to affect a vastly superior position, put on airs or frills (q.v.). The Heavies, the regiments of Household cavalry, 4th and 5th Dragoon Guards, and 1st and 2nd Dragoons : from their equip- ment and weight. Heavy - Cavalry (or Dragoons). Bugs : cf. Light infantry, fleas : also Heavy horsemen, the Heavy troop, and the Heavies. Heavy-grog. Hard work. Heavy-grubber. 1. A hearty eater, glutton : cf. Stodger. . Heavy-plodder. A stockbroker. : Heavy- (or Howling-) swell. A man or woman in the height of fashion, spiff (q.v.). Heavy-wet. 1. Malt liquor : specifically porter and stout : also Heavy: see Drinks (1821). 2. A heavy drinking bout. Hebe. A waiting maid, a bar- maid, waitress (1603). Hebrew. Gibberish, Greek (q.v.). To talk Hebrew, to talk nonsense, gibberish (1705). Hector. A bully, blusterer (1659). As verb, to play the bully, bluster : also to play the Hector (1677). To wear Hector's cloak, to receive the right reward for treachery : when Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumber- land, was routed in 1569, he hid him- self in the house of Hector Armstrong, of Harlaw, who betrayed him for hire, and prospered so ill thereafter that he died a beggar by the roadside. Hectoring. Bullying, blustering. Hedge. 1. To secure oneself against (or minimise) loss on a bet by reversing on advantageous terms, To get out (q.v.) : thus if a man backs A to win him 100 at 5 to 1, he will if possible hedge by laying (say) 3 to 1 to the amount of (say) 60 against him ; he will then stand thus if A 219 Hedge-bird. Heel-taps. wins he gains on the first bet 100, and loses on the second 60, leaving a net gain of 40 ; if A loses he gets on the first bet 20, and wins on the second 20, thus clearing himself ; also, as subs. ( 1616). 2. To elude a danger. To die by the hedge, to die in poverty ; to hang in the hedge, of a lawsuit or anything else Depending, Undeter- mined (B. E.) ; <u common as the hedge (or highway), very common ; by hedge or by crook : see Hook. Hedge - bird. A scoundrel, vaga- bond, vagrant (1614). Hedge-bottom Attorney (or Solicitor). A person who, being not admitted, or being uncertificated (or, it way be, admitted and certi- ficated both, but struck off the rolls for malpractices), sets up in the name of a qualified man, and thus evades the penalties attaching to those who act as solicitors without being duly qualified : all the business is done in another name, but the hedge-bottom is the real principal, the partner being only a dummy. Hedge - creeper. A hedge-thief, skulker under hedges, pitiful rascal (1594). Hedge - marriage (or wedding). An irregular marriage performed by a hedge- priest (q.v.), a marriage over the broom. Hedge - note. Low writing : as Dryden, They left these hedge-notes for another sort of poem. Hedge - popping. Shooting small birds about hedges. Whence, hedge- popper, a trumpery shooter ; and hedge-game, small birds, as sparrows and tits. Hedge - priest (or parson). A sham cleric, a blackguard or vaga- bond parson, a couple beggar. As Johnson notes, the use of Hedge in a detrimental sense is common hedge- begot, hedge-born, hedge-brat, hedge- found, hedge-docked, hedge - tavern (a low ale-house), hedge-square (q.v.), hedge-reared, hedge-mustard, hedge- writer (a Grub Street author), hedge- building, etc. Shakespeare uses the phrase hedge-born as the very opposite of gentle-blooded (' 1 Henry VL,' iv. L). Specifically, hedge-priest (in Ireland) is a cleric admitted to orders directly from a hedge-school (q.v.) without having studied theology : before May- nooth, men were admitted to ordina- tion ere they left for the continental colleges, so that they might receive the stipend for saying mass (1688). Hedge - school. A school in the country parts of Ireland formerly conducted in the open air, pending the erection of a permanent building to which the name was transferred. Hence, hedge-schoolmaster. Hedge-square. To doss (or snooze) in Hedge-square (or street), to sleep in the open air. English synonyms : to skipper it, doss with the daisies, be under the blue blanket, put up at the Gutter Hotel, do a star pitch. Hedge- tavern (or ale-house). A jilting, sharping tavern, or blind alehouse (B. E.). Heel. To bless the world with one's heels, to be hanged : see Ladder ( 1566). To cool (or kick) the heels, to wait a long while at an appointed place (1614). To lay by the heels, to confine, fetter, jail (1601) ; to lift one's heels, to lie down ; to turn (or topple) up the heels (or toes), to die : see Hop the twig ( 1592) ; to take to (or show) a pair of heels, to take flight, run away : see Burk (1593) ; his heels, the knave of trumps at cribbage or all- fours : hence, two for his heels, two points scored (at cribbage) for turning up this card ; to tread upon (be at, or upon) the heels, to follow close or hard after, pursue (1596) ; to go heels over head, to turn a somersault, be hasty, fall violently : also top over tail (1540) ; to have (or get) the heels of, to outrun, get an advantage (1748); down (or out) at heel, slipshod, shabby, in decay (1605). Heeled. Armed : from the steel spur used in cock-fighting. Heeler. 1. A follower or hench- man of a politician or a party. 2. A bar, or other loafer ; also any one on the lookout for shady work. 3. An accomplice in the pocket-book racket (q.v.) : the heeler draws attention, by touching the victim's heels, to a pocket-book containing counterfeit money which has been let drop by a companion, with a view to inducing the victim to part with genuine coin for a division of the find. 4. (Winchester College). A plunge, feet foremost, into water : FT., chandeUe.\ Heel-taps. 1. Liquor in the bottom of a glass. Bumpers round and no heel taps, fill full, and drain dry ! Fr., 220 Heifer. Hen-house. musique (1795). 2. A dance peculiar to London dustmen. Heifer. A woman ; old heifer (in Western America), a term of en- dearment. Heifer-paddock. A ladies' school. Heigh - ho. Stolen yarn : from the expression used to apprise a fence that the speaker had stolen yarn to sell. Helbat. A table. Hell. 1. Generic for a place of confinement, as hi some games (Sydney), or a cell in a prison : speci- fically, a place under the Exchequer Chamber, where the king's debtors were confined ( 1593). 2. A workman's receptacle for stolen or refuse pieces, as cloth, type, etc. ; one's eye (q.v.) ; also hell - hole and hell - box. Hell- matter (printers') old and battered type (1589). 3. A gambling house: whence silver-hell, a gambling house where only silver is played for. Danc- ing-hell, an unchartered hall ; and so forth (1823). Heaven, Hell, and Purga- tory, three ale-houses formerly situ- ated near Westminster Hall (1610); hell broke loose, extreme disorder, anarchy (1623); hell of a lark, goer, row, and so forth), very much of a , a popular intensitive ; all to hett (or gone to hell), utterly ruined ; to hope (or wish) to hell, to desire intensely ; to play (or kick up) hell and tommy, to ruin utterly : also to play hett and break things, to raise hett, to make heirs delight (1837) ; to lead apes in hett, to die an old maid : from a popular superstition (1599) ; to give hett, to trounce, abuse, punish severely: also (American), to make one smell hell ; hett for leather, with the utmost energy and desperation ; like hett, desperately, with all one's might; go to hett ! an emphatic dismissal ; hett and scissors I an ejaculation of sur- prise and ridicule. Hell-bender. A drunken frolic, a tremendous row : also hell-a-popping and hett's delight. Hell - broth. Bad liquor : see Drinks. Hell-cat (hag, hound, kite, etc.). A man or woman of hellish disposition, a lewdster of either sex : cf. Hallion (1606). Hell-driver. A coachman (1696). Hellite. A professional gambler (Ducange). Hellophone. The telephone : from Halloo ! Help. A hired assistant. Lady- help, a woman acting as a companion and undertaking the lighter domestic duties with or without wages (1824). So help (or s'elp or s'welp) me God (Bob, never, or say-so), an emphatic asseveration. Helpa. An apple. Helpless. Drunk : see Screwed. Hemp (or Hemp-seed, Stretch- hemp, Hemp-string, or Hempy). 1. A rogue, candidate fit for the gal- lows : frequently used jocularly : see crack-halter (q.v.) : FT., graine de bagne. 2. A halter (1754); as verb, to choke, strangle. To wag hemp in the wind, to be hanged (1532). Hempen-bridle. A ship's rope or rigging. Hempen Collar (candle, circle, cravat, croak, garter, necktie, or habeas). The hangman's noose, a halter : also hemp, and the hearty- choke (1530). Hempen Fever. To die of a hempen fever, to be hanged : see Ladder (Grose). Hempen-fortune. Bad luck : also the gallows. Hempen-squincy. Hanging : see Ladder (1646). Hempen-widow. A woman widowed by the gallows (1696). Hen. 1. A woman : specifically, a wife or mistress (1811). 2. Drink money : see Hen drinking. As verb, to funk, turn tail ; to hen on, to fear to attempt. Cock and hen club, club open to both sexes. Hens and chickens, pewter measures quarts and pints : cf. Cat and kittens (1851). Hen-drinking. A Yorkshire marriage-custom : on the evening of the wedding day the young men of the village call upon the bridegroom for a hen meaning money for re- freshments .... should the hen be refused, the inmates may expect some ugly trick to the house ere the festi- vities terminate. Hen Frigate. A ship commanded by the captain's wife : cf. Hen-pecked (Grose). Hen-fruit. Eggs. Hen- (or Chicken-) hearted. Timorous, cowardly (1529). Hen-house. A house under petti- coat government (Grose). 221 Hen-party. High-fly. Hen-party (convention, or tea). An assemblage of women for political or social purposes. H e n-p e c k e d. Petticoat govern- ment, ruled by a woman (1696). Hen-snatcher. A chicken thief. Hens '-rights. Women's righto. Hen - toed. To turn the toes in walking, like a fowL Here. Here's to you (at you, unto you, now, or luck), an invitation to drink, here's a health to you (1651). Here's luck, I don't believe you. / am not here, I don't feel inclined to work, I wish to be left alone. Here-and-Thereian. A rolling stone, a person with no permanent address (Lex. Bal., 1811). Hereford. White : Herefords are white-faced. Herefordshire- weed. An oak. Her Majesty's Carriage. A prison van, the King's 'bus : see Black Maria: FT., omnibus A pegres. Her Majesty's Tobacco pipe. The furnace where forfeited tobacco from the Customs House was burnt : now a thing of the past : the tobacco being distributed to workhouses, etc. : see Tobacco-pipe. Herod. To out-Herod Herod, to out-do, specifically (theatrical) to excel in rant (1596). Herring. Neither fish, flesh, fowl, nor good red herring, neither one thing not the other (1682) ; to throw a sprat to catch a herring (or whole), to forego an advantage in the hope of greater profit (1826) ; dead as a herring (or shotten herring), quite dead : herrings die sooner on leaving the water than most fish (1596); like herrings in a barrel, very crowded ; the devil a barrel the better herring, all alike, indistinguishable. Herring - gutted. Lanky, thin (Grose). Herring - pond. The sea : speci- fically, the North Atlantip Ocean. To be sent across the herring-pond, to be transported (1722). Hertfordshire - kindness. An acknowledgment, or return, in kind, of favours received : spec, drinking to him who has already toasted one. Hewgag. The Hewgag, an undeter- minate, unknown, mythical creature. Hiccius Doccius. A juggler ; also a shifty fellow or trickster (1676). As adj., drunk. Hie Jacet. A tombstone ; also a memorial inscription (1598). Hick. A man ; specifically a countryman, a booby : also (American thieves') hick- jo p and hicksam (1696). Hickety - split. With all one's might, at top speed, hammer and tongs (q.v.), full chisel (q.v.). Hickey. Drunk : see Screwed. Hickory-shirt. A checked shirt, cotton or wool Hide. The human skin : once literary, now colloquial or vulgar (1568). As verb, to flog, tan. Hidebound. Barren, intractable, niggardly, pedantic, utterly immov- able (1606). Hiding. A thrashing. Higgledy-piggledy. In confusion, topsy - turvy, at sixes and sevens (1598). High. 1. Drunk : see Screwed. 2. Stinking, gamey (q.v.) ; whence, by implication, diseased, obscene in intention and effect. The High and Dry, the High Church or Anglo- Catholic party in the Establishment, as opposed to the Low and Slow (q.v.), or Evangelical section : cf. Broad and Shallow (1854). High and dry, stranded, abandoned, irrecoverable ; high and mighty, arrogant, imperious, proud, on the high horse or the high ropes (q.v.), full of side (q.v.) ; too high for one's nut, out of one's reach, beyond one's capacity, over one's bend (q.v.) ; you cant get high enough, a derisive comment on any kind of failure ; how is that for high ? what do you think of it T once a tag universal, common wear now (1860). High-bellied (or High in the belly). Pregnant : also High-waisted. Highbinder. 1. A Chinese black- mailer. 2. (political American). A political conspirator (Norton). High-bloke. 1. A judge. 2. A well-dressed man, splawger (q.v.). Highfalute. To use fine words, yarn (q.v.): FT.,faireCttroite. Whence highfaluting, bombast, rant ; and as adj., bombastic, fustian, thrasonical (1860). High-feather. In high feather, in luck, on good terms with oneself and the world. High-fly. To be on the high-fly, specifically, to practise the begging- letter imposture, but (generally) to tramp the country as a beggar (1839). 222 Highflyer. High-tide. Highflyer. 1. Anything or any- body out of the common in opinion, pretension, attire, and so forth. 2. A dandy, male or female, of the first water. 3. A fast coach (1690). 4. A beggar with a certain style, begging- letter writer, broken swell (1851). 5. A swing fixed in rows in a frame much in vogue at fairs. High-flying. 1. Extravagance in opinion, pretension, or conduct (1689). 2. Begging, the high-fly (q.v.), Stilling (q.v.). High-gag. A whisperer (Matsell). The high gag, telling secrets (Matsell). High-game. A mansion (thieves'). High - gig. In high gig, in good fettle, lively. High-go. A drinking bout, frolic. High - heeled Shoes. To have high-heeled shoes on, to set up as a person of consequence, do the grand (q.v.). High Horse. To go (or get) on (or ride) the high horse, to give oneself airs, stand on one's dignity, take offence : Fr., monter sur ses grands chevaux : the simile is common to most languages (1716). High - jinks. 1. An old game variously played : most frequently dice were thrown by the company, and those upon whom the lot fell were obliged to assume and maintain for a time a certain fictitious character, or to repeat a certain number of fescennine verses in a particular order. If they departed from the characters assigned . . . they incurred forfeits, which were compounded for by swallowing an additional bumper (Guy Manner ing, Note to ch. xxxii.) (1696). 2. A gambler at dice, who, having a strong head, drinks to intoxicate his adver- sary or pigeon. Under this head are also classed those fellows who keep little goes, take in insurances ; also, attend- ants at the races, and at the E O tables ; chaps always on the lookout to rob unwary countrymen at cards, etc. (Grose). 3. A frolic, row. To be at his high jinks, to be stilted and arrogant in manner, ride the high horse (q.v.) : Fr., faire sa merde (or sa poire). High-kicker. Specifically a dancer whose speciality is the high kick or the porte d' armes ; whence, by meta- phor, any desperate spreester (q.v.), male or female. High - kilted. Obscene or there- abouts, full flavoured (q.v.). Highland-bail. The right of the strongest, force majeure (1816). High - lawyer. A highwayman : see Thief (1592). High - liver. A garrotter, thief housed in an attic : hence high-living, lodging in a garret (Lex. Bal. ). High-men. Dice loaded to run high: also, high-runners (1594). High - nosed. Very proud in look and hi fact, supercilious hi bearing and speech, superior (q.v.). High (or gay) old time (Game, Liar, etc.). A general intensitive: e.g. high old time, a very merry time indeed ; high old liar, a liar of might ; high old drunk, an uncommon booze (q.v.). High-pad (Toby, or High-Toby- splice). 1. The highway : also high-splice toby (1567). 2. A high- wayman : also high - toby man (or -gloak). (1696). 3. Highway rob- bery (1819). High-pooped. Heavily buttocked. High - rented. 1. Hot. 2. Very well known to the police ; hot (q.v.). High-roller. A goer (q.v.), fast liver, heavy gambler, highflyer (q.v.). High - ropes. To be on the high- ropes, to be angry, excited : also to put on airs, stand on one's dignity, ride the high-horse (q.v.) (1811). High-seasoned (or Highly-spiced). Obscene : cf. Spicy. High- (or clouted-) shoon. A countryman, joskin (q.v.) (1696). High-sniffing. Pretentious, super- cilious, very obviously better than one's company, high-nosed (q.v.). High-stepper. An exemplar (male or female) of what is fashionable, swell (q.v.) : also a person of spirit. Whence, high-stepping (or high-pac- ing), conspicuously elegant or gallant, in dress, speech, manner, conduct, any- thing. High - stomached. Proud, dis- dainful, pot-valiant. High-strikes. Hysterics (1838). High-tea. Tea with meat, etc. : in Lancashire, bagging (q.v.). High-ti. A showy recitation (American : Williams Coll.) ; at Har- vard, a squirt (q.v.). H i g h-t i d e (or water) . Rich for the moment, the state of being flush (q.v.) (1696). Up to high-water mark 223 High-toby. Hittite. in good condition : a general expres- sion of approval. High-toby. See High pad. High-toned. Aristocratic ; also, morally and intellectually endowed, beyond the common. High souled, cultured, fashionable. High - toned nigger, a negro who has raised himself in social position. [Once literary ; now utterly discredited and never used, save in ignorance or derision. Stokes, the maniac who shot Garfield, described himself as a high-toned lawyer.] Highty-tighty (or Hoity-toity). A wanton (1696). As adj., peremptory, waspish, quarrelsome. High Wood. To live in high wood, to hide, dissemble of purpose, lie low, keep quiet. Higulcion - flips. An imaginary ailment. Hike. To move about: also to carry off, arrest (1811). Hilding. A jade, wanton, dis- reputable slut (1593). Hill. Not worth a hill of beam, absolutely worthless. Hills (Winchester Coll.). 1. St. Catharine's Hill. 2. (Cambridge Univ.) The Gogmagog Hills : a common morn- ing's ride (Gradus ad Cantab.). Hilly. Difficult : e.g. hilly reading, hard to read ; hilly going, not easy to do ; etc. Hilt. Loose in the hilt, unsteady, rocky (q.v.), lax in the bowels (1B39). Hind-boot. The breech. Hind-coachwheel. A five shilling piece : Fr., roue de derriere, thune, or palrt, a five franc piece : see Rhino. H i n d - 1 e g. To kick out a hind leg, to lout, make a rustic bow. To talk the hind leg off a horse (or dog) : see Talk ; to sit upon one's hind legs and howl, to bemoan one's fate, make a hullabaloo. Hindoo. See Know - nothing. Hindoo punishment, more often called the muscle grind, a rather painful Hip. To have (get, or catch) on the hip, to have (or get) an advantage ( 1591). H i p e. A throw over the hip. Hence, as verb, to get across the hip before the throw. Hip-hop. To skip or move on one leg, hop : a cant word framed by the reduplication of hop (Johnson) (1700). Hip - inside. An inner pocket Hip-outside, an outer ditto. Hipped (or Hippish). Bored, melan- cholical, out of sorts (1710). Hippen. A baby's napkin (i.e. hipping cloth). Also (theatrical), the green curtain. Hiren. 1. A prostitute: a cor- ruption of Irene, the heroine in Poole's play (1584). 2. A sword: also a roaring bully, fighting hector : from Irene, the Goddess of Peace, a lucus a non lucendo. Hishee - Hashee. See Soap-and- bullion. His Nibs (or Nabs). See Nibs. Hiss. The hiss (Winchester Col- lege), the signal of a master's approach. Historical- (Wrought-, or Illus- trated-) Shirt. A shirt or shift worked or woven with pictures or texts (1596). History of the Four Kings. See Four Kings. Hit A success : e.g. to make a hit, to score, profit, excel (1602). As adj. (Old Bailey), convicted. Hard- hit, sore beset, hard-up (q.v.) : also deep in love (grief, or anger). As verb, to arrive at, light on. To hit it, to attain an object, light upon a device, guess a secret (1594) ; to hit off, to agree together, fit, describe with accuracy and precision (1857); to hit the flat, to go out on the prairie (cowboy) ; to hit the pipe, to smoke opium ; to hit one where he lives, to touch in a tender part, hurt the feelings, touch on the raw (q.v.) ; hit (or struck) with, taken, enamoured, prepossessed : also hit up with ; hit exercise upon the bar, in which the in the teeth, to reproach, taunt, fling arms are turned backward to embrace in one's face (1663). Hitch. 1. To marry. Hitched, the bar, and then brought forward upon the chest, in which position the performer revolves. Hind - shifters. The feet : see Creepers (1823). Hinges. Off the hinges, in con- fusion, out of sorts, not quite the thing. 2-24 1. To marry. married. 2. To agree : also to hitch horses. To hitch one's team to the fence, to settle down. Hittite. A prize fighter. Eng- lish synonyms : basher, bruiser, duke- ster, fistite, knight of the fist, gem- man of the fancy, milling-cove, pug, Hive. Hodmandod. icher, scrapper, slasher, slogger, jgger, sparring- bloke (1823). Hive. To steal. To get hived, to caught in a scrape : also to be idden. To be hived perfectly frigid, i be caught in flagrante delicto. Hivite. A student of St. Bees' amberland). Hoaky. By the hoaky, a popular rm of adjuration. Hoax. A jest, practical joke, te-in : originally (Grose) University it. As verb, to play a practical , take-in, bite (q.v.). Hob (or Hobbinol). A clown (Grose). Hob and Nob (or Hob Nob). To invite to drink, clink glasses 1756). 2. To give or take, to hit miss at random (1577). 3. To be terms of close intimacy, consort uniliarly together. Hobbes's-voyage. A leap in the rk(1697). Hobbinol. Countryman, joskin 1663). Hobble. In a hobble (or hobbled), trouble, hampered, puzzled : also ieves'), committed for trial : FT., ber dans la melasse (to come a ropper), and faitre (booked, q.v.). lobbied upon the legs, transported or the hulks (1777). Hobbledehoy. A growing gawk : as in the folk-rhyme, Hobble- dehoy, neither man nor boy. [For derivation, see Notes and Queries, 1 S., v. 468, vii. 572; 4 S., ii. 297, viii. 451, ix. 47 ; 7 S., iv. 523, and v. 58.] (1557). Hence Hobbledehoyish and Hobbledehoyhood. Hobbledelee. A pace be- tween a walk and a run, a jog-trot (1811). Hobble r. A coast-man half smuggler, half handyman ; an un- licensed pilot : also a landsman acting as tow-Jack (Smyth). Also (Isle of Man), a boatman. Hobby. 1. A hackney, a horse in common use (1606). 2. A translation. To ride hobbies, to use cribs (q.v.). Sir Posthumous Hobby, one nice or whimsical in his clothes. Hobby-horse. 1. A whim, fancy, favourite pursuit. Hence Hobby- horsical, strongly attached to a par- ticular fad (1759). 2. A rantipole girl, wench, wanton (1594). 3. A witless, unmannerly lout (1609). As verb, to romp. Hob - collingwood. The four of hearts : considered an unlucky card. Hob- jobber. A man or boy on the look-out for small jobs holding horses, carrying parcels, and the like. Hob-nail. A countryman, joskin (1647). Hobnailed. Boorish, clumsy, coarse, ill-done (1599). Hobson's-choice. That or none : i.e. there is no alternative : popularly derived from the name of a Cam- bridge livery stable keeper, whose rule was that each customer must take the horse next the door, or have no horse at all. Hock. 1. The last card in the dealer's box at faro. Hence, from soda (q.v.) to hock, from beginning to end. 2. In pi., the feet. Curby hocks, clumsy foot : see Creepers (Grose). Old hock, stale beer ; swipes (q.v.). In hock, laid by the heels, fleeced, bested (q.v.); and (thieves'), in prison. Hock-dockies. Shoes : see Trotter- cases (1789). Hockey. Drunk, especially on stale beer : see Screwed. Hocus. 1. A cheat, impostor : see Hocus-pocus (1654). 2. Drugged liquor (1823). As adj., drunk: see Screwed. As verb, (1) to cheat, impose upon ; (2) to drug, snuff (q.v.) (1836). Hocus-pocus. 1. A juggler's phrase : hence a juggler's (or im- postor's) stock in trade : also Hocus- trade (1639). 2. A trickster, juggler, impostor (1625). 3. A cheat, imposi- tion, juggler's trick (1713). As adj., cheating, fraudulent (1715). As verb, to cheat, trick. Hod (or Brother Hod). A brick- layer's labourer. Hod of mortar, a pot of porter. Hoddy-doddy (or Hoddie-doddie). A short thick-set man or woman : see Forty -guts. Also a fool (1534). Hoddy-peak (or peke). A fool, cuckold (1529). Hodge. A farm labourer, rustic (1589). Hodge-podge (or Hotch-potch). A mixture, medley : Sp., commis- trajo : see Hotch-potch ( 1553). Hodman. A scholar from West- minster School admitted to Christ Church College, Oxford (1728). Hodmandod. 1. A snail in hia 225 Hoe. Holborn HiU. shell (Bacon): see Doddy (1663). 2. A Hottentot (1686). Hoe. To hoe in, to work with rigour, swot (q.v.). To hoe one' own row, to do one's own work. Hard row to hoe : see Hard row. Hoe-down. A negro dance, break- down (q.v.). Hog. 1. A shilling : also a six- pence : and (in America) a ten-cent piece: see Rhino (1686). 2. A foul- mouthed blackguard, dirty feeder : also, a common glutton (1598). 3. (Cambridge Univ. : obsolete), a student of St. John's : also Johnian Hog : see Crackle, Bridge of Grunts, and Isthmus of Suez (1690). 4. A yearling sheep (1796). 5. An inhabit- ant of Chicago : that city being a notable pig-breeding and pork-packing centre. 6. A Hampshireman (1770). As verb, (1) to cheat, humbug, gam- mon (q.v.) ; (2) to cut short: e.g. to hog a horse's mane. A hog in armour, a lout in fine clothes : also a Jack-in- office (q.v.) : Hog-in-togs (in America), a well-dressed loafer (Grose). Hog and hominy, plain fare, common doings (q.v.) : pork and maize are the two cheapest food stuffs in the U.S.A. To go the whole hog : see Whole animal. To bring one's hogs (or pigs) to a fine market, to do well, make a good deal (q.v.) : also in sarcasm, the opposite (1696). To drive one's hogs (or pigs) to market, to snore (1738). Hog - age. The period between boyhood and manhood : cf. Hobble- dehoy. Hogan - mogan. The States- General of the United Provinces were officially addressed as High and Mighty Lords, or in Dutch, Hoogmo- genden ; hence English satirists called them hogans - mogans, and applied the phrase to Dutchmen in general. Hog-grubber. A miser, niggard, mean cuss (q.v.) (1696). Hogmenay. 1. New Year's Eve, which is a national festival : the origin of the term has been the subject of much discussion (1776). 2. Hence a wanton : the feast was celebrated with much drink and not a little license. Hogo. A flavour, aroma, relish. Hence, in irony, and by corruption, a stink : cf. Fogo : from FT., haul gout (1569). Hogshead. To couch a hogshead, to lie down to sleep (1567). Hog-shearing. Much ado about nothing, great cry and little wool (1696). Hogs-Norton. To have been born at Hogs-Norton, to be ill-mannered( 1666). Hog-wash. 1. Bad liquor ; speci- fically, rot-gut (q.v.). 2. Worthless newspaper matter, slush, swash, and flub-dub (q.v.). Hoi Polloi. The candidates for ordinary degrees : from the Greek : cf. Gulf. Hoist. A shop-lifter ; also a con- federate hoisting or helping a thief to reach an open window. The hoist, shop-lifting. To go upon the hoist, to enter a house by an open window (Orose). As verb, (1) to shop-lift, rob by means of the hoist (q.v.) ; (2) to run away : see Bunk ; (3) to drink : e.g. Will you hoist ? will you have a liquor ? hoisting, drinking ; on the hoist, on the drunk : also a hoist in. To give a hoist, to do a bad turn. Hoister. 1. A shop-lifter, hoist (q.v.) : also a pickpocket. 2. A sot : see Lushington. Hoisting (or Hoist-lay). 1. Shop- lifting, the hoist (q.v.) : also shaking a man head downwards, so that his money rolls out of his pockets. 2. A ludicrous ceremony, formerly per- formed on every soldier the first time he appeared in the field after being married, as soon as the regiment, or company, had grounded their arms, to rest awhile ; three or four men of the same company to which the bride- groom belonged, seized upon him, and putting a couple of bayonets out of the two corners of his hat, to represent horns, it was placed on his head, the back part foremost, he was then hoisted on the shoulders of two strong fellows, and carried round the arms, a drum and fife beating and playing the pioneers' call, named Bound-heads and Cuckolds, but on this occasion styled the Cuckold's March : in passing the colours he was to take off his hat .... This in some regiments was practised by the officers on their brethren (Orose). Hoit (or Hoyt). To be noisily or riotously inclined (1611). Hoity-toity. See Highty-tighty. Hokey-pokey. 1. A cheat, swindle, nonsense : from Hocus-pocus. 2. A cheap ice-cream sold in the streets. Holborn HilL To ride back- Hold. Holy-land. wards up Holborn Hill, to go to the gallows : the way was thence to Tyburn, criminals riding backwards (Grose) (1614). Hold. To bet, wager : see Do you hold? infra (1534). Phrases: To hold on to, to apply oneself, be per- sistent : generally, to hold on like grim death; to hold up, (1) to rob on the highway, bail or stick up (q.v.) : also as subs., a highwayman, road-agent (q.v.) ; (2) to arrest : see Nab ; to hold the stage, to have the chief place on the boards and the eye of an audience : FT., avoir les planches ; to hold a candle to (the devil, etc. ) : see Devil ; to hold a candle to, to vie with, be comparable to, assist in or condone ; to hold (or hang) on by the eyelids, eyelashes or eye- brows, ( 1 ) to pursue an object desper- ately, insist upon a point, carry on a forlorn hope : see Splash-board ; (2) said of a man aloft with nothing much to lay hold of; to hold in hand, to amuse, possess the attention of the mind, have in one's pocket; to hold the market, to buy stock and hold it to so large an extent that the price cannot decline ; do you hold ? have you money to lend ? can you stand treat ? hold your horses, go easy, don't get excited : a general injunction to calm in act and speech ; hold your jaw, hold your tongue, stow your gab (q.v.) ; Hold hard ! (or on) ! wait a moment ! don't be in a hurry ! (1761) ; to hold-stitch : see Stitch ; to hold water : see Water. Hold-out. An old-fashioned apparatus, in poker, for holding out desirable cards. Hole. 1. A cell: cf. Hell, sense 1. (1540). 2. A cock-robin shop, private rinting office : where unlicensed books ere made (Moxori), (1683). 3. A lifficulty, fix, hence (on the turf), to in a hole, to lose (a bet) or be de- ited (of horses) ( 1 760). 4. A place of ibode : specifically, a mean habitation, i dirty lodging : see Diggings. Phrases: hole in one's coat, a flaw in one's ae, weak spot in one's character. To pick a hole in one's coat, to find a cause for censure ; to make (or burn) a le in one's pocket, said of money recklessly spent ; to make a hole in anything, to use up largely (1663) ; make a hole in the water, to commit suicide by drowning ; to make a hole, to break, spoil, upset, interrupt ; to make a hole in one's manners, to be rude; to make a hole in one's reputation, to betray, seduce ; to make a hole in the silence, to make a noise, raise Cain (q.v.) ; too drunk to see a hole in a ladder, very drunk : see Screwed. Hole-and-corner. Secret, under- hand, out of the way : e.g. hole-and- corner work, shady business. Holiday. Unskilled, indifferent, careless (Grose). Blind man's holi- day : see ante. To have a holiday at Peckham, to go dinnerless. AU holi- day at Peckham, no work and nothing to eat. To take a holiday, to be dis- missed, get the gag (q.v.), or sack (q.v.). Gone for a holiday, said of a flaw, lapse, or imperfection of any kind (as dropped stitches, lost buttons, slurred painting, and so forth : also (Grose), any part of a ship's bottom left uncovered in painting it, and (Clark Russell) places left untarred on shrouds, backstays, etc., during the operation of tarring them. Holler. To cry enough, give in, cave in (q.v.) (1847). H o 1 1 i s (Winchester College). A small pebble (Notions). Hollow. Complete, certain, de- cided : as adv., completely, utterly : e.g. to beat or lick hollow (1759). Holt. To take, take hold of. Holus-bolus. The head : also the neck. As adv., belter skelter, alto- gether, first come first served. Holy. More holy than righteous, said of a person in rags, or of a tattered garment. Holy-boys. The Ninth Foot, now the Norfolk Regiment : from a trick of selling bibles for drink in the Penin- sula. Holy - father. A butcher's boy of St. Patrick's market, Dublin, or other Irish blackguard ; among whom the exclamation, or oath, by the Holy Father (meaning the Pope), is common (Grose). Holy Iron. See Holy Poker. Holy Joe. A pious person, whether hypocritical or sincere : also nautical), a parson. Holy Jumping Mother of Moses. See Moses. Holy - lamb. A thorough-paced villain (Grose). H o 1 y - 1 a n d (or G r o u n d). 1. St. Giles's, Palestine (q.v.) (1819). 2. Generic for any neighbourhood affected by Jews : specifically, Bays- 227 Holy Moses. Hook. water, and Brighton : cf. New Jeru- salem, and Holy of Holies. Holy Moses. See Moses. Holy of Holies. 1. The Grand Hotel at Brighton : which is largely tenanted by Jews. 2. A private room ; a sanctum (q.v.). Holy Poker (or Iron). The maoe carried by an esquire bedel (of Law, Physic, or Divinity) as a badge of authority : the term, which is applied to the bedels themselves, is very often used as an oath. Holy-water Sprinkler. A medi- eval weapon of offence ; a morning star (q.v.). Home. England. To get home, 1. to achieve an object, succeed per- fectly, and (athletic) to reach the winning post. 2. to get in (a blow) with precision and effect, land (q.v.) : also(old) to give a mortal wound (1559) 3. To recover a loss, neither to win nor lose, come out quits : also, to bring oneself home. To make oneself at home, to take one's ease, be familiar to the point of ill-breeding. To come home to, to reach the conscience, touch deeply. To go (send, or carry) home (or to one's last home), to die, kill, bury : the Chinese say, To go home horizontally : see Hop the twig (1598). Home-bird. A hen-pecked hus- band : also a milksop : Fr., chauffe- la-couche (warming-pan). Home for lost dogs. A large and well-known medical school in London : from the fact that the majority of its inmates have strayed there from the various hospital schools, as a last resource toward taking a degree. Home - rule. Irish whisky : see Drinks. Homo. A man : generally Omee (q.v.): from the Latin: see Cove. Homoney. A woman, also a wife : see Homo (1754). Homo-opathise. To get bills (i.e. petitions) through Legislature, Con- gress, or City Council, by means of bills (i.e. bank-bills). Honest. 1. Chaste (1596). 2. Not positively illegal : as honest penny or shilling, money earned by means immoral (as by prostitution) but within the law. To turn an honest penny, to make a profitable deal ( 1677). To mate an honest woman, to marry a mistress (1629). As honest man as when kings are out, knavish. Honest as the skin between the brows (or horns), as honest as may be (1551). Honest Injun 1 A pledge of sincer- ity; honour bright (q.v.). Honey. 1. A good fellow. 2. Money : see Rhino. 3. A term of en- dearment. As verb, to cajole, ex- change endearments, deceive by soft words or promises (1596). To sell honey for a halfpenny, to rate at a vile price (1592). Honey-blobs. Large, ripe, yellow gooseberries (1746). Honeycomb. A sweetheart: a general term of endearment (1562). Honey-fogle (or fugle). To cheat, swindle, humbug : see Gammon. Honour Bright ! Upon my honour (1819). Hood. Two faces under one hood (or hat), double-dealing. To put a bone in one's hood, to cuckold (1560). Hoodlum. A young rough of either sex : also (political), a low- class voter : originally Californian : cf. Arab. Hoodman. A blind man, groper (q.v.). As adj., blind; spec, drunk: also hoodman blind, blind drunk : Fr., berlu and sans mirettes. Hoof. A foot : see Creepers (1830). As verb, to kick. Hence, to hoof out, to eject, dismiss, discharge, decline to see. To hoof it (to pad or beat the hoof), to walk, tramp it, run away ; hence Hoof-padding (1596). To see one's hoof in (a thing), to detect per- sonal influence or interference in a matter. Hoof-padder. A pedestrian. Hoofy. Splay, large. Hook. 1. A finger : see Fork. In pi., the hands : also Hooks and Feelers (q.v.). 2. A thief (1562). 3. A catch, advantage, imposture. As verb, ( 1 ) to rob, steal: specifically, to steal watches, rings, etc., from a shop by cutting small hole in the window, and fish for such articles with a piece of st with a hook at the end (1615) ; (2) secure (as for marriage), marry. intj. (Oxford Univ.), an exj implying doubt Phrases : On hook, (1) on the thieve, on the (q.v.); (2) on the hip (q.v.), at advantage (1694) ; hook and eye, and arm ; to take (or sling) one's (or to hook it), to decamp, run ai see Bunk ; to drop (go, or pop) off i hooks, (I) to die: see Hop the Hook and Snivey. Hop. (1837) ; (2) to get married ; to hook on to, to attach oneself to, button- hole (q.v.), follow up; on one's own hook, on one's own account (risk, or responsibility), for one's own sake, dependent on one's own resources (or exertions) ; by hook or by crook, by some means or other, by fair means or foul, at all hazards : probably of forestal origin (1298) ; with a hook at the end, a reservation of assent, over the left (q.v.), in a horn (q.v.) (1823) ; off the hooks, out of temper, vexed, disturbed, out of sorts : Fr., sortir de sea gonds, off the hinges (q.v.) : see Nab the rust. Hook and Snivey (or Hookum Sni- vey). 1. An imposture: specifically getting food on false pretences (1781). 2. An impostor as described in sense 1.. 3. A contemptuous or sarcastic affir- mation, accompanied by the gesture of taking a sight (q.v.) or playing hookey (q.v.). 4. A crook of thick iron wire in a wooden handle, used to undo the wooden bolts of doors from without (1801). Hooked. Over-reached, snapt, trickt. Hooker. 1. A thief (q.v.), angler (q.v.) : also (modern) a watch- stealer, dip (q.v.). 'These hokers or Angglers, be peryllous and most wicked knaues, .... they customably carry with them a staffe of v. or vi. foote long, in which, within one ynch of the tope thereof, ys a lytle hole bored through, [leaf 9] in which hole they putte an yron hoke, and with the same they wyll pluck vnto them quickly any thing that they may reche ther with' (Harman). 2. A prostitute. Hookey. To play hookey, to play truant, do Charley- wag (q.v.). To do (or play) hookey (or hooky), to apply the thumb and fingers to the nose, take a sight (q.v.), coffee-mill (q.v.). Hookey Walker ! (or Walker !) Be off ! go away : also implying doubt : cf. With a hook. [Bee : From John Walker, a hook - nosed spy, whose reports were proved to be fabri- cations.] H o o k i n g-c o w. A cow showing fight. Hook-pole Lay. Pulling a man off his horse by means of iron hooks at the end of a long pole, and plundering him (Smith, Lives of Highwaymen, III. 192, 1720). Hook-shop. A brothel. Hoop. 1. A ring. 2. See Bull- finch. As verb, to beat. To well hoop one's barrel, to thrash soundly, tan (Grose). To hoop it (or go through the hoop), (1) to pass the Insolvent Debtor's Court ; to get hooped up, whitewashed (q.v.) ; (2) to run away : see Bunk. Hoop-stick. The arm. Hoosier. A native of Indiana : perhaps the most reasonable of several ingenious explanations is, that in the early days the customary challenge or greeting in that region was, Who's yer ? (who's here ?) : pronounced hoosier (Norton) (1843). Hooter. 1. A steam-whistle, American devil (q.v.). 2. A wooden trumpet, so contrived as to make a horrible noise. 3. A corruption of iota: e.g. I don't care a hooter for him. Hooting-pudding. A plum-pudding with such a paucity of plums that you can hear them hooting after each other (Slang, Jargon, and Cant). Hop. A dance : generally informal, as a Cinderella (q.v.). Also (1579) the motions of dancing. Hop - and - go- kick, a lameter, hop-and-go-one : cf. Dot-and-carry-one. To hop the wag, to play truant, or Charley- wag (q.v.) To hop (or jump) over the broom (or broomstick), to live as husband and wife, live (or go) tally (q.v.) (1811). To hop the twig, ( 1) to leave, run away, skedaddle (q.v.): see Bunk (1786); (2) to die, kick the bucket (q.v.), to peg out ( q. v. ) : also to hop off. English synonyms : to be content, to cock up one's toes, to croak, to cut (or let go) the painter, to cut one's stick, to give in, to give up, to go to Davy Jones' locker, to go off the liooks, to go under, to go up, to kick the bucket, kickera- boo (West Indian), to lay down one's knife and fork, to lose the number of one's mess, to mizzle, to pass in one's checks, to peg out, to put on a wooden surtout, to be put to bed with a shovel, to slip one's cable, to stick one's spoon in the wall, to snuff it, to take an earth bath, to take a ground sweat. On the hop, (1) unawares, at the nick of time, in flagrante delicto : also on the h. o. p. ; (2) on the go, in motion, unresting ; (3) See Hip. i 229 Hopeful. Horsebreaker. Hopeful (or Young Hopeful). A boy or young man : in sarcasm or contempt (1856). Hop- (or Hap-) Harlot A coarse coverlet : cf. Wrap- rascal. Hopkins (Hoppy, or Mr Hopkins). A lameter : see Dot- and -go -one -Giles (Qrose). Don't hurry, Hopkins I iron- ical to persons slow to move or to meet an obligation. Hop - merchant (or Hoppy). A dancing master, caper- merchant (q.v.). Also a fiddler (1696). Hop-o'-my-thumb. A dwarf (1599). English synonyms : go-by-the-ground, grub, grundy, Jack Sprat, little breeches, shrimp, stump-ot-the-gutter, torn-tit. Hopper. The mouth : see Potato- trap. To go a hopper, to go quickly. Hopper - Hipped. Large in the breech : also snaggy- boned : also as subs. (1529). Hopper-docker. A shoe : see Trotter-cases. Hop-picker. 1. A prostitute : also Hopping-wife. 2. In pi., the queens of all the four suits. Hopping - Giles. A cripple : see Dot-and-go-one (Qrose). Hopping- Jesus. A lameter : see Dot and-go-one. Hopping-mad. Very angry. Hop-pole. A tall, slight person : male or female : see Lamp- post. Horizontal Refreshment. Food taken standing ; generally applied to a mid-day snack at a bar. Horn. 1. The nose : also horney : see Conk (1823). 2. A drink ; a dram of spirit: see Go (1849). Phrases: To draw in one's horns, to withdraw, retract, cool down (Qrose) ; to horn off, to put on one side, shunt : as a bull or stag with their horns ; in a horn, a general qualification (implying re- fusal or disbelief), over the left (q.v.) ; to come out of the little end of the horn, to get the worst of a bargain, be reduced in circumstances : also, to make much ado about nothing : said generally of vast endeavour ending in failure : through some unexpected squeeze (q.v.) (1605). Hornet. A disagreeable, cantanker- ous person. Hornie (or Horness). 1. A con- stable or watchman : also a sheriff. 2. The devil : generally Auld Hornie (q.v.). Hornswoggle. Nonsense, humbug (q.v.): see Gammon. As verb, to humbug, delude, seduce. Horn-thumb. A pickpocket : from the practice of wearing a sheath of horn to protect the thumb in cutting out (1569). Horrors. 1. Delirium tremens. Also low spirits, or the blues (q.v.). 2. Sausages : see Chamber of horrors. 3. Handcuffs : see Darbies. Horse. 1. A five- pound note : see Finnup. 2. Horsemonger Lane Gaol : also the old horse. 3. A man, a term of high regard and esteem. As verb, ( 1 ) a workman horses it when he charges for more in his week's work than he has really done : of course he has so much unprofitable work to get through in the ensuing week, which is called dead horse ; also (2) for one of two men who are engaged on precisely similar pieces of work to make extra- ordinary exertions in order to work down the other man : this is some- times done simply to see what kind of a workman a new man may be, but often with the much less creditable motive of injuring a fellow workman in the estimation of an employer. Phrases : The gray mare is the better horse : see Gray- mare ; horse foaled of an acorn, ( 1 ) the gallows : see Nubbing- cheat (1760); (2) the triangles or crossed halberds under which soldiers were flogged ; old (or salt-) horse, salt beef : also junk and salt-junk ; one- horse, comparatively small, insignifi- cant, unimportant ( 1858) ; to be horsed, to be flogged (from the wooden-horse used as a flogging-stool), to take on one's back as for a flogging ; to fall away from a horseload to a cartload, ironically of one considerably improved in flesh of a sudden ; to flag the dead horse : see Dead-horse and Horse ; to put the cart before the horse, to begin at the wrong end, set things hind-side before (1696) ; to put the saddle on the right horse, to apportion accurately (1696); to ride on a horse with (or bayard of) ten toes, to walk, use the marrowbone- stage: cf. Shanks' s mare (1606); as good as a shoulder of mutton to a sick horse, utterly worthless (1596); as itrong as a horse, very strong : a general intensitive ; horse and horse, neck and neck, even. Horsebreaker (or Pretty Horse- breaker). A woman (. I860), 230 Horse-buss. Hot-flannel. hired to ride in the park ; hence a riding demi-mondaine. Horse-buss. A loud-sounding kiss, bite (q.v.) (Grose). Horse - capper (coper, coser, courser, or chaunter). A dealer in worthless or faked horses : originally good English to cope, to barter : see Chanter. Hence Horse-coping and Horse-duffing (1616). Horse-collar. 1. An extremely long and wide collar. 2. A halter. To die in a horse's nightcap, to be hanged : see Ladder. English synonyms : anodyne necklace, Bridport dagger, choker, hempen cravat, hempen elixir, horse's neckcloth, horse's necklace, neck- squeezer, neck weed, squeezer, St. Andrew's lace, Sir Tristram's knot, tight cravat, Tyburn tiffany, Tyburn tippet, widow. Horse-editor. A sporting editor. Horse-copy, sporting news. Horseflesh. See Dead horse and Horse. Horse - godmother. A strapping masculine woman, virago : Fr., femme hommasse (Grose). Horse-latitudes. A space in the Atlantic, north of the trade - winds, where winds are baffling. Horse-laugh. A loud, noisy laugh, guffaw (1738). Horse - leech. 1. An extortioner, miser. 2. A horse - doctor ; also a quack (1594). Horse-marines. A mythical corps, very commonly cited in jokes and quizzies on the innocent. [The Jol- lies (q.v.) or Royal Marines, being ignorant of seamanship, have always been the butt of blue- jackets.] Tell that to the marines (or horse-marines), the sailors won't believe it, a rejoinder to an attempt at imposition or cred- ulity : often amplified with when they're riding at anchor. Horse - milliner. 1. A dandy trooper (1778). 2. A saddler and harness-maker (1818). Horse-nails. Money : see Rhino. To feed on horse-nails, to play so as not to advance your own score so much as to keep down your opponent's. To knock into horse-nails, to knock to pieces, be absolutely victorious. Horse-nightcap. See Horse's-collar. Horse-protestant. A churchman. Horse-sense. Sound and practical judgment. ' Horse "s-head. The boot-sole, heel, and what is left of the front after the back and part of the front have been used to fox (q.v.) other boots. Horse 's-meal. Meat without drink (Grose). Horse - sovereign. A twenty- shilling piece with Pistrucci's effigies of St. George and the Dragon. Hose. In my other hose, a quali- fication of refusal or disbelief, in a horn (q.v.), over the left (q.v.) (1598). Hoss. See Horse. Hoss-fly (or Old Hoss-fly). A familiar address : see Horse. Host. To reckon without one's host, to blunder (1696). Mine host, a taverner. Hosteler. An oat-stealer (Grose). Hot (Winchester College). 1. A mellay at football ; and, 2. a crowd. As adj., (1) of persons: sexually ex- citable, lecherous ; of things (as books) obscene, blue (q.v.), high -kilted (q.v.) ; hot member, a male or female debauchee, a man or woman con- temptuous of decorum ; hot as they make them, exceedingly amorous or reckless ; hot-blooded, lecherous : as (in 'Merry Wives,' v. v.) the hot-blooded gods assist me ; hot-house, a brothel (1383); (2) careless of decorum, boisterous, utterly reckless, aban- doned ; (3) well known to the police, dangerous, uncomfortable ; (4) violent, sharp, severe, passionate; (5) alive, vehement, instant. As verb (Win- chester College), to crowd, mob. To give (get, or catch) it hot, to thrash or reprove soundly, be severely beaten or taken to task (1859). Like a cat on hot bricks, uncomfortable, restive. Hot with, spirits with hot water and sugar : see Cider, and Cold without. Hot-beef. To give hot-beef, to cry Stop thief : also Beef (q.v.). Hot-cakes. To go off like hot cakes, to sell readily, be in good demand. Hot-foot. 1. Instant in pursuit. 2. Restless. Hotch-potch. A medley, hodge- podge (q.v.) (1597). Hot-coppers. The fever and parched throat, or mouth (q.v.), attending a debauch : see Cool one's Copper (1830). Hotel Barbering. Bilking. Hotel warming-pan. A chamber- maid: also warming-pan (q.v.): Fr., limogere. Hot-flannel (or Flannel). Gin and 231 Hot-Jtouse. HuWe-biWe. beer, with nutmeg, sugar, etc., made hot (1789). Hot-house. A brothel, stew (q.v.) orig. a public bath (1596). Hot - place. Hell, a tropical climate. Hot-pot. Ale and brandy made hot (Grose). Hot -potato. To drop like a hot potato, to abandon (a pursuit, a person, a thing) with alacrity. Hot-stomach. So hot a stomach as to burn the clothes off his back, said of one who pawns his clothes for drink (Lex. Bed.). Hottentot. 1. A stranger (East End). 2. A fool : see Buffle. Hot - tiger. Hot-spiced ale and sherry. Hot -water. To be in hot-water, to be in trouble, in difficulties, worried (1846). Hound (Ring's College, Cam- bridge Univ.). 1. An undergraduate not on the foundation, nearly the same as a sizar. 2. A mean, contemptible fellow, scoundrel, filthy sneak. Hounslow-heath. The teeth : see Grinders : also Hampstead-beath. Houri of Fleet Street. A pro- stitute. House. An audience. To bring down the house, to elicit a general burst of applause : FT., avoir sa totd- ette boire du lait (1823). The House, (1) The Stock Exchange; (2) The House of Commons ; (3) Christ Church, Oxford. House (or apartments) to let, a widow (Lex. Bal.). Father of the House, the oldest elected member of the House of Commons. House that Jack built, a prison : see Cage. Like a house on fire, quickly, with energy : see Like. Safe as houses, perfectly safe. House -bit (or keeper, or piece). A servant-mistress. House-dove. A stay-at-home. Household-brigade. To join the household brigade, to marry, get spliced (q.v.). House of Civil Reception. A brothel : see Nanny-shop (Orose). House of Commons (or House of Office). A W.C. : see Mrs. Jones. House - tailor. An upholsterer (1696). Housewife (Huswife, or Hussy). Primarily, a house - keeper. Hence (a) a domestic servant ; (o) a wanton or a gad - about wench ; and (c) a comic endearment. Hence, too, House- wifery and Housewife's tricks, wanton- MM (1408). Housey (Christ's Hospital). Belong- ing to the Hospital. Housle (Winchester College). To hustle. Hoveller. A beach-thief. How. How came you so? drunk: KG Screwed (1824). How much? What do you say T What do you mean T What price T a general request for explanations. How are you off for soap, a street catch (1833). How the blazes; see Blazes. How is that for high : see High. How's your poor feet, a street catch : orig. a dovetail to a gag. How'U you have it, an invita- tion to drink : see Drinks. How we apples swim, (1) said in derision of a parvenu, of a person in better com- pany than he (or she) has any right to keep, or of a pretender to honour or credit he (or she) does not deserve ; also (2) what a good time we're having! Howard's Garbage. The Nineteenth Foot, now the Princess of Wales's Own (Yorkshire Regiment) : also Green Howards. Howard's Greens. The Twenty- fourth foot : now the South Wales Borderers: from its facings and its Colonel's name, 1717-37. How-do-you-do. A to-do, a kettle offish, a pass (1835). Howler. An unblushing falsehood, enormous blunder, serious accident : and so forth. To come (or go) a howler, to come to grief, run amuck. Howling. A general intensitive e.g. Howling swell, a man in the extreme of fashion ; howling - lie, a gross falsehood ; howling-bags, trousers extravagant in cut or pattern ; howling-cad, etc. H oxter. 1. An inside pocket (1834). 2. (Royal Military Academy). Extra drill : corruption of extra : Fr. f ML Hoys. See Hoist. Hoyt. See Hoit Hub. 1. Boston : also Hub of the Universe; the description is Oliver Wendell Holmes' s : since extended to other centres or chief cities. 2. A husband : see Hubby. Hubble-bubble. 1. A confused noise made by a talkative person, who speaks so quick that it is difficult to understand what he says or means Hubtte-de-shuff. Hum-box. (Dyche). A hubble-bubble fellow, a man of confused ideas, or one thick of speech, whose words sound like water bubbling out of a bottle (Lex. Bal.). 2. A hookah, a pipe by which the smoke is passed through water (1811). Hubble-de-shuff. Confusedly. Hubbub. 1. A noise in the streets made by the rabble (B. E. ). 2. A noise, riot, or disturbance (Grose). Hubby (or Hub). A husband (1798). Huck. To chaffer, bargain (1577). Huckleberry. Above one's huckle- berry (bend, or hook), beyond one's ability, out of one's reach : see Bend (1848). Huckle-my-but. Beer, egg, and brandy made hot (Grose). Huckster. 1. A retailer of small goods, pedlar (1696). 2. A mean trickster (1696). In huckster's hands, At a desperate pass, or condition, or in a fair way to be lost (B. E, ). Hucksum (Huckle, Huckle-bone, or Huck-bone). The hip (1508). Hue. ' The Cove was Hued in the Naskin, the Rogue was severely Lasht inBridewel' (B. E.). Huey. A town or village. Huff. 1. An outburst of temper, peevishness, offence at some real or imaginary wrong or slight. Hence, to get (or take) the huff, to fly into a passion (1599). 2. A bully, Hector (q.v.), sharper : also Captain Huff (1569). 3. A dodge, trick. 4. A term in the game of draughts : the penalty for not taking a piece. 5. (Winchester College) : see Huff-cap. As verb, (1) to bluster, bounce, swagger (1607) ; (2) to anger, cheek (q.v)., get angered (1708). As intj., an exclamation of defiance : also Huffa and Huffa- gallant ; the last probably the oldest form of the word (1510). To stand the huff, to stand the reckoning (Lex. Bal.). Also huffy, easily offended ; huffed, annoyed ; huffily, testily, in a tantrum. Huff -cap (or Huff). 1. Strong ale : from inducing people to set their caps in a bold and huffing style. (Nares) (1579). 2. A swaggering bully, Hector (q.v.) (1596). As adj., swag- gering, blustering, rousing (1597). Huffer. A swaggerer. Huffle. To shift, hesitate, waver. Huff-snuff. A person apt to take offence (1592). Huftie-tuftie. Swaggering, gallant (1596). Hug. Garrotting (q.v.): also verbally and to put on the hug. To hug brown bess (q.v.) ; to hug the gunner's daugh- ter, to cuddle a gun for punishment ; to hug the ground, to fall, or be hit off one's legs ; to give the hug (pugilists), to close with and grapple the body ; to hug the shore (bank, or wall), to keep close to ; Cornish hug, a hold in wrestling ; to hug a belief (de- lusion, or thought), to cherish ; to hug one's chains, to delight in captivity. Hugger-mugger. Muddle, confu- sion. As adj., closely or by stealth, under-board : To eat so, that is, to eat by one's self (B. E.). As adj., con- fused, disorderly, hap-hazard, hand- to-mouth (q.v.). As verb, to meet by stealth, lay heads together. In hugger- mugger, in secret (1565). Hugging. Garrotting (q.v.). Hugsome. Attractive. Hulk (Hulky, or Hulking). A fat person, a big lout : generally, great hulk of a fellow ( 1 63 1 ). As verb, to hang about, to Mooch (q.v.). Hull-cheese. ' Hull-cheese is much like a loafe out of a brewers basket, it is composed of two simples, mault and water, in one compound, and is cousin germane to the mightiest ale in England' (John Taylor). Hulverhead (Hulverheaded). A fool : see Buffle. Hum. 1. A kind of strong liquor : probably a mixture of beer and spirits, but also applied to old, mellow, and very strong beer : also Hum-cap (1616). 2. A trick, delusion, cheat, a lie (1756). 3. A church-goer. As verb, (1) to cheat, bamboozle, quiz (q.v. ) (1762) ; (2) to mumble. To hum and haw, to hesitate, raise objections (1469). To make things hum, to force the pace, keep moving. To hum around, to call to account, call over the coals (q.v.). Human. A human being. Humber-keels. See Billy-boy. Humble Pie. To eat humble pie, to submit, apologise, knock under : see Cave in. Hum-box. 1. A pulpit (1725). Eng- lish synonyms : autem, cackle tub, clack loft, cowards' castle, gospel mill (also a church), wood. 2. An auctioneer's rostrum. 233 Humbox Patterer. Hurly-burly. Humbox Patterer. A parson, devil- dodger, sky-pilot. |^ Humbug. 1. A hoax, imposture, swindle (1736). 2. Deceit, pretence, affection. 3. A cheat, impostor, pre- tender : also (old), hummer (1783). As verb, to hoax, swindle, cajole (1751). Hence, humbugging, hoaxing, swind- ling ; humbugable, gullible ; humbug- gery, deception, imposture ; humbug- ger, cheat, hoaxer (1783). Humdrum. 1. A tiresome dullard, steady - going, common - place person (1596). 2. Monotony, lameness, dull- ness (1823). 3. The same as humbug, (1596). 4. A wife; also a husband. As adj., dull, tame, common - place, monotonous (1702). Humdurgeon. 1. An imaginary ill- ness (Grose). 2. Needless noise, ado about nothing (1815). Humdurgeoned. Annoyed. Humguffin. A hobgoblin : also a derisive address. Humgumptious. A knowing sort of humbug is humgumptious (Bee). Hummer. 1. Anything of magnitude or note (1696): spec. 2. a man or woman of notable parts, high stepper (q.v.), good goer (q.v.) : cf. Rustler. 3. See Humbug. Humming. Strong applied to drink ; brisk applied to trade ; hard applied to blows. Humming October, the specially strong brew from the new season's hops, stingo (q.v.) (1696). Hump. 1. To spoil, botch, do for. 2. To shoulder and carry : e.g. to hump one's swag, to shoulder one's kit. To hump oneself, to stir, prepare for attack, fancy oneself (1847). To get (or hare.) the hump, to be despon- dent, hurt, put out, down in the mouth (q.v.) : also to have the hump up (or on) (1599). Humpey. A pile of buffalo robes. Humphrey. A coat with pocket holes but no pockets (Mateett). To dine with Duke Humphrey : see Dine, Sir Thomas Gresham, and Knights (1592). Humpty-dumpty. 1. A short and thick-set person, grundy (q.v.), hunch- back : see Forty-guts. 2. Ale boiled with brandy (1696). As adj. and adv., short and thick, all of a heap, all together. Hum-strum. A musical instrument made of a mop-stick, a bladder, and some packthread, thence also called bladder and string, and hurdy gurdy ; it is played on like a violin, which is sometimes ludicrously called a hum- strum ; sometimes instead of a bladder a tin canister is used (Grose). Hunch. To jostle, shove, squeeze (1696). Hung. To be hung up, to come to a standstill, be in a fix. Hungarian. 1. A hungry man, a rare pecker (q.v.) (1608). 2. A free- booter. Hunk. To be (or get) hunk or all hunk, (1) to hit a mark, achieve an object, be safe. Also (2) to scheme : from Dutch honk, goal or home. Hunker (or Old Hunker). In New York (1844) a Conservative Democrat, as opposed to the Young Democracy or Barn-burners (q.v.). Hence, an anti- progressive in politics. Hunks. A miser, mean, sordid fellow, curmudgeon. Hunky. Good, jolly : a general superlative : also Hunkidorum. Hunt. To decoy a pigeon (q.v.) to the tables. Hence hunting, card- sharping, flat -catching (q.v.) (1696). To hunt for soft spots, to make one- self comfortable, seek one's ease. To hunt grass, to be knocked down, grassed (q.v.): also, to be puzzled, dumfoundered. To hunt leather, to field at cricket To hunt the dummy, to steal pocket books. To hunt the squirrel, an amusement practised by post boys and stage-coachmen, which consists in following a one - horse chaise, and driving it before them, passing close to it so as to brush the wheel, and by other means terrifying any woman or person that may be in it : a man whose turn comes for him to drink, before he has emptied his former glass, is said to be hunted (Grose). In (or out of) the hunt, having a chance (or none) ; in (or out) of the swim (q.v.), admitted to (or outside) a circle or society. Hunt-about. 1. A prying gossip. 2. A street walker. Hunt-counter. A beggar (1598). Hunters. Pitching the hunters, the three sticks a penny, with snuff-boxes stuck upon sticks ; if you throw your stick, and they fall out of the hole, you are entitled to what vou knock off (Lond. Lab.). Hurly-burly. A commotion, bustle, uproar (1509). 234 Hurrays-nest. Image. Hurra 's-nest. The utmost confu- sion, everything topsy - turvy, sixes- and-sevens. Hurrah in Hell. Not to care a single hurrah in hell, to be absolutely in- different. Hurry. A quick passage on the violin, or a roll on the drum, leading to a climax in the representation. Hurry-durry. Rough, boisterous, impatient of counsel or control (1677). Hurrygraph. A hastily written letter. Husband's - boat. The Saturday boat to Margate during the summer season (1867). Husband 's-tea. Weak- tea, water bewitched (q.v.). Hush. To kill (Grose). Hush - money. Money paid for silence, to quash a case, or stay a wit- ness, a bribe, blackmail (1709). Hush-shop (or crib). An unlicensed tavern. Husky (Winchester College). Goose- berry fool with the husks in it : obsolete (Notions). As adj., stout, well built. Husky-lour. A guinea : see Rhino (1696). Hussy. A corruption of housewife (q.v.). Hustle. To bestir oneself, go to work with vigour and energy : also to hustle around. Hustler. An active man or woman, a hummer (q.v.), rustler (q.v.). Hutch. A place of residence or employment, diggings (q.v.). Hutter. See Hatter. Huxter. Money : also Hoxter : see Rhino. Huzzy (or Huzzie). A case: of needles, pins, scissors, bodkins, etc., a housewife's companion. Hypernese. A dialect of school crypt- oepy. When spoken fast it defies an outsider's curiosity. If two consonants commence a syllable, the former ia dropped, and W substituted : thus breeches would be wareechepes. If P commences a syllable, G is interpolated: thus penny would be pegennepy .... Bishop Wilkins described it, without mentioning it as a novelty, a couple of centuries ago. Hyphenated American. A natural- ised citizen, as German - Americans, Irish- Americans, and the like (Norton). Hypocrite. A pillow slip or sham. Hyps (or Hypo). The blue devils (q.v.) (1710). Ice. A big thing on ice, a profitable venture, good thing ; also B.T.I. Icken. Oak. Icken-baum, oak-tree : from the German (Matsdl). Ictus. A lawyer : see Green-bag. [A corruption of juris consultas]. Idea-pot (or box). The head: see Crumpet (Grose). Identical. Generally the identical, the self-same person, point, argument, or action (1664). I desire. A fire. Ignoramus. A stupid and unlettered person, male or female : first applied to ignorant lawyers : from Latin, we ignore (it), the endorsement by which a grand jury threw out a bill (1569). Ignoramus- jury. A Grand Jury. (1696). I k e y. A Jew : specifically a Jew fence (q.v.): a corruption of Isaac: also Ikey Mo. As adj., smart, fly (q.v.), knowing (q.v.). He. See Oil. 111. Vicious, unpleasant, ill-tem- pered : cf. Religious. Also ill for, having a vicious propensity for any- thing (Jamieson) : cf. Neither is it ill air only that makes an ill seat, but ill ways, ill markets, and ill neigh- bours (Bacon). To do ill to, to wrong a woman. Illegitimate. 1. A counterfeit sovereign; young illegitimate, a half sovereign (Bee). 2. A low grade coster- monger. As adj., applied to steeple- chasing or hurdle - racing, as distin- guished from work on the flat. Ill-fortune. Ninepence : also the picture of til-luck (B. E. ). Illuminate. To interline with a translation (1856). Illustrated Clothes. See Historical Shirt. I'm-afloat. 1. A boat. 2. A coat: see Capella. Image. An affectionate reproof : e.g. Come out you little image ! 236 Immense. Infant. Immense. A general superlative : cf. Awful, Bloody, etc. (1771). Immensikoff . A fur-lined overcoat : from the burden of a song, The Shore- ditch Toff, sung (e. 1868) by the late Arthur Lloyd, who described himself as Immensikoff, and wore an upper garment heavily trimmed with fur. Immortals.The Seventy-Sixth Foot: now the second battalion of the Duke of Wellington's (West Riding Regi- ment). [Most of its men were wounded, but escaped being killed, in India in 1806.] Also the Pigs, and The Old Seven and Sixpennies. Imp. A mischievous brat, a small or minor devil : originally a child. [Trench : there are epitaphs extant commencing, Here lies that noble imp ; and Lord Cromwell, writing to Henry VIII., speaks of That noble imp your son.] 2. A man who gets up cases for a devil (q.v.). Imperence. Impertinence, impud- ence, cheek (q.v.)- Also, inferentially, an impudent person ; e.g. What's your imperence about T (1766). Imperial. A tuft of hair worn on the lower Up. [It was introduced by the Emperor Napoleon IIL] See Goatee. Implement (old). A Tool, a Pro- perty, or Fool easily engaged in any (tho' difficult or Dangerous) Enter- prise (B. E.). Importance. A wife : also com- fortable importance (q.v.) (1647). Impost - taker. A gambler's and blackleg's money-lender, sixty-per- cent, (q.v.) (1696). Improvement. That part of a sermon which enforces and applies to everyday life the doctrine previously Bet forth, the application. Impure. A wanton (1511). In. A person in, or holding an office ; specifically (in politics), a member of the party in office : cf. Out (1768). As adv., various: cricketers, at the wickets ; general, in season ; also, on an equality with, sharing, or intimate with, or fashionable ; poli- tical, in office ; thieves', in prison ; or quodded (q.v.). To be in (or in it) with one, ( 1) to be even with, on guard against ; (2) to be on intimate terms (or in partnership) with, in the swim (q.v.). To be in for it, (1) to be in trouble ; generally to be certain to receive, suffer, or do (something) (1668) ; (2) To be with child. In for the plate, venereally infected. For all there's in it, to the utmost capacity (of persons and things). To play one's hand for all there's in it, to use fair means or foul to attain an object. To get it in for one, to remember to one's disadvantage. For combinations see Altitudes, Arms of Morpheus, Bad way, Blues, Bottom of the bag, Buff, Bunch, Cart, Click, Clover, Crack, Crook, Cups, Dead earnest, Difficulty, Hole, Jiffy, Jug, Kish, Know, Laven- der, Limbo, Liquor, Lurch, Patter, Pound, Print, Queer Street, Rags, Running, Shape, Shell, Skiffle, Slash, State of Nature, Straw, String, Suds, Sun, Swim, Tin-pot way, Town, Twinkling, Water, Wind, Wrong box, etc. In-and-out. The detail or intricacies of a matter ; generally in pL, e.g. To know all the ins-and-outa of a matter. As adv., unequal, variable : ap- plied to the performances of a horse which runs well one day, and on another not. Inch. To encroach, move slowly (1696). Incog. 1. Unknown, in disguise : also as subs. [An abbreviation of incognito.] (1696). 2. Drunk: i.e. disguised in liquor : see Screwed (1823). Incognita. A high-class prostitute, anonyma (q.v.). Incumbrance. In pi., children. Indentures. To make indentures, to stagger with drink (1622). Indescribables. Trousers : see Kicks (1835). Index. The face, dial (q.v.), phiz (q.v.). Indian. To prowl about, live like an Indian. Indian-gift. An inadequate return or exchange, a sprat for a whale. Indian giver, one who takes back a gift. India-wipe. A silk handkerchief (Grose). Indies. See Black Indies. Indispensable s. Trousers: see Kicks. Indorse. To cudgel, lay cane on Abel (Grose). Ineffable. In pi., trousers; see Kicks. Inexplicables. Trousers : see Kicks. Inexpressibles. Trousers : see Kicks (1790). Infant See Woolwich Infant 236 Infantry. Interloper. Infantry. Children : Fr., entrer dans rinfanterie, to fall with child (1623). Light infantry, fleas : cf. Heavy dragoons. Infare (or Infair). An installation with ceremony and rejoicing : house- warming : more particularly an enter- tainment given by a newly married couple on their return from the honey- moon (1375). Inferior (Winchester College). Any member of the School not a Praefect (q.v.). Infernal. An intensitive : detest- able, fit only for hell : cf. Awful, Bloody (1602). Infra - dig (Winchester College). Scornful, proud : e.g. He sported infra- dig duck, or I am infra-dig to it. Ingle. An intimate, dear friend. As verb, to caress, to make much of (1599). Ingler. A fraudulent horse-dealer (1825). Ingotted. Rich, warm (q.v.), well- ballasted (q.v.). Iniquity Office. A registry office. Ingun. To get upon one's ingun, to get angry, turn savage. Ink. To sling ink, to make a business of writing : see Ink-slinger. Inkhorn (or Ink-pot). Pedantic, dry, smelling of the lamp (1579). Inkle. To warn, give notice, hint at, disclose (1340). Inkle-weaver. A close companion, chum (q.v.) (1725). Ink-slinger (Inkspiller, or Ink- waster). 1. A journalist, author, brother of the quill (q.v.) : generally in contempt of a raw hand : Fr., marchand de lignes, Ink-slinging. Writing for the press : Fr., scribouillage, Inky. Used evasively : e.g. of a question to which a direct answer is undesirable or inconvenient. Inlaid (or Well-inlaid). In easy circumstances, with well-lined pockets, warm (q.v.) (1696). Innards. The stomach : also In- wards (1602). To fill one's innards, to eat. Inner-man. The appetite. Innings. A turn, spell, chance : from cricket (1836). To have a good innings, to be fortunate : especially in money matters. To have a long innings, to die in the fulness of years. Innocent. 1. A simpleton, idiot (1598) : see Buffle. 2. A corpse, stiff (q.v.). 3. A convict. The mur- der (slaughter, or massacre) of the innocents, the abandonment, towards the end of a session, of measures whether introduced by the Govern- ment or by private members, when they would have no chance of passing (1859). Innominables. Breeches, trousers, inexpressibles : see Kicks. Inside. A passenger riding inside a vehicle : see Outside (1816). As adj. and adv., trustworthy, pertinent, in touch with, bottom (q.v.). To know the inside of everything, to be well informed. Inside of, within the limit, in less time than. To take the inside out of (a glass, a book, etc.), to empty, gut (q.v.) (1843). To be on (or to have) the inside track, to be on the safe side, at a point of vantage, or (of a subject) to understand thoroughly. Inside and outside ! A toast. Insider. 1. One in the know (q.v.). 2. One who has some special advantage, as in a business enter- prise. Inside-lining. Food. Inside-squatter. A settler within the bounds of civilisation : see Outside Squatter. Inspector of Pavements. 1. A man in the pillory (1821). 2. A man out of work : also inspector of public buildings : Fr., Inspecteur de monu- ments publiques. Inspire. To impart a tone, pos- sibly official, to the subject matter of a newspaper or magazine article. Inspired. 1. Drunk: see Screwed. 2. See Inspire. Institution. A practice, idea, in- vention, established custom or usage (1851). Int. A sharper (1621). Intense. Serious, soulful, aesthetic (q.v.) ; yearnest (q.v.). Intimate. A shirt. Interesting condition (or situation). To be in a, to be with child (1748). Interfere. To maltreat. Interloper. An unlicensed trader, smuggler, one who interferes, or inter- cepts unwarrantably. Also, Hangers on, retainers to, or dependers upon other folks ; also Medlers and Busy- bodies, intruders into other Men's Professions, and those that intercept 237 It. the trade of a Company, being not legally authorised ' (B. E.). Into. To be into a man, to pitch into him, fight him. As prep., short of, wanting : e.g. I thought I did pretty well delivering all the load into one box (i.e. all but one box). Invite. An invitation (1615). Inward. 1. An intimate (1603). 2. In pL, see Innards. Irish. Irish whisky, Fenian (q.v.). To get one's Irish up, to get angry : also to get one's dutch (or, in America, Indian) up. As adj., an epithet of contempt and derogation : as, Irish- arms (or legs), thick legs. No Irish need apply, phr. (American). You're not wanted, Git ! (q.v.). You're Irish, said of any one talking un- intelligibly. Irish-apricot (apple, or lemon). A potato : see Murphy (Grose). Irish-assurance. A bold, forward behaviour ; it is said a dipping in the Shannon annihilates bashfulness (Grose). Irish-beauty. A woman with two black eyes (Grose). Irish-evidence. A false witness (Grose). Irishman 's-dinner. A fast. Irishman 's-harvest The orange season. Irishman's -hurricane. A dead calm. Irishman's - reef. The head of a sail tied up (Clark Sussell). Irish-pennants. Fag ends of rope, rope-yarns, etc. Irish-rifle. A small tooth-comb. Irish-rise (or promotion). A re- duction in position or pay. Irish - theatre. A guard room or lock-up in barracks : Fr., maison de campagne. Irish-toyle. ' The Twelfth Order of Canters : also Rogues carrying Finns. Points, Laces, and such like Wares, and under pretence of selling them, commit Thefts and Robberies' (B. E.), Irish-wedding. The emptying of a cesspool : see Goldfinder. To have danced at an Irish wedding, to have got two black eyes. Iron. 1. Money): see Rhino (Grose). 2. Courage. 3. In pL, fetters : see Darbies. As verb, to flatter (1823). Bad iron, failure, misadventure, bad luck. To polish the king's iron with one's eyebrow, to look out of grated or prison windows (Grote). To have many irons in the fire (or on the anvil), to carry out many projects at the same time, especially schemes for making money (1593). Ironbark. See Ironclad. Iron-bound. 1. Laced with metal. Iron-bound hat, a silver laced hat (Grose). 2. A hard-baked pie. Ironclad. 1. A paragon : as a severely chaste girl, popular play, song, horse, etc. 2. An iron-cased watch. As adj., strong, hard, un- yielding: also Ironbark (q.v.). Iron-cow. See Cow. Iron-doublet. 1. A prison : see Cage. 2. Innocence. Iron-horse. 1. A locomotive. 2. A tricycle or bicycle. Ironmonger 's-shop. To keep an ironmonger's shop by the side of a common, where the sheriff sets one up, to be hanged in chains : see Ladder (Grose). Iron-rations. Tinned meat : speci- fically boiled salt - beef : see Bully- beef. Iron-toothpick. A sword, poker (q.v.). Irrigate. To drink, liquor up : also to irrigate one's canal (1708). Isabella. An umbrella, mushroom (q.v.). Island. To drink out of the island, 1 he drank out of the bottle till he saw the island : the island is the rising bottom of a wine bottle, which ap- pears like an island in the centre, before the bottle is quite empty.' (Lex. Bal.). Island of Bermuda. See Bermudas. Isle-of-fling. A coat : see Capella. Issues. To pool one's issues, to work in unison, come to an under- standing for mutual advantage. Isthmus-of-Suez. The bridge at St John's College, Cambridge, leading from the grounds to one of the Courts familiarly known as the Bridge of Sighs : also The Bridge of Grunts. [From its slight similarity to the Venetian example Sues, swine, in punning reference to the John! an hogs (q.v.) : see Crackle and Hog. I subscribe. A response to an invita- tion to drink : see Drinks. I suppose. The nose : see Conk. It A chamber-pot. English syno- nyms: bishop, chantie (Scots'), jerry, Jordan, jerker, jockum-gage, lagging- 23S Itchland. Jack. gage, looking - glass, member - mug, mingo, piss-pot, po, smoker, smoke- spell, tea-voider, thunder-mug, twiss. Itchland (or Scratchland). 1. Wales (B. E. 1690) ; 2. Scotland (New Cant Diet.). Itchlander, a Scot. Itching-palm. See Palm. Item. A hint, piece of news : (in gaming) a signal from a confederate ; (American journalist) a paragraph of news ; (thieves') a warning (1650). Ivories. 1. The teeth : see Grind- ers (1782). 2. Dice: also (cards') checks and counters. English syno- nyms (for both genuine and false pieces), bones, cogs, fulhams, devil's teeth, devil's bones, gourds, rattlers, tats, high men, low men, uphills. 3. Billiard balls. To flash the ivories, (1) to show the teeth (Grose) ; (2), to be dissected or anatomised after execution, the skeleton being taken to the College of Surgeons ; prison, (3) to be hanged. To sluice (wash or rince) one's ivories, to drink : see Lush. Ivory-box. The mouth : see Po- tato-trap. Ivory-Carpenter. A dentist, snag- catcher (q.v.). Ivory-thumper (or Spanker). A pianist. Ivy-bush. Like an owl in an ivy bush, a simile for a meagre, or weazle- faced man, with a large wig, or very bushy hair (Grose). Jab (or Job). A prod, poke, stab. As verb, to handle harshly, hustle, prod, poke, stab (with a pointed weapon). Jabber. Chatter, incoherent or inarticulate and unintelligible speech (as a foreign language heard by one ignorant of it) (1706). As verb, to Talk thick and fast, as great Praters do, or to Chatter, like a Magpye (B. E.) (1548) ; to speak a foreign language (Grose). Hence, jabberer, one who jabbers ; jabbering, nonsense, indistinct and rapid speech, patter (q.v.) ; also jabberment ; jabberingly, indistinctly, nonsensically. Jabbernowl. See Jobbernowl. Jabers (or Jabez). Be (orby) jabers (or jabez), an oath (1821). Jack. 1. A farthing ; also (Ameri- can thieves'), a small coin (1690). 2. The small bowl aimed at in the game of bowls (1605). 3. A contrivance to assist a person in taking off his boots, a bootjack (1696). 4. The knave in any of the four suits in a pack of cards : Fr., galuchet, larbin savonne, mistigris (1662). 5. A post-chaise (Grose). 6. A pitcher varying in capacity (gener- ally made of leather), blackjack (q.v.) (1592). 7. A Jacobite. 8. A term of contempt. [The usage is common in most modern languages : e.g. Fr., Jean-guetre, peasant, Jean-bete, cab- bage-head, Jean-fesse or Jean-foutre, scamp; It., Gianni, whence Zany ; Sp., Juan, as 6060 Juan, foolish John. See also many combinations To play the Jack, to act the fool (or goat, q.v.) ; Cheap Jack, a peddling tradesman ; Jack- fool (Chaucer), a thundering idiot ; Jack- friar, a hedge-priest (q.v.) ; Jack-slave, a vulgarian ; Jack-brag, a boaster ; Jack-snip, a botching tailor ; Jack-straw, a low-born rebel ; Jack- sprat, a mannikin ; skip-jack, an up- start ; Jack-at-warts, a little conceited fellow ; Jack-in-the-box, the sacrament ; Jack-upaland (Chaucer), a peasant. 9. A counter resembling in size and appearance a sovereign ; also Half- jacks. [They are all made in Birm- ingham, and are of the size and colour of the genuine sovereigns and half - sovereigns .... Each presents a profile of the Queen ; but instead of the superscription Victoria Dei Gratia of the true sovereign, the jack has Victoria Regina. On the reverse, in the place of the Britanniarum Regina Fid. Def. surrounding the royal arms and crowns is a device (intended for an imitation of St. George and the Dragon) representing a soldier on horseback the horse having three legs elevated from the ground, while a drawn sword fills the right hand of the equestrian, and a crown adorns his head. The superscription is, To Hanover, and the rider seems to be sociably accompanied by a dragon. Round the Queen's head on the half jack is Victoria, Queen of Great Britain, and on the reverse the Prince of Wales's feather, with the legend Jack. Jacket. The Prince of Wales' s Model Hall Sovereign.] 10. (a) A sailor : also Jack-tar, English-jack, and Spanish- jack ; (b) an attendant at a boat- house; also Jack-in-the- water (q.v.) (1788). 11. A stranger. 12. A male sweetheart: cf. GUI (1500). 13. The Union Jack, the rag (q.v.) (1662). 14. A seal: see Jark. 16. A police- man : see Copper. 16. See Jakes. 17. A male : as in the compounds jack- hare, jack - crow, jack ass, jack- rabbit, etc. (1563). 18. An ape. 19. A peasant (1513). As verb, (1) to brand an unmarked yearling or maverick (q.v.). ; (2) to run away quickly : see Bunk. Phrases : To lay on the jack, to thrash soundly, scold in good round terms, baste, tan (1557); to make one's jack, to succeed, gain one's point : from the game of faro ; to be coppered on the jack, to fail, lose one's point : from the game of faro ; to play the jack, to play the rogue (1609); to be upon their jacks, to have an advantage ; every man jack (or every jack-rag), every one without exception (1845); Jack- at-a-pinch, a person employed in an emergency, stop-gap; specifically, a clergyman who has no cure, but on occasion officiates for a fee : cf. Guinea-pig (1696) ; Jack-in-a (or-the)- box,(\) a sharper, cheat; (2) a child's toy, consisting of a box out of which, on raising the lid, a figure springs (1570); (3) a game in which some article, of more or less value, is placed on the top of a stick standing in a hole, and thrown at with sticks : if the article be hit so as to fall clear of the hole, the thrower takes it ; (4) a small but powerful kind of screw, used by burglars to open safes (1848) ; (5) see Jack-in-the- cellar ; (6) a street-pedlar (1696); (7) the sacrament; Jack-in office, an over-bearing petty official, upstart, Jack - in - the - pulpit (q.v.) (1696); Jack-in-the-cellar (or box), a child in the womb, Hans-en-kelder (q.v.) (1765); Jack-in-the-dust, a steward's mate ; Jack-in-the-green, a chimney-sweep enclosed in a portable framework of boughs for the proces- sions on the first of May : now mainly a thing of the past ; Jack-in-the-pulpit, a pretender, upstart, Jack-in-office (q.v.); Jack-in-the-water, an odd or handy man at a boat-house or landing stage : also Jack (q.v., sense 10) ; Jack-oj -all-trades, one who can (or pretends to be able to) turn his hand to any business : now usually in con- tempt, as Jack - of - all - trades and master of none (1633); Jack-of-legs, (1) an extra tall man, lamp- post (q.v.); (2) a large clasp knife: see Jocteleg ; Jack-on-both-siaes, a neutral; also one who hunts with the hounds and runs with the hare, a fence- rider (q.v.) (1594) ; Jack-out-of-doors, a vagrant (1634); Jack-out-of -office, a discharged official : in derision (1592) ; Jack-the-painter, a much adulterated green tea used in the bush ; Jack-the- slipper, the treadmill, wheel of life (q.v.); to jack the interim, to be re- manded ; to jack up, to clinch, abandon, chuck (q.v.); jacked-up, ruined, done for. Jack Adams. A fool : see Buffle (1696). Jack-a-dandy. 1. A little fop, cox- comb, dandiprat (q.v.): also Jack Dandy (1632). 2. Brandy. Jack - a - green. See Jack-in-the- green, under Jack. Jack -a- lent. (1) A dapperling, dwarf ; and (2) a simpleton : also Jack-o'-lent (1596). Jackanapes. An absurd fop, whip- per-snapper : a general term of re- proach. Jackanapes - coat, a dandy- coat (Pepys). [Originally, no doubt, a gaudy-suited and performing ape (the word is still good Scots for a monkey ; cf. Scott, Redgauntlet) ; and, hence, by implication, anybody at once ugly (or diminutive), showy, and impudent. Also a Jack-of-apes was a man who exhibited performing apes] (1529). Jackaroo. A fresh arrival from England, new chum (q.v.). Jackass. A stupid ignoramus : see Buffle. Also Jackassism, stupidity. Jackass - Frigate. A small slow- sailing frigate (1833). Jack-cove. A mean low fellow, snide (q.v.) (Matsell). Jack (or Tom) Drum's Entertain- ment. Ill - treatment, ignominious dismissal : cf. Stafford law. Jacked. Spavined, lamed. Jackeen (or Dublin Jackeen). A Dublin 'Arry (q.v.). Jacken-closer. A seal. Jackery. A favoured station hand (Australian). Jacket. 1. The skin of an un- 24U Jacketing. Jakes. pared potato : generally in phrase boiled in their jackets. 2. A pinafore roundabout (q.v.). 3. A folded docket- paper. As verb, (1) to cheat, swindle, betray ; (2) to thrash, beat : also to trim (du#t or lace) one's jacket (1704); (3) to enclose (a document) after scheduling within it other papers relating to the same subject, docket ; (4) to denote, point out. To give a red-laced jacket, to flog. To line one's jacket, to eat or drink, fill one's stomach (1611). Pull down your jacket (or vest), keep cool ! don't get excited ! hold your hair on (q.v.). To send in one's jacket, to resign, deliver up one's badge of office. Jacketing. A thrashing, reprimand. Jacket-reverser. A turncoat. Jackey. Gin : see Drinks. Jack Frost. A popular personifica- tion of frost : cf. John Fog and Tommy Snow. Jack-gagger. A man living on his wife's immorality. Jack Ketch (or Kitch). A hang- man or executioner, a dancing-master (q.v.), topsman (q.v.). [From a famous practitioner of that name (circa 1663-86). Before his time the office had been filled by men whose names each and all became popular colloquialisms: e.g. Derrick (q.v.), Gregory Brandon (Gregorian tree, (q.v.), Dun (q.v.) (1676). As verb, to hang. Jack Ketch's kitchen, a room in "fewgate, where the hangman boiled the quarters of those executed and dismembered for high treason. Jack Ketch's pippin, a candidate for the "Jows, gallows-apple (q.v.). Jack-leg. Blackleg. Jackman. See Jarkman. Jack-nasty. A sneak, sloven : cf. Tack-nasty-face (1856). Jack-nasty-face. 1. A sailor : specifi- cally a cook (1811). 2. A filthy unpleasant-looking person : cf. lack-nasty (1823). Jack-pudding. A serving merry- idrew, low - class buffoon : Fr., pottage (jack-soup), Germ., ianswurst (jack - sausage), Dutch, kel-herringe, It., macaroni. Hence ck-puddinghood (Walpole), buffoon- (1650). Jack Randall. A candle : the name a famous pugilist. Jack Robinson. Before one can say Jack Robinson, instantly, in the shortest possible time, in two-two'a (q.v.). Jackrum. A marriage license (1825). Jack-sauce. An impudent fellow, sauce-box (q.v.) (1571). Jack's Delight. A sailor's woman. Jack-shay. A tin quart used for boiling tea, and contrived to hold a tin pint. Jack-sprat. An undersized man or boy (Orose) (1570). Jack - straw. 1. A nobody ; and, 2. a dwarf : see Hop-o'-my-thumb (1596). Jack Tar. 1. A sailor ; and, 2. a hornpipe (1781). Jack Weight. A fat man, forty-guts (q.v.). Jack-whore. A large, masculine, overgrown wench (Orose). Jacob. 1. Rogues called Jacobs ; these go with ladders in the dead of the night, and get in at the windows, one, two, or three pair, of stairs, and sometimes down the area (1753). 2. A ladder (1714). 3. A soft fellow, spooney, fool : see Buffle (Grose). Jacobite. A sham shirt, dickey (q.v.) ; also a shirt-collar (B. E.). Jacob's Ladder. A longitudinal flaw in the leg of a pair of tights ; now applied to any rent of which only the woof threads are left (1859). Jade. 1. An epithet applied to women : in contempt : originally a horse or man (Chaucer) : especially (1) one over-ridden or foundered ; and (2) unsafe and full of tricks : jadish (Nashe), malicious, tricky, untrust- worthy (1560) ; 2. A long term of im- prisonment, stretch (q.v.). Jag. 1. A scrap, load, parcel, or lot : e.g. a fare, a catch of fish, etc. (1692). 2. A whim, fancy. 3. In- toxication : e.g. to have a jag on, to be drunk. 4. A drunkard, Lushington (q.v.). Jagged. Drunk : see Screwed. Jagger. l.A gentleman (1859). 2. A hawker. Jague. A ditch (1622). jail-bird A prisoner, crack- halter (q.v.) (1603). Jakes. A privy, house of office. [Century : The occurrence of dial. johnny, a jakes also called Mrs. Jones by country people (Hattiwett), with dial. Tom, a close-stool, suggests that jakes was originally Jake's or 241 Jakes-farmer. Jawing. Jack's, a humorous euphemism.] See Ajax (1550). Jakes-farmer. An emptier of cess- pools, goldfinder (q.v.) : also jakes- raker (Skdton), and jakes-barreller (1596). Jam. 1. A sweetheart, mistress : also bit of jam. Lawful-jam, a wife. 2. A certainty of winning, clear profit : also real jam. 3. Excellence, good luck, happiness. Jam-up, the pink of perfection, slap-up (q.v.), bang- up (q.v.): also real jam (1855). 4. A crush, crowd (1812). 5. A ring (Maxell). 6. The pool at Nap, into which each dealer pays, the winner of the next nap taking the lot. As adj., neat, smart, spruce. As verb, to hang (Grose). Jamboree (or Jimboree). A frolic, spree (q.v.). James. 1. A crowbar, jemmy (q.v.) ; FT., Jacques (1819). 2. A sovereign or twenty shillings (1858). 3. A sheep's head: more frequently, when un- cooked, bloody jemmy (q.v.) (1827). Jamie Moore. To have been talking to Jamie Moore, to be drunk : see Screwed. Jammed. To be jammed, to meet with a violent death, by accident, murder, or hanging. J a m - 1 a r t (Stock Exchange). 1. Exactly the market, buyers and sellers at the same. 2. A wife or mistress. Jams. An abbreviation of Jim- jams (q.v.). Jan. A purse (1610). Jane. A sovereign : see Rhino. Jane-of-apes. A pert forward girl ; the counterpart of Jackanapes (q.v.) (1624). Jango. Liquor (1721). Janizary. ' The Mob sometimes so called, and Bailives, Sergeants, Followers, Yeomen, Setters, and any lewd gang depending upon others' (B. E.). Jannock (or Jonnok). Sociable, fair, just, straightforward, conclusive. To die jannock, to die with bravado. Janusmug. A go-between, inter- mediary between a thief and a re- ceiver. Jap. 1. A japanner (Purchas); also, 2. a Japanese. Japan. 1. To ordain. To be japanned, to take orders (1756). 2. To convert. To be japanned, to be converted (MatseU). 3. To black one's boots: FT., sabouler (1712). Japanese Knife - trick. Eating with one's knife. Jap per s. See Jabera. Jargoozle. To mislead, to lead astray, bamboozle (q.v.). Jark. 1. A seal : It., tirella : also Jack (1567). 2. A watch, ticker (q.v.). 3. A safe - conduct pass, jasker (q.v.). To jark it, to run away : see Bunk. Jarkman. A begging-letter writer, fabricator of false characters, counter- feit-passes, and certificates (1567). Jarrehoe (Wellington College). A man-servant. Jarvel. A jacket Jarvey (or Jarvis). 1. A hackney coachman (1811). 2. (old). A hackney coach (1823). Jasey (or jazey). 1. A worsted wig. Cove unth a jazey, a judge (1789). 2. A man with an enormous quantity of hair upon his head and face (Matsdl). Jasker. A seal (Matidl). Jason's fleece. A citizen cheated of his gold (B. E.\. Jaum. To discover ( 1 82 1 ). Jaw. Abuse, chatter, impudence, any sort of talk. Hold (or stow) your jaw, hold your tongue. All jaw, like a sheep's head, nothing but talk. Eng- lish synonyms : chin-music, gab (or gob), lingo, lip, lobs, patter, snaffle (1748). As verb, to chatter, abuse, use violent language : FT., faire ptter son grelot, or jouer du mirliton (1748). To jaw on the toby (or drum), to go on the road. Jawbation. 1. A general confab (q.v.), jawing- match : see Jobation. 2. A scolding. Jawbone. Credit, day (q.v.). To call one's jawbone, to live on credit, run one's face (q.v.). English syno- nyms : to run one's face, to get a light, to give (or strike) on the mace, to mace it, to get on sock, (or, on the nod), to go tick. Jawbreaker (or Jawtwister.) 1. A hard or many - syllabled word. Jawbreaking, difficult. 2. A hard punch on the whisker. Jaw-cove. 1. An auctioneer ; and, 2. a lawyer (Matsett). Jawhawk. To abuse, vilify, jaw (q.v.). Jawing- (or Jaw-) tackle. The organs of speech. To have one's 242 Jaw- smith. Jerry. jawing tacks aboard (or to cast off one' jaw-tackle), to talk fluently ; jawing- match, wordy warfare (Clark Russell). Jaw-smith. 1. An orator; also, 2. a loud-mouthed demagogue : originally an official orator or instructor of the Knights of Labour (St. Louis Globe Democrat, 1886). Jay (or J). 1. A simpleton: see Buffle. To play (or scalp) one for (or to flap) a jay, to dupe, swindle : FT., rouler dans la farine. 2. A wanton. It., putta (1596). 3. An amateur, a poor actor. Jayhawker. A freebooter, a guerilla: specifically a marauder during the Kansas troubles, and since extended to all bandits. Jeames. 1. A footman, flunkey (q.v.). 2. The Morning Post news- paper. Jeff. A rope. As verb, to gamble with quads, as with dice. Jeffy. Lightning (Matsdl) (1859). In a jeffey : see Jiffey. Jegger. See Jigger. Jehu. A coachman, driver : from 2 Kings, ix. 20 (1660). Jelly. A buxom, good-looking girl : also all jetty : cf. Scots jelly, excellent or worthy. A jelly man well worthy of a crown. Jelly-belly. A fat man or woman, forty-guts (q.v.). Jem. A gold ring, rum-gem, a diamond ring (1725). Jemima. A chamber-pot : see It. Jeminy! (or O Jeminy I). See Gemini. Jemminess. See Jemmy. Jemmy (or Jimmy).!. A short crow- bar, usually made in sections screwing together : used by housebreakers : also James (q.v.) (1752). English synonyms : bess, betty, crow, dog, Jack-in-the-box, James, jilt, lord- mayor, persuading plate, pig's-foot, the stick, screw (also a skeleton key), tiwill, twist, twirl. 2. A sheep's head. 3. A shooting coat ; also a great coat. 4. A term of contempt. All jimmy, rot. As adj., (1) spruce, dandi- fied. Jemminess, spruceness, neatness (1754) ; (2) a term of contempt. Jemmy Ducks. The ship's poulterer: also Billy Ducks. Jemmy Jessamy. A dandy: also as adj. (1753). Jemmy and Jessamy, a couple of lovers. Jemmy-john. A demijohn. Jemmy O 'goblin. A sovereign: sea Rhino. Jenkins' Hen. To die like Jenkins' hen, to die unmarried. Jeeny. 1. A she-ass. 2. A small crowbar; formerly betty or bess (q.v.) : also a hook on the end of a stick (1696). 3. A losing hazard into the middle pocket off a ball an inch or two from the side cushion. 4. A hot- water bottle. Jennylinda. A window. Jeremy Diddler. A shark (q.v.), a shabby swindling borrower (1803). Jericho. 1. A place of concealment or banishment ; latterly and speci- fically, a prison : e.g. as in phr. go to Jericho, go to the devil : genericafiy, a place of retirement : cf. 2 Sam. x. 4 and 5 (1635). 2. A water-closet. 3. A low quarter of Oxford. From Jericho to June, a long distance. Jerk. 1. In pi., delirium tremens : see Gallon distemper. 2. In pi., reli- gious paroxysm. 3. A retort, jest, quirk (1653). 4. A stripe, lash with a whip. Hence jerking (or yerking), lashing, stinging ; jerk, verb, to lash ; and to cly the jerk, to be whipped at the post (1557). 5. A common verb of action, especially if rapid : e.g. To jerk the cat, to vomit ; to jerk the tinkler, to ring the bell ; to jerk one's juice or jetty (also to jerk off), to mas- turbate ; to jerk chin music, to talk ; to jerk a poem, article, or book, to write ; to jerk a gybe, to counterfeit a licence ; jerked, or jerked to Jesus (American), hanged ; in a jerk, in- stantly ; Dr. Jerk, flogging school- master. Jerker. 1. A tippler : see Lush- ington. 2. A chamber-pot : see It. 3. A steward. 4. A prostitute. Jerkey. A roughly-made vehicle, bone-shaker (q.v.). Jeroboam. 1. A four-fold measure of wine, a double-magnum (q.v.): one especially apt to cause Israel to sin (see 1 Kings, xi. 28). Also, 2. a large bowl or goblet. 3. See Jerry. Jerran. Concerned. Jerry. 1. A chamber-pot, jero- boam : see It. 2. A hat : formerly Tom and Jerry hat (q.v.); a hard round hat ; a pot-hat. 3. A celebra- tion of the completion of indentures : Fr., roulance. 4. A watch, ticker (q.v.) Fr., babUlarde. 5. A fog or mist (De Vaux). As adj., as an adjectival 243 Jerry-builder. Jigger. prefix Jerry is frequently used in con- tempt : e.g. jerry-go-nimble, jerry- shop, jerry-builder (all which and others see). [An abbreviation of Jeremiah : perhaps a Restoration jibe upon the Puritan use of Old Testa- ment names ; but see Jerry- builder.] As verb, to jibe, chaff with malice. Jerry-builder. A rascally speculat- ing builder. Jerry built, run up in the worst materials. [The use of the term arose in Liverpool circa 1830.] Jerrycummumble. To shake, tumble about, towzle (Orose). Jerry-getting (nicking or stealing). Stealing watches. Jerry - go - nimble. 1. Diarrhoea, back - door- trot (q.v.), the colly- wobbles (q.v.). Formerly thorough -go- nimble (q.v.) (1734). 2. An antic, jack-pudding (q.v.). Jerry Lynch. A pickled pig's- head. Jerrymander. See Gerrymander. Jerry - shop. A beer-house : also jerry. Jerry-sneak. 1. A hen-pecked hus- band (1763). 2. A watch thief. Jerry - wag. A sprees ter (q.v.) especially one half drunk (Bee). Jerrywag-shop, coffee shop. Jersey-Lightning. Cider brandy. Jerusalem. An exclamation of sur- prise. Oo to Jerusalem I Go to Jericho (q.v.). Jerusalem the golden. Brighton cf. Holy of Holies. Jerusalem-pony. 1. An ass (1842). 2. A needy clergyman helping for hire. Jessamy. See Jemmy Jessamy. (1684). Jesse (Jessie, or Jessy). To give (or raise) jesse, to rate with vigour, thrash, baste, tan. Jester. 1. A general term of banter for a man, joker (q.v.), nice 'un (q.v.). 2. See Joker. Jesuit. A graduate or undergradu- ate of Jesus College, Cambridge (1771). Jet. A lawyer : see Green bag. Autem-jet, a parson. As verb, to strut, walk pompously : see Jetter (1557). Jetter. A pompous man, strut- noddy (q.v.): see Jet (1510). Jew. A cheat, hard bargainer, sharking usurer (1659). As verb, to drive a hard bargain, beat down : also to cheat. Worth a Jew's eye, ex- tremely valuable, worth its weight in gold : in the Middle Ages the Jews were subject to great extortions, and many stories are related of eyes put out, or teeth drawn, to enforce pay- ment (1593). Jew-bail. Straw-bail (q.v.) (Grose). Jew-butter. Goose-grease. Jew-fencer. A Jew street buyer (or salesman), generally of stolen goods. Jewhilikins ! A general exclamation of surprise. Jewlark. To fool around : a port- manteau verb of action (1851). Jew's-poker. A woman, living by lighting the Jews' fires on Saturdays. Jezebel. An objectionable woman, termagant, shrew : from the wife of Ahab(1553). Jib. 1. The face : the cut af one's jib, the peculiar or characteristic ap- pearance of a person (1825). 2. A first-year's man. 3. A horse given to shying, jibber. As verb, (1) to shirk, funk (q.v.), cut (q.v.) (Lex. Bal.) ; (2) to depart, be off : see Bunk. To be jibbed (Christ's Hospital), to be called over the coals, get into trouble, be twigged (q.v.). Jib-of-jibs, an impossible sail, a star-gazer (q.v.), sky-scraper (q.v.). Jibb. 1. The tongue: hence, 2. language ; speech. Jibber the kibber. See Kibber. Jibe. To agree, live in harmony, jump (q.v.). J i c k a j o g. A commotion, push (1614). Jiffy (or Jeffey). The shortest pos- sible time : also jiff (1793). Jiffess. An employer's wife. Jig. 1. A dance, gig (q.v.) (B. E.). 2. An antic, nonsense, game, lay (q.v.) (1596). 3. See Jigger. 4. Short for giglot (q.v.). 5. (Win- chester College). A clever man : fifty years ago it meant a swindler : the word has now the meanings (i) a low joke, (ii) a swindle, (iii) an object of sport (Notions) (1610). As verb, (1) to cheat, delude, impose upon ; (2) To dance (1719). Jigamaree. A bit of chaff, nonsense, any triviality, thingumbob (q.v.). Jigga-joggy. A jolting motion : also jig-jog (1605). Jigger. 1. A door: also Jig, Jegger, and Oyger : Fr., fendante, guim- barde, lourde : It, diorta, introibo, turlante. (1567). 2. A doorkeeper, screw (q.v.), a jailer or turnkey : also jigger-dubber : Fr., due de guicnt. In 244 Jigger-dubber. Job. Hants, a policeman (1749). 3. A key. 4. A whipping- post (1708). 5. A secret still. Jiggerstuff, illicitly distilled spirits ; Jigger-worker, a vendor of the same : hence, also, a drink of whisky (1823). 6. The bridge or rest for the cue when a ball is beyond arm's length. 7. The curtain, or rag (q.v.). 8. A guard-room : FT., boite: also specifically : an interviewing chamber (in Newgate) where felons, on payment, saw their friends. 9. A fiddlestick. (Jigger or Jig is also applied to many small mechanical contrivances or handy tools). 10. A shifty fellow, trickster (1675). As verb, (1) To bet, wager ; (2) to shake, jerk. Not worth a jigger, valueless. Jigger-dubber. See Jigger. Jiggered. To be jiggered, used as a mild imprecation : as Blow it ! (q.v.), Bust me ! (q.v.) : also in astonishment. Jiggered up. Used up, exhausted. Jiggery-pokery. Humbug, non- sense. Jiglets. His jiglets ! a contempt- uous form of address ; his nibs (q.v.). Jig-water. Bad whisky, rot-gut (q.v.) : see Drinks. Jiggumbob (or Jiggambob) A knick-knack, trinket, anything par- ticular, strange, or unknown: cf. Thingumbob (1640). Jill. See GUI. Jill-flirt. See Gill-flirt. Jilt. 1. Specifically, a woman who encourages, or solicits, advances to which she designs there shall be no practical end. Hence jilted and jilt, verb. 2. A crowbar, jemmy (q.v.). In pi., housebreaking tools generally. As verb, to get in on the sly or false pretences at the door, and sneaking what can be found. Jilter. Thieves who work as de- scribed under Jilt. Jim-Brown. Town. Jimcrack. See Gimcrack. Jimbugg. A sheep, woolly-bird (q.v.) (1854). Jim Crow. See Billy Barlow. Jimjams. 1. Delirium tremens, The horrors (q.v.) : also, the jams : see Gallon-distemper. 2. Distorted views kinks (q.v.). Jim-dandy. Superfine. Jimmy. 1. See Jemmy. 2. A new chum (q.v.): specifically (Australian convicts), a free emigrant (1859). 3. A contrivance, concealed confederate, fake (q.v.). 4. A coal waggon. All jimmy, (1) all nonsense; (2) exactly, fit, suitable : cf. jemmy. Jimmy Skinner. A dinner. Jimplecute (or Jimpsecute). A sweetheart. Jing-bang. A lot complete, boiling (q.v.). Jingle. A hackney carriage (Dub- lin). Jingle-box. A leathern jack tipped with silver, and hung with bells, for- merly in use among fuddlecaps (Grose). Jingleboy. See Gingle boy (1658). Jingler. A swindling horse dealer. Jinglebrains. A wild, harum-scarum fellow (B. E.). Jingo. 1. Used in mild oaths : as by Jingo ! or By Jings. (Hdttiwett : a corruption of St. Gingoulph or Gin- gulphus ; by others from Basque Jinkoa, God : also By the Living Jingo) (1691). 2. One of that party which advocated the Turkish cause againstJRussia, in the war of 1877-78 : hence, one clamorous for war, one who advocates a warlike policy. [In this sense taken directly from the refrain of a popular music-hall song (c. 1874), We don't want to fight, but by Jingo if we do, We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too !]. Hence Jingoism, the theory and practice of the Jingoes. Jiniper-lecture. A scolding (B. E.): cf. Curtain lecture. Jink. 1. Coin, money, chink (q.v.). 2. See High Jinks. To jink one's tin, to pay money, shell out, rattle or flash (q.v.) one's cash. Jinny. A Geneva watch. Jipper. Gravy. Jo. See Joe. Joan. A fetter : specifically Darby and' Joan, fetters coupling two persons: see Darbies. Homely Joan, a coarse, ordinary looking woman (B. E.). Joan in the dark is as good as my lady, a variant of, When you cannot kiss the mistress kiss the maid, or When candles are out all cats are grey (B. E.). Job. 1. Specifically, robbery; generally, any unfair arrangement, or effect of nepotism : e.g. the obtaining of an office, or a contract, by secret influence, or the undertaking of a piece of business ostensibly for public but really for private ends (1667). 2. A piece of work, occurrence (fortunate 245 Jobation. Joey. or otherwise), situation, place of employment. A bad job, an unlucky occurrence, misfortune, unsuccessful attempt. Hence jobber, one who does piece or occasional work (1658). 3. A guinea : also jobe (B. E.). 4. As subs., patience ; as intj., take time, don't be in a hurry ! (Matsell). 5. See Jab (1827). As verb, (1) to do work (or perform duties), ostensibly pro bono publico but in reality for one's private ends or advantage (1731); (2) to thrust violently and suddenly, prod, jab (q.v.) (1557) ; (3) to chide, reprimand : also jobe. To be on the job, to mean honestly, be genuine, run straight, work quickly and steadily, achieve complete success, be bent on. To have got the job, to have a commis- sion to back a horse. To do the job for one, to finish, kill. Jobation (Jawbation). A tedious rebuke, prolonged scolding, dreary homily (1746). Jobbernowl. 1. A fool's head : see Crumpet (1562). 2. A fool: see Buffle(1598). Jobber. 1. One who purchases goods in bulk and is the medium of their distribution, a middleman (1662). 2. See Job. Jobber-knot (or Jobber nut). A tall ungainly fellow (1823). Jobbery. The practice of political corruption, employment of unfair means to public or private advantage (1857). Jobe. See Job. Job's-comfort. Reproof instead of consolation. Hence Job's-comforter, a sharp- tongued friend : also a boil (in allusion to Job ii. 7). Job's news, bad news ; Job's-poat, a messenger of bad news ; as poor as Job's turkey, that had but one feather in its tail, or, that had to lean against a fence to gobble. Job's vrife, a whoring scold. Job's- dock, a hospital ; Job s-ward, a ward for the treatment of venereal diseases (1738). Jock. See Jockey. As verb, to enjoy oneself. Jockey. 1. A professional rider ; also a horse-dealer (1638) : hence (1690) a sharper : also (colloquially) jock and gentleman-jock and jocker. 2. In pi., top -boot. 3. A Scot (1529). As verb, (1) to cheat, ride foul: gener- ally.lto use dishonest means to a profitable end : see Bamboozle (1748). (2) (Winchester College ),(i) to supplant, (ii) to appropriate; (iii) to engage: t-.v.. He jockeyed me up to books; Who has jockeyed my baker ; This court is jockeyed : probably an extended use of the word borrowed from turf slang. Jockey not, the Commoner cry claiming exemption, answering to feign at other schools : of which the college ' finge ' seems a translation : the opposite of jockey up, to lose down (Notions). To jockey (or bay) the over, to manage the running in such a manner as to get all the bowling to oneself. Jock Blunt To look like Jock Blunt, said of a person who is out of countenance at a disappointment (1723). Jock-te-leear. A small almanack, i.e. Jock (or John) the liar, from its loose weather forecasts. Jocteleg (or Jackyleg). A large pocket-knife : from Jacques de Liege, a famous cutler : see Chive (1730). Joe (or Joey). 1. A fourpenny piece : see Rhino : these pieces are said to have owed their existence to the pressing instance of Mr. Hume, from whence they, for some time, bore the nickname. 2. See Joe Miller. 3. A watercloset. 4. A marine : see Joseph. 5. A lobster too small for sale ; i.e. one under ten inches long. 6. A gold coin worth 8 to 9 dollars : also Double - joe : see Rhino. 7. A companion, sweetheart (1500). As verb, to deride, get at (q.v.), take liberties with text, business, or audience. Not for Joe : see Joseph. Joe Manton, a name given to fowling- pieces made by Joseph Manton, a celebrated London gunsmith : also Manton. Joe Miller. A stale joke, dull tale, chestnut (q.v.) : from a collection entitled Joe Miller's Jest Book, pub- lished circa 1750, the term having been used to pass off not only the original stock, but thousands of jokes manu- factured long after. Hence Joe- MUlerism and Joe-MUlerize, Joe Savage. A cabbage. Joey. 1. A hypocrite (Matsett). 2. See Joe. 3. A familiar name for any- thing young or small, and is applied indifferently to a puppy, or a kitten, or a child. Wood-and-ioater-joey, a hanger about hotels, and a doer of odd jobs. 4. A marine. 5. A clown : 246 Jogger. Joker. from Joey Grimaldi. As intj., a warning cry : also Jo ! Jogger. To play and sing, per- form. JoggeringOmey. A musician. [It., giocar, to play, and uomo, a man.] Jog-trot (or Job-trot). A slow trot : hence a dull round, unvarying and uninteresting method ; as adj., monotonous, easy-going. Hence, adv., Jog-trotty (1709). Jogue. A shilling : see Rhino (Grose). Jogul. To play up : at cards or other games (Hotten). John (Sandhurst). A first year's cadet. 2. A priest : also Sir John and Mess- (or Mass-) John (q.v.) (1383). 3. See Poor John. John 's silver pin. A piece of finery amongst sluttery and dirt. John-a-nokes (John-at-the-oaks). Anybody, Mr. Thingumbab (q.v.) ; also John-a-stiles or John-at-the-styles (1529). John-a-dreams. A dreamer, man of sentiment and fancy as opposed to action, futile person (1596). John-among-the-maids. A lady's man, carpet-knight (q.v.). John-and-Joan. An hermaphrodite. John-Audley. A signal to abridge the performance : when another house (q.v.) is waiting, the word John Audley is passed round : also John Orderly. John-Barleycorn. Beer : see Drinks (1791). John Blunt. A plain-spoken man : also Jock Blunt. John-Cheese. A clown : also John Trot. John Collins. A mixture of soda water, gin, sugar, lemon, and ice. John Chinaman. A Chinaman, the Chinese collectively. John Company. The Hon. East India Company (1808). John Davis. Money : otherwise Ready John : see Rhino. Johnian. A student of St. John's College, Cambridge : also Johnian Pig or Hog. Also as adj. : e.g. Johnian blazer, Johnian melody, etc. (1785). John Long the Carrier. To stay for (or send by) John Long the carrier, to wait a long time, postpone indefinitely. Johnnie (Johnny). 1. A police- man : also Johnny Darby (1851). 2. An acquaintance, young man about town. Also a sweetheart male or female: e.g. My Johnny (1724). 3. A half - glass of whisky. 4. See Johnny Reb. Johnny - bum, a jack- ass (Grose). Johnny - cake, a New- Englander. Johnny-haultant, a mer- chant sailor's name for a man-o'- war's-man (Clark Russell). Johnny- Bates' -farm : see Bates' farm. Johnny-Bono, an Englishman. Johnny- Darby, (1) a policeman, (2) in pi., handcuffs. Johnny Newcome, a new- born child ; also (nautical) an in- experienced youngster, landsmen in general (1857). Johnny Raw, (1) a recruit, novice (1819); (2) a morning draught. Johnny Reb (or Johnny), a soldier in the Confederate ranks during the civil war 1861-65: see Blue- bellies. John Roberts. A measure of drink enough to keep a man tipsy from Saturday to Sunday night, is univer- sally known throughout Wales as a John Roberts : it derives its name from the author of the Sunday Closing Act. John the Baptist. A one cent piece. John Thomas. A flunkey. John (or Joan) Thomson's Man. An uxorious, or faithful, husband (1513). John Trot. A clown : also John Cream (1774). Join. To marry. Joint. 1. An opium den, gamb- ling saloon, low-class drinking house of any kind. 2. A partnership of thieves. Hence, to work the joint, to swindle by means of a faked lottery table. Joker. 1. A general term of banter, nice 'un as cove, codger, tulip (1665). 2. An extra card used hi certain games : it is blank or bears some special device, is always a trump, and generally the highest : often called jotty joker. 3. ' These little jokers were attached to the left thumbs of certain judges of election as the ballots were being counted. These jokers are made of rubber and have a cross on them. They are really rubber stamps. As these judges picked up the ballots they took hold of them in such a way that their left thumbs, with the jokers attached thereto, pressed upon the squares opposite the name of the candidate whom they wished to aid. By thus pressing upon said squares crosses were left in them ' (R. of Rev.). 247 Jollock. Jug. Jollock. A parson. Jolly. 1. The head : also Jolly nob (1785). 2. A Royal Marine: cf. Tame Jolly : Fr. f bigorneau (1833). 3. A dependent or confederate of a cheat 4. A pretence, excuse. 5. Praise, recommendation, chaff, abuse. To chuck a jolly, to set off an address to one or other of these ends : see Chuck. As adj. and adv., (1) fine, excellent, very good, very, exceedingly (1369); (2) slightly drunk: see Screwed; (3) fat, fleshy. As verb, to joke, rally, vituperate (1610). Jolly-boys. A group of small drink- ing vessels connected by a tube, or by openings one from another. Jolly -dog. A boon companion (Grose). ] oily- j umper . A light sail set above a sky-scraper (q.v.) (Clark Russell). Jolly-nob. See Jolly. Jolly-Roger. A pirate's flag, Death's head and cross bones (q.v.). Jolt -Head (or Jolter-head). A blockhead: see Buffle (1593). Jolt -headed (or Jolter - headed). Stupid, dull, chowder-headed (q.v.). Jomer. A flame, sweetheart. Jonah. A person whose presence brings bad luck ; specifically a clergy- man : of Biblical origin. Jonah-trip, an unlucky undertaking (1594). J o n n i c k (or Jonnuk). Right, correct, proper. To be jonnuk, to be fair, share equally. Jardan. 1. A slop-pail : see It. Short for Jordan bottle, a memory of the Crusades. 2. Hence Jordan-headed (Dunbar)&n opprobrious epithet ( 1 383). 3. A stroke with a staff (1696). 4. The Atlantic, the ditch (q.v.), the herring- pond (q.v.). As adj., disagreeable, hard of accomplishment. Jorum. A drinking- bowl ; also a portion of liquor, a neddy (q.v.) (1796). Joseph. 1. A cloak : specifically a lady's riding habit with buttons to the skirts : also (American thieves') a patched coat: cf. Benjamin (1671). 2. A woman-proof male. To wear Joseph's coat, to defy temptation, as Joseph with Potiphar's wife (Grose). Not for Joseph, a contemptuous re- fusal, a sarcastic dissent Joseph's coat, a coat of many colours, a dress of honour. J o s e y. To go, hasten : see Bunk. Josh. 1. A sleepy- head, dolt 2. An Arkansas man. As verb, to chaff, quiz, make fun of. As intj., a word shouted at the New York Stock Exchange to wake up a slumbering member (BartleU). Joskin. A bumpkin, dolt : see Buffle. Josser. 1. A simpleton, flat, sponge (q.v.), old roue : also as adj. 2. A parson (Australian). J o s s o p. Syrup, juice, gravy, sauce (Hotten). Jostle. To cheat Jounce. A jolt, shake. As verb, to jolt, shake by rough riding, handle carelessly, deal severely with (1833). To be jounced, to be enamoured of. Journey. Occasion, juncture, time. Journeyman Soul-saver. A scrip- ture-reader, bible- woman: also jour- neyman-parson (London), a curate. Jove. See By Jove. Jowl (or Jole). The cheek; cheek by jowl, close together : jowl-sucking, kissing (1592). Joyful. To be addicted to the O be joyful, to be confirmed in tippling. Juba. A negro. Jubilee (Winchester College). A pleasant time : e.g. The town was all in a jubilee of feasts (Dryden). Judas. 1. A traitor. Judas- coloured, red : from the tradition that Judas had red hair (1384). 2. See Judas-hole. Judas-hole. A spy-hole in a oell door : also Judas. Judge. The man most popular with his fellows (American cadet). Judge and Jury. A mock trial, the fines being paid in beer. Judy (or Jude). 1. A girl, a woman, especially one of loose morals : also, a sweetheart : in Anglo-Chinese circles a native courtezan. 2. A simpleton, fool : to make a Judy of oneself, to play the fool, act the giddy goat (q.v.) or saucy kipper (q.v.) (1824). Juff. 1. The cheek. 2. The pos- teriors. Jug. 1. A prison : also more fre- quently stone-jug (q.v.) : see Cage : FT., boite aux cailloux ; 8p., tristura. [Skeat : FT., joug, a yoke : the Eng. jug, a cant term for a prison (also called jocosely a stone-jug) is the same word]. 2. A bank. A broken jugged one, a note from a broken bank : hence, jug-breaking, bank burglary. 3. A mistress : hence a term of endearment. 248 Jug-bitten. Jutland. 4. A term of contempt applied in- differently to both the sexes: see Juggins. As verb, (1) to imprison, lock up, run in ; hence to hide (1852) ; (2) to take in, do (q.v.). Jug-bitten. Drunk : see Screwed (1633). Jug-full. Not by a jug full, not by a good deal, by long chalks, by no means (1834). Juggins (or Jug). A fool: see Buffle. J uggler ' s-box. The branding-iron. Juice. To stew in one's own juice (gravy, or grease) : see Stew. Juicy. 1. Piquant, racy, bawdy ; 2. Amorous. Jukrum. A licence ( B. E. ). Julius Caesar. Dead as Julius Ccesar, dead past doubting. Jumbaree. Jewellery. Jumbo. A clumsy, unwieldy fellow (Bee). Jumble-gut-lane. A bad or rough road (B. E.). Jumbuck. A sheep, woolly-bird (q.v.) (1851). Jummix. To jumble up, mix together : a portmanteau word (q.v.). Jump. 1. A form of robbery : see Jilt. 2. A window: cf. Back jump. 3. (in pi.), The fidgets, delirium tremens. 4. Loose raiment : see Jumper (1762). As verb, (1) to seize upon forcibly or by stealth, cheat, supplant : e.g. to jump a man, to pounce upon and rob or maltreat ; to jump a house, to rob it ; to jump a claim, to take possession of a mining right in the absence of an owner : FT., farguer a la dure ; (2) to try a medicine. From the jump, from the start (1848). To jump at, (1) to accept eagerly. (2) To guess. To jump (or be jump) with, to agree, co- incide, tally (1567) ; to jump one's horse over a bar, for a paltry sum, to sell one's horse, saddle, bridle, and all, to the lambing-down landlord. To go a jump, to enter a house by the window (Matsett). To jump a bitt, to dishonour an acceptance. To see how the cat will jump, to watch the course of events, sit on the fence (q.v.). To jump upon, to maltreat (physically or otherwise), criticise severely, take it out of (q.v.), sit upon (q.v.). To jump bail, to abscond. To jump the broomstick : see Broomstick. To jump up, to get the best of one, or the reverse. To jump the game, to raid a gambling den. To jump up behind, to endorse an acceptance. To jump out of one's skin : see Skin. On the keen jump, on the go, violently at work. Jump-down. The last place in course of erection on the outskirts of what is called civilised life. Also jumping off place, a destination. Jumped-up. Conceited, arrogant, perturbed, upset. Jumper. 1. A tenpenny-piece (1821). 2. A thief who enters nouses by the windows: cf. Jilter (1811). 3. One who illegally appropriates a claim : cf. Bounty -jumper. 4. A short slop of coarse woollen or canvas. Jumping- Jack. An antic, gull. Jumping Jehosophat (Jupiter, or Moses). See By. Jumping Cat. The cult of the jump- ing cat, the practice of waiting to see the course of events before acting : see Cat. Jumping-powder. A stimulant to give spirit and go to a person or animal. June. To go [Germ., gehen]. Junesey. A sweetheart. Junk (or Salt-junk). Salt beef. Junket! (Winchester College). An exclamation of self-congratulation : e.g. Junket, I've got a remi. As verb, to exult over (Notions). Junt. A wanton. Jupiter (or Jupiter- tonans). The Times newspaper: see Thunderer. Jupiter junior, The Daily Telegraph. Jurk. A seal, jark (q.v.) (Matsett). Jury. An assertion, profession. Just. In truth, really, rather. Jybe. See Gybe. Jutland. The posteriors (1695). 249 Kafir. Kaffir. 1. A prostitute's bully, ponce (q.v.) : hence a general term of contempt. 2. In pi. South African mining shares. Kail. Kail through the reek, bitter language or hard usage : in allusion to the unpalatableness of smoky broth. To give one his kail through the reek, to reprove violently, punish with severity (1817). Ka me, Ka thee. One good turn deserves another, scratch my back and I'll scratch yours : also A'a and Kangaroo. Kangaroo droop, a feminine affectation (cf. Grecian bend and Roman fall) : the hands are brought close to the breast and set to droop palm downward, as if mus- cular action were lost. Kangaroo voting, the Australian ballot system : adopted, with sundry modifications, in many of the United States (Norton). Kanits. A stink. Kanitseno, a stinking one. Kant See Cant Kanuck. See Canack. Karimption. A gang, mob, party. Karplunk. See Cachunk. Kate (or Katey). 1. A picklock: cf. Betty and Jenny (1696). 2. A wanton: Dutch, Kat (Matsdl): see Kitty (1721). Keek-handed. Left-handed : prov. Eng. Keck, wrongly. Kedger. A mean fellow, cadger (q.v.): one in everybody's mess but in no one's watch an old term for a fisherman (Smyth). Keek-cloy. See Kicks. Keeker. In pi., the eyes: cf. Pintle-keek. Keel. The posteriors. To keel over, to come to grief. Keelbully. A lighterman carrying coals to and from ships (1696). Keelhaul (or Keelrake). To punish offenders by dragging them under water on one side of a ship, and up again on the other, by ropes attached to the yard-arms on either side ; or in small vessels, under the craft from stem to stern. Hence, figuratively, to treat roughly, chastise. Keelhauling, a good rating, rough treatment (Grose). Keen. A funny story, joke : to get off a keen, to make a witty remark. Keep. 1. Board and lodging. 2. A salaried mistress. As verb, to abide (1593). Phrases : To keen one' eyet skinned (polished, or peeled, or one's weather eye lifted, nose open, or end up, etc.), to take care, maintain a position, be wideawake, or fly (q.v.) ; to keep company, ( 1 ) to go into society, entertain often and be often enter- tained (1658) ; (2) to sweetheart : said of both sexes (1835); to keep a pig (Oxford University), to have a lodger : the pig (q.v.) is usually a freshman who, the college being full, is quartered on a student whose rooms include two bedchambers ; To keep a stiff upper lip (or one's pecker up), to stand firm, keep up a heart, chuck out one's chest ; to keep the doctor, to retail adulterated drinks : cf. Doctor ; to keep chapel (University), to go to chapel ; to keep cave (Eton College), to watch and give warning of a tutor's approach ; to keep dark (or it dark, to keep secret; to keep sloom, to keep quiet ; to keep it up, to continue any thing vigorously (specifically to pro- long a debauch) (1773); to keep dry, to hold one's tongue, keep dark (q.v.) ; to keep one back and belly, to feed and clothe ; for keeps, to keep for good ; to keep the door, to play the bawd ; to keep the pot boiling, to go on with anything, keep the game alive ; to keep (or hold) one's hair on : see Hair ; to keep open house, to sleep in the open air, do a star pitch : see Hedge-square ; to keep up to the collar, to keep hard at work ; to keep sheep by moonlight, to hang in chains ; he can't keep a hotel, a phrase intimating lack of administrative capacity. Keffel. A horse, prad (B. E.). Keg. The stomach, victualling office (q.v.). Kegmeg. Intimate talk, chat Ke-keya. The devil (Matsdl). Kelder. The belly: see Hans-in- kelder and Jack-in-the-cellar (1658). Kelp. A hat: see Golgotha, To kelp, to raise one's hat in salutation (1754). Kelso-boots. Heavy shackles put on the legs of prisoners ; by some sup- posed to be a sort of stocks (Jamie- son). Kelter (or Kilter). 1. Order, con- 250 Kdtie. Kick. dition, form (q.v.) (1630). 2. Money: see Rhino. Keltic (or Kelty). A bumper : im- posed as a fine on those who did not drink fair : said to be so called from a famous champion drinker in Kinross- shire. Kemesa. See Camesa. Ken. A house, place : generally in combination : e.g. Boozing-ken, drinking house ; a bob-ken (or boioman- ken), a well-furnished house. To bite (or crack) a ken, to rob a house. English synonyms : carsey (or case), castle, cat-and-mouse, crack, diggings, hang-out, rootee, roost, shop, panny (1567). Ken-cracker (or Miller) A housebreaker (B. E.). Ken - crack - lay. Housebreaking : see Ken, Crack, and Lay. Kennedy. A poker. To give ken- nedy, to lay on with a poker. Kennel-raker. A scavenger, one fit only for low, dirty jobs (1647). Kennurd. Drunk : see Screwed. Kent (or Kent -rag, Kent -clout, etc. ) . A coloured cotton handkerchief. Kentish -fire. A prolonged and ordered salvo of applause : from the cheers bestowed in Kent upon the No-Popery orators in 1828-29. Kent- street Ejectment. Removing the street door, a method practised by the landlords in Kent Street, Southwark, when their tenants are above a fortnight's rent in arrear (Grose). Kerbstone-broker. A stockbroker doing business outside the Stock Exchange, a guttersnipe (q.v.): Fr., courtier marron, and (collectively) coidissiers. Kerflop. Onomatopoeic : in imita- tion of the sound of a body falling flat or into water. Variants: cachunk (q.v.), kerslap, kesouse, keslosh, ke- swosh, kewosh, keswollop, kerchunk, kerplunk, kerthump, kershaw, ker- slash, kerslosh, kerswosh, etc. Kerry-security. Bond, pledge, oath, and keep the money (Orose). Ketch. A hangman, Jack Ketch (q.v.). As verb, to hang. Kettle. 1. A watch; red -kettle, gold watch ; 2. an iron-built vessel, ironclad. Pot calling the kettle black, on all fours, six of one and half-a- dozen of the other. A pretty (or fine) kettle (or kiddle, basket) of fish, a mess or confusion of any kind, muddle (1750). Kettledrum. 1. In plural, a woman's breasts : also Cupid's kettledrum. 2. An afternoon tea-party (1867). Kew. A week. Key. A translation, crib (q.v.). To have the key of the street, to be locked out-of-doors, to have no home (1836). Key -hole. To be att keyhole (or keyholed), to be drunk : see Screwed. Keyhole-whistler. A night's lodger in a barn or outhouse, skipper bird (q.v.). Keystone State. Pennsylvania : when the names of the original Thir- teen States were arranged archwise in their natural geographial order, Penn- sylvania occupied the central position. Kibosh. 1. Nonsense, anything worthless : also Kiboshery. 2. Snot (q.v.). 3. Style, fashion, form, the thing : e.g. that's the proper kibosh. As verb, to spoil, flummox (q.v.), queer (q.v.), bewilder, knock out of time. To put the kibosh on, (1) to stop, silence ; (2) to wheedle, talk over ; (3) to run down (1836). Kibsy. See Kypsy. Kick. 1. The fashion (1696). 2. A sixpence : of compound sums only, e.g. three and a kick, 3s. 6d. : see Rhino (1725). 3. A moment, jiffy (q.v.). 4. A pocket. 5. A grudge. 6. The hollowin the butt of a bottle ( 1 85 1 ). 7. In pi., breeches, trousers : also kicksters and kicksies. English syno- nyms: arse-rug, bum-bags, bell-bot- toms, bum-curtain, bags, calf-clingers, canvasseens (q.v.), continuations, don't-name-'ems, ducks, gam-cases, hams, inexpressibles, ineffables, in- imitables, kicks, kickseys, moles, mustn't-mention-'ems, peg-tops (q.v.), pants, rice-bags, sit-upons, skilts (q.v.), slacks, strides, trolly-wags, trucks, trunks (q.v.), unhmtables, unmen- tionables, unutterables, unwhisper- ables, whistling breeches (q.v.) (1696). 8. A sudden and strong objection, unexpected resistance. As verb, (1) to borrow, beg, break shins (q.v.); (2) to protest, resist, resent (1611); (3) to recoil : of fire-arms generally ; (4) to jilt, give the mitten (q.v.); (5) to die : an abbreviation of to kick the bucket (q.v.) ; (6) to escape : also kick it (1725). Phrases : kick in the guts, a dram of spirits 261 Kirkrr. K id at- '/. (Grose) ; to get more kicks than ha'- pence (see Monkey's allowance) ; to kick over the traces, (I) to go the pace (q.v.) ; and (2) to resist authority ; to kick up a breeze (dust, row, diversion, lark, shindy, etc.), to create a disturb- ance, raise Cain (q.v.), paint the town red (q.v.) (1750) ; to kick the wind, to be hanged : see Ladder ; to get the kick out (or dirty kick out), to be summarily dismissed, discharged, kicked out ; to kick the bucket, to die : see Hop the twig ; the allusion is thought to allude to the way in which a slaughtered pig is hung up viz. by passing the ends of a bent piece of wood behind the tendons of the hind legs, and so suspending it to a hook in a beam above : this piece of wood is locally termed a bucket, and so by a coarse metaphor the phrase came to signify to die; to kick down the ladder, to treat with contumely one's means of advance- ment ; to kick the clouds (or wind), to be hanged : see Ladder ; to kick at waist, to misfit at the waist ; to kick for the boot, to ask for money ; to kick for trade, to ask work ; to have the kick, to be lucky, havecocum (q.v.) ; to kick the stuffing out of one, to maltreat, take a rise (or the wind) out of, get the better of ; to kick (or cool) one's heels, (1) : see Heels ; (2) to die ; to kick the eye out of a mosquito, a superlative expression of capacity ; a kick in one's gallop, a whim, strange fancy. Kicker. 1. An obstructionist, protestant. 2. In pi., the feet : see Creepers. 3. A dancing master ( 1 838). Kickeraboo. See ruck the bucket. Kicking-strap. An elastic strap inside a habit. Kickseys. 1. See Kick. 2. Shoes or highlows : also Kicksies. Kickshaw. A trifle, anything fanci- ful or unsubstantial, something fantas- tical or with no particular name : Skeat : a curious corruption of Fr., quelque-chose (pronounced kick-chose) literally, something ; hence a trifle or small delicacy (1598). Kick-shoe. A dancer, caperer, buffoon. Kicksies. See Kicks. Kicksy. Troublesome, disagreeable. Kicksy-wicksy. A term of contempt for a woman (1598). As adj., fantas- tic, restless. Kick-up. A row : also rowdiness (1794). Kid. 1. A child : hence, to kid, to lie in, get with child ; kidded (or with kid), pregnant. English synonyms: brat, encumbrance, get, imp, infantry (collectively), kinchin, limb, lullaby cheat, monkey, papoose, youngster (1599). 2. A man (1811). 3. policeman (1879). 4. A thief: speci- fically a young thief : also Kiddy. 5. A kidnapper. 6. Gammon (q.v.), devilry, chaff (q.v.). 7. In pL, Kid gloves : e.g. Kids cleaned for 2d. a pair. As verb, to quiz, wheedle, to cheat (1811) ; To kid on, to lead on by gammon or deceit (1851). To kid oneself, to .be conceited. Hard kid, hard lines, bad luck, hard cheese (q.v.). Kidden (Kid-ken, or Kiddy-ken). A lodging house frequented by young thieves (1839). Kidder. 1. A forestaller. 2. A glib and taking speaker, master of chaff. Kiddier. A pork-butcher. K i d d i 1 y. Fashionably, showily, flashily : also Kiddy. Kid-lay (or rig). ' One who meeting a Prentice with a Bundle or Parcel of goods, wheedles him by fair words, and whipping Sixpence into his Hand, to step on a snort and sham Errand for him, in the mean time runs away with the goods' (B. E.). Kiddleywink. 1. A raffle. 2. A small village shop ; and, 3. specifically (in the West country), an ale-house. 4. a woman of unsteady habits. Kiddy. 1. A man, boy, young fel- low : a diminutive of kid (q.v.). Also kidlct, a boy or girl. 2. A flash thief ; rolling kiddy, a dandy thief ( 1 780). 3. A dandy (1823). 4. A stage-coach driver. As adj., fashionable, smart (q.v.). Kiddyish. Stylish, up to date (q.v.). Kiddy Nipper. A thief who cuts off the waistcoat pockets of tailors, when crosslegged on the board, there- by grabbling their bit (Grose). Kidleybenders. Ice which undulates under the feet of a skater. Kidment. 1. Humbug, gammon (q.v.) : also (cheap Jack's), professional patter (1836). 2. A pocket handker- chief pinned to the pocket for a trap. As adj., comical (Matsett). Kidnap. To steal children. Hence, Kidnapper, a child-stealer (1696). Kidney. 1. Kind, disposition, Kidney -hit. Kip. fashion : as, Two of a kidney, two of a mind ; of a strange kidney, of an odd humour ; of a different kidney, of different habit or turn : Fr., bouchon (1596). 2. A waiter, grasshopper (q.v.) (1710). 3. A fractional part of a shilling : a corruption of Cadney, the name of the first dealer on 'Change known to deal under JL. Kidney-hit. A punch in the short ribs. Kid's-eye. A fippenny piece (1821). Kidsman. A fellow that boards and lodges boys for the purpose of teach- ing them how to steal, putting them through a course of training, as a dog trainer will train dogs for the hunt. The kidsman accompanies the kid, and though committing no depreda- tions himself, he controls and directs the motions of the others. Kilkenny. A frieze coat (Grose). Kill. A garment utterly spoiled. Dressed to kill : see Dressed and Death. Kill-calf (or cow). A butcher, a murderous ruffian : also Kill-buck. Kill-devil. Rum : specifically new spirit (1696). Killers. The eyes : see Peepers (1780). Killing. Fascinating, bewitching, irresistible: also Killingly (1619). Kill-priest. Port wine. Kill - the - beggar. Whisky : see Drinks. Kill-time. A pastime. Kilmarnock-cowl. 1. A knitted night-cap ; and, 2. by implication the wretch that wore one ( 1830). Kilmarnock-whittle. A person of either sex, already engaged or be- trothed (Jamieson). Kilter. See Kelter. Kilt. Killed. Kimbaw. 1. To trick, cheat, cozen : also, 2. to beat, bully (1696). Kimbo (or Kimbaw) . To set the arms akimbo, to set hands on hips with the elbows cocked (1606). Kinchin (or Kinchen). A child, young man : also kinchen cove (q.v.). (1567). Kinchin-cove. 1. A child : see Kin- chin (1567). 2. An undersized man. 3. A man who robs or kidnaps chil- dren: hence, kinchin lay, robbing children ; kinchin mort, a little girl. Kinder. As it were : also Kinder sorter. Kind-heart. A tooth-drawer : from an itinerant dentist so named, or nick-named, in the time of Elizabeth (1614). King Cotton. Cotton, the staple of the Southern States of America, and the chief manufacture in England. Cotton-lord, a man enriched by cotton. Kingdom Come. The future life ; to go to kingdom come, to die : Fr., para- douze (or part - a - douze a play on paradis), parabole ; It., soprano (higher) Sp., claro (light). King John 's Man. He is one of King John's men, eight score to the hundred, a saying of a little undersized man (Grose). King's (or Queen's) Bad Bargain. A malingering soldier, deserter (Grose). King 's-bencher. The busiest of the galley orators, a galley-skulker($my<A). King's Books. A pack of cards, The history (or books) of the four kings, devil's books (q.v.) (1653). King's Cushion. A seat formed by two persons holding each other's hands crossed : also Queen's cushion (or chair), cat's-carriage (or cradle). King's (or Queen's) Head Inn. Newgate : see Cage (1696). King's Keys. The crow-bars and hammers used by sheriffs' officers to force doors and locks. [Roquefort : faire la clef du Roy, ouvrir les clefs et les coffres avec des instruments de serrurier.] Kingsman. 1. A handkerchief : a yellow pattern upon a green ground the favourite coloured neckerchief of costermongers : sometimes worn by women thrown over their shoulders. 2. A member of King's College, Cam- bridge. 3. In pi., the Seventy -eighth Foot, now the 2nd battalion, Sea- forth Highlanders : their motto is Cuidich'r Rhi, Help the King. King's (or Queen's) pictures. Money : see Rhino. To draw the Icing's (or queen's) picture, to counter- feit money (1632). King's Plate. Fetters (Lex. Eal.): see Darbies. Kingswood Lion. An ass, Jerusalem pony (q.v.). Kink. A crotchet, whim (1846). Kinky. Eccentric, short tempered, twisty (q.v.). Kip. A brothel. To tatter a kip, to wreck a house of ill-fame (1766). 2. A bed. English synonyms : breeding- 263 Kip-house. Kite-flying. cage, bugwalk, bunk, cage, cloth- market, dab, doss, dossing cnb, downy, Feathers Inn, flea- pasture, latty, letty, libb, lypken, perch, ruggins, shake-down, snooze. 3. A fool, silly fellow : he's a kip, he's dull-witted (Matsell) : see Buffle. As verb, (1) to Elay truant, do dolly ; (2) to sleep, tdge. Kip-house. A tramps' lodginghonse. Kipper. To die : see Hop the twig : on the Trent a .-.ilnion is said to be kipper when it is s^riousy out of con- dition and has lost about half its weight. Kipsy. See Kypsey. Kirjalis. Who fears ? I fear not ; come on ! (Matsell). Kirkbuzzer. A thief whose special- ity is to ply in churches (Matsell). Kirkling. Breaking into a house while the occupants are at church. Kirk's Lambs. The Second Regi- ment of Foot, now the Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment): from the name of its first colonel and the Paschal Lamb, the badge of Portugal, on its colours. K i s k y. Drunk, fuddled : see Screwed. Kiss. 1 . A drop of wax by the side of a seal on a letter. 2. In pi., Hotchkiss Ordnance Co. shares. As verb, to touch gently, brush : in billiards and other games the balls are said to kiss when they barely touch (1593). To kiss the daws (or hands), to salute (1630). To kiss the counter, to be confined in the Counter prison : also Clink (1618). To kiss the dust, to die : see Hop the twig. To kiss the hare's foot, to be too late for meals, to dine with Duke Humphrey (q.v.). To kiss the master, to hit the Jack (q.v.) at bowls (1579). To kiss the post, to be shut out (1600). To kiss the maid, ' Kissing the Maid, an Engine in Scotland, and at Halifax in England, in which the Head of a Malefactor is laid to be Cut off, and which this way is done to a hair, said to be invented by Earl Morton, who had the ill Fate to Handsel it' (B. E.). Kiss-curl. A small curl twisted on the cheek or temple, beau-catcher a' ,v.) : cf. Aggrawator and Lovelock : so Kiss-me-quick. Kisser. 1. The mouth, the drip- ping (or latch-) pan (q.v.) : see Potato- trap. 2. In pi., the lips, lispers (q.v.), mums (q.v.) : Fr., balots. Kissing-crust. The soft-baked sur- face between two loaves, the under crust in a pudding or pie (1708). Kissing-strings. Ribands hanging over the shoulders, follow-me-lads (q.v.): Fr., svivez-moi-jcune-homme (1705). Kissing-trap. The mouth, whisker- bed (q.v.) : see Potato-trap. Kiss-me- quick. 1 . A kiss-curl (q.v.). 2. The name of a very small, once fashionable bonnet (1855). 3. A compounded drink. Kist-o ' - whustles. An organ ( 1 640). Kit. 1. A dancing master (New Cant Diet.). 2. A person's baggage or impediments, an outfit, collection of anything. The whole kit, the lot, the whole gridiron, or the whole boil- ing: in America, the kit and boodle. Kitchen. The stomach, victualling office (q.v.). Kitchener. A thief frequenting a thieves' kitchen (q.v.). Kitchenite. A loafing compositor frequenting the kitchen of the Com- positors' Society house. Kitchen-Latin. Barbarous or sham Latin, dog- Latin (q.v.). Kitchen-physic. 1. Pot-herbs ; and, 2. victuals (1592). Kitchen-stuff. A female servant (1658). Kite. 1. A fool, sharper, cruel and rapacious wretch : Fr., buse : see Buffle (1534). 2. An accommodation bill, fictitious commercial paper, (in Scotland) a windmill-bill (q.v.) : see Kite-flying. To fly a kite, (1) to raise money or keep up credit by the aforesaid means (181 7); (2) to put out a feeler before a definite announcement. 3. Fancy stocks (Matsell). 4. A letter (Matsell). 5. The chief of a gang of thieves. 6. A recruiting sergeant : from Farquhar's Sergeant Kite in The Recruiting Officer. 7. The belly (1554). As verb, (1) to keep up one s credit by means of accommodation bills, obtain money by bills ; (2) to speculate wildly ; (3) to be restless, go from place to place, slate (q.v.) (Matsett). Kite-flyer. One who raises money or sustains his credit by the use of accommodation bills. Kite-flying. The fabrication or negotiation of bills of accommodation or bills for which no value has been received, in order to raise money. 254 Kitten. Knight. Kitten. A pint or half-pint pewter pot : see Cat. As verb, to be brought to bed, bust up, explode. Kittie (also Kittock). (1) Generic for a girl ; (2) a romping wench ; (3) a harlot (1513). Kittle-breeks. An irritable person. Kittle-pi tchering. A jocular method of hobbling or bothering a troublesome teller of long stories ; this is done by contradicting some very immaterial circumstance at the beginning of the narration, the objections to which being settled, others are immediately started to some new particular of like consequence, thus impeding, or rather not suffering him to enter into the main story. Kittle-pitchering is often practised in confederacy (Grose). K i 1 1 1 e r. One who tickles or Kitty. 1. The Bridewell or prison at Durham : hence a prison or gaol generally. 2. In pi., effects, furniture, stock-in-trade, marbles (q.v.). To seize one's kitty s, to take one's effects (Lex. Bal.). 3. A pool. 4. In pi., The Scots Guards. Kivey. A man, fellow : a diminu- tive of cove (q.v.) (1854). K. Legged. Knock-kneed, shaky on the pins. K 1 o o p ! An imitation of the sound of a drawing cork. Klem. To strike, hit. Klep. A thief (q.v.): short for kleptomaniac. As verb, to steal : see Prig. Knab the Rust. See Rust. Knack. ( 1 ) A trick ; and (2) a trinket. \Tyrwhitt : The word seems to have been formed by the knacking or snapping of the fingers made by jugglers.] (1383). Knacker. 1. An old horse. 2. A horse-slaughterer. 3. In pi., Har- rison, Barber, & Co., Ltd., shares : an amalgamation of horse- slaughter- ers. Knacker's brandy, a beating. Knack-shop. A toy shop, a nick- nackatory (1696). Knap. 1. To steal, receive, accept, endure, etc. Thus, to knap a clout, to steal a handkerchief ; to knap the swag, to grab the booty ; to knap seven (or fourteen) penn'orth, to get seven or fourteen years'. In making a bargain, to knap the sum offered is to accept it. Mr. Knap's been there, is said of a pregnant woman. To knap the rust, to fall into a rage. Originally knap meant to strike : whence knap (theatrical), a manual retort rehearsed and arranged ; to take (or give) the knap, to receive (or administer) a sham blow ; and knapper, the head or receiver general (q.v.) (1537). 2. To be in punish- ment (q.v.) ; to catch it (q.v.). To knap a hot 'un, to receive a hard blow. 3. To arrest (MatseU). To knap the stoop, to go hungry. To knap a Jacob from a danna-drag, to steal the ladder from a nightman's cart, while the men are absent, in order to effect an ascent to a one-pair-of-stairs window, to scale a garden wall (De Vaux). Knapper 's-poll. A sheep's head: see Sanguinary James. Knapping- jigger. A turnpike gate : i.e. a gate for the receipt of tolls. K n a r k. A churl, flintheart, nark (q.v.). (1851). Knat. (1) A difficult task ; (2) a tyrant ; and (3) one not easily hood- winked. Knave (Christ's Hospital). A dunce : at Hertford, a knack. Knee. To offer (or give) the knee, to play the second in a fight (1856). Knee high to a mosquito (a toad, a chaw of tobacco, etc. ), insignificant, of scant account. To sit on one's knees, to kneel down. Knee-trick. Kneeling ( 1 632). Knick-knack. A trinket, toy : see Nicknacks. Knife. A sword (1270). As verb, (1) to stab ; (2) to plot against the candidate of one's own party. To lay doum one's knife and fork, to die, peg out (q.v.), to snuff it (q.v.) : see Hop the twig. To knife it, to decamp, cut it (q.v.). Knife it I separate! leave off : go away ! To play a good knife and fork, to eat with appetite. Before one can say Knife ! instanter, in the twinkling of an eye (q.v.) : cf. Jack Robinson. Knife-board. A seat for passengers running lengthwise on the roof of an omnibus : now mostly superseded by garden seats : Fr., imperatrice (1853). Knifer. A sharking sponge. Knifish. Spiteful. Knight. An ironical prefix of pro- fession or calling : generic. Thus : knight of the blade, a bully (B. E. 1690) ; knight of the brush, an artist 255 Knitting Needle. or painter ; knight of the collar, a gallows-bird ; knight of the cleaver, a butcher ; knight of the cue, a billiard-marker ; knight of the green cloth, a gamester ; knight of Hornesy (or of the forked order), a cuckold ; knight of industry, a thief ; knight of the knife, a cut-purse ; knight of labour (in America), a working man ; knight of the lapstone, a cobbler ; knight of the napkin, a waiter ; knight of the needle, a tailor ; knight of the quill, an author or journalist ; knight of the pencil, a book-maker ; knight of the pestle, an apothecary ; knight of the pit, a cocker ; knight of the petticoat, a bawdy-house bully ; knight of the piss-pot, a physician, an apothe- cary ; knight of the post, a knight dubbed at the whipping post or pillory, also a rogue who got his living by giving false witness or false bail ; knight of the rainbow, a foot- man (Grose, 1785) ; knight of the road, a footpad or highwayman : also knight of the rumpad ; knight of the shears or thimble, a tailor (Grose, 1785) ; knight of the spigot, a tapster, a publican ; knight of the sun, an adventurer, a knight-errant ; knight of the wheel, a cyclist ; knight of the whip, a coachman ; knight of the yard, a shopman or counter-jumper. To be knighted in Bridewell, to be whipped in prison (1592). Knitting Needle. A sword, cheese- toaster (q.v.). Knob. 1. The head, nob (q.v.) : see Crumpet. One on the nob, a blow on the head (Grose). 2. (workmen's.) A knobstick (q.v.). Knobby. See Nobby. Knob-of-suck. A piece of sweet- meat. Knobstick (or Nobstick). 1. A non-society hand, dung (q.v.), rat (q.v.) : also one who takes work under price, or continues at work while his fellows are on strike. 2. A master who does not pay his men at market rates (1851). Knock. A lame horse, an incur- able screw (q.v.) : the horse-dealer in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair (1614), is called Knockem. As verb, to make an impression, be irresistible, fetch (q.v.), floor (q.v.). Phrases : To knock acock, to floor, flabbergast (q.v.), double up ; to knock about (or round), to wander here and there, lounge : also to see life, go the pace (q.v.) ; to knock about the bub, to pass round the drink : see Bub ; to knock (or let) daylight into one : see Daylight ; to knock all of a heap : see Heap ; to knock at the cobbler's door : see Cobbler's knock ; to knock down, ( 1 ) to appropriate, em- bezzle ; (2) to call upon, select (1758) ; to knock down for a song, to sell under intrinsic value ; to knock down a cheque (or pile), to spend one's savings lavishly, blew (q.v.) ; to knock down fares, to pilfer fares : of conductors and guards ; to knock it down, to applaud by ham- mering or stamping ; to knock one down to, to introduce (to a person) ; to knock in (Oxford University), (1) to return to college after gate is closed ; (2), to take a hand at cards, chip in (q.v.) ; to knock into fits (a cocked hat, the middle of next week, etc.), to confound, floor (q.v.), punish severely; to knock (or take it) out of one, to exhaust, empty, punish severely ; to knock off, (1) to leave off work, abandon : FT., peter sur le mastic (1662) ; (2) to dispatch with ease, put out of hand ; (3) to deduct, knock so much off the price ; (4) to die ; to knock one bandy, to astound, flabber- gast (q.v.) ; to knock on the head, to frustrate, spoil, settle ; to knock out, (1) see Knock-out; (2) to bet so persistently against a horse that from a short price he retires to an outside place, drive out of the quotations ; (3) to make bankrupt ; knocked out, un- able to meet engagements ; (4) see Knock out of time ; (5) (Oxford University), to leave college after hours : of out of college men only : see Knock in and Knocking out ; to knock out of time, to punish an op- ponent so that he is not able to answer the call of Time ; to knock the spots off (or out of), to surpass, confound, thrash, excel ; to knock the bottom (stuffing, wadding, lining, filling, or inside) out of, to confound, surpass, floor (q.v.) ; thrash, finish off ; to knock smoke out of, to try, vanquish utterly ; to knock saucepans out of, to run amuck ; to knock out the wedges, to desert, leave in a difficulty ; to knock round : see To knock about ; to knock under, to yield, give out, confess defeat (1668); to knock up (Christ's Hospital), (1) to gain a place in class : e.g. I knocked up and I knocked Jones up : the Hertford equivalent is Knockabout. KnucUe-bone. ox up (q.v.); (2) to achieve, accom- plish ; (3) to put together hastily, as by nailing ; (4) to exhaust, tire (1771) ; to get the knock, (I) to drink, get screwed (q.v.); (2) to be discharged, get the sack or bag (q.v.) ; to take the knock, to lose more to the book- makers than one can pay, be dead broke (q.v.) ; to be knocked off one's pins, to be flabbergasted (q.v.); that knocks me, that confounds (or is too much for) me ; to be knocked into the middle of next week, to be astounded, et badly beaten, be knocked into a cocked hat (1823). Knockabout. An actor of violent id noisy pantomime : a special genre. Knockabout man. A Jack-of-all- ies (q.v.), handy man. Knock-down (or Knock-me-down). rong ale, stingo (q.v.), also, gin (1515). As adj., rowdy (1760). Knock-down and Drag-out. A B-fight. Knock - 'em - down Business. Auctioneering. Knock - 'em - downs. Skittles (1828). Knocker. In pi., small flat curls orn on the temples ; sixes (q.v.). Up the knocker, (I) completely equal , perfect in appearance, condition, Itness ; (2) in the height of fashion. Knocker-face (or Head). An ugly " person, ugly-mug (q.v.). Knocker-out. See Knock-out. Knock - in. 1. The game of loo. A hand at cards. 3. A Knock- it (q.v.) Knock-out. 1. A man frequenting action rooms and acting in concert buy at a nominal price. One of gang is told off to buy for the and after a few small bids as ids, the lot is knocked down to tie knock-out bidders, so that com- etition is made impossible. At the ad of the sale the goods are taken ray and resold or knocked out the confederates, the differ- ice between the first purchase and second or tap-room knock-out -being divided. The lowest sort of aock-outs, with more tongue than pital, are called babes. Hence auction at which knocking-out practised. Also as verb and adj. : Jy a thing of the past. 2. In pi., 3. A man or woman (used ather in eulogy or in outraged pro- priety), a warm member (q.v.) one who dpes outrageous things. 4. A hit out of the guard on the point of the chin : which puts the recipient to sleep, and ends the fight ; hence, a champion of any sort and in any walk of life. Knocker-out, a pugilist who is an adept at putting to sleep (q-v.). Knocksoftly. A fool, soft (q.v.): see Buffle. Knot. A crew, gang, fraternity (1597). To knot it, to abscond : see Bunk. To tie, with St. Mary's knot, to hamstring. To tie a knot with the tongue that cannot be untied with the teeth, to get married. Know. To know what's what (what's o'clock, a thing or two, one's way about, etc.), to have knowledge (taste, judgment, or experience), to be wide-awake (q.v.), equal to any emergency, fly (q.v.). Not to know B from a battledore : see B. In the know, having special and intimate knowledge, in the swim, on the ground floor (q.v.). All one knows, the ut- most. / want to know, Is it possible ? You surprise me. Knowing. Artful, fly (q.v. ) (1712). Knowing bloke, a sponger on new recruits. Knowledge-box. The head, nous- box (q.v.) : see Crumpet (1798). Knub. To rub against, tickle (1653). Knuck. A thief (q.v.): short for knuckle (q.v.) (1834). As verb, to steal : see Prig. Knuckle. One who hangs about the lobbies of both Houses of Parliament, the Opera - House, and both Play- Houses, and in general wherever a great crowd assemble : they steal watches, snuff-boxes, etc. (Parker, 1781). As verb, (1) to fight with fists, pummel ; (2) to pick pockets : applied especially to the more refined or artistic branch of the art, i.e. extracting notes or money from the waistcoat or breeches pockets, where- as buzzing (q.v.) is used in a more general sense : also to go on the knuckle. To knuckle (knuckle down to, or knuckle under), (1) to stoop, bend, yield, comply with, or submit to (1748) ; (2) to apply oneself earnestly, engage vigorously. Knuckle-bone. Down on the knuckle' bone, hard-up, stony (q.v.). 257 Knuckled. Ladies' Finger. Knuckled. Handsome. Knuckledabs (or Knuckle-con- founders). Handcuffs (Grose): see Darbies. Knuckle-duster. 1. A knuckle-guard of iron or brass which, in striking, pro- tects the hand from injury and! adds force to a blow. 2. A large, heavy, or over-gaudy ring. Knuckler. A pickpocket. Knuller. 1. A chimney-sweep who solicits custom in an irregular manner, by knocking at the doors of houses and such like : also kneller. 2. A clergyman. K o k u m. Sham kindness : see Cocum. Kone. Counterfeit coin (Matsdl). Koniacker (or Cogniac - er). A counterfeiter (MatscU). Kool. To look. Kotoo (or Kotow). To bow down to, scrape to, lickspittle. Kosh (or Kosher). 1. A short iron bar used for purpose of assault. 2. A blow. As adj., fair, square : from the Hebrew, lawful Krop. Pork. Kudos. Glory and honour. To kudos, to praise, glorify : from Gr., kudos, praised (1793). Kye. Eighteen pence : see Rhino. Kynchen. See Kinchen. Kypsey. A wicker basket : also kipsey (1754). L. The three L's, lead, latitude, and look-out (Clark Russell). Label. A postage stamp : cf. Toadskin. Labour. To beat Labourer. An accoucheur, midwife. Lace. Strong waters added to coffee or tea : also (by inference), sugar (1712). As verb, (1) to intermix with spirits : FT., consoler son cafe, to brandy one's coffee (1677); (2) to flog: also to lace one's coat (or jacket) (1599); (3) to wear tight stays. Lacedemonians. The Forty-sixth Foot, now the second battalion of the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry : from its colonel making it a long speech under a heavy fire about the Lacedemonians and their discipline : also Murrays Bucksand The Surprisers. Laced Mutton. A woman, especially a wanton (1578). Lacing. 1. See Lace. 2. A drub- bing, flogging, lashing (1696). Lach. To let in. Lack-Latin. An ignoramus : speci- fically an unlettered priest (1555). Ladder. To mount a ladder (to bed or to rest), to be hanged (1560). Eng- lish synonyms : to cut a caper upon nothing (or one's last fling), to catch (nab, or be copped with), the stifles, to climb the stalk, to climb (or leap from) the leafless (or the triple) tree, to be cramped (crapped, or cropped), to cry cockles, to dance upon nothing (the Paddington frisk, in a hempen cravat, or a Newgate hornpipe with- out music), to fetch a Tyburn stretch, to die in one's boots (or shoes, or with cotton in one's ears), to die of hempen fever (or squinsy), to have a hearty choke with caper sauce for breakfast, to take a vegetable breakfast, to marry the widow, to" morris (Old Cant), to trine, to tuck up, to swing, to trust, to be nubbed, to kick the wind, to kick the wind with one's heels, to kick the wind before the hotel door, to kick away the prop, to preach at Tyburn cross, to make (or have) a Tyburn show, to wag hemp in the wind, to wear hemp (an anodyne necklace, a hempen collar, a caudle, circle, cravat, croak, garter, necktie, or habeas), to wear neckweed, (or St. Andrew's lace), to tie Sir Tristram's Knot, to wear a horse's nightcap (or a Tyburn tippet), to come to scratch in a hanging (or stretching match or bee), to ride the horse foaled of an acorn (or the three-legged mare), to be stretched (topped, scragged, or down for one's scrag). To be unable to see a hole in a ladder, to be hopelessly drunk : see Screwed. Laddie. A lady. Ladies' Cage. That portion of the gallery in the Commons which is set apart for ladies : see Cage. Ladies' Fever. Syphilis, French gout (q.v.). Ladies' Finger (or Wish). A taper- ing glass of spirits, especially gin. 258 Ladies' Grog. Lamb. Ladies' Grog. Grog: hot, strong, sweet, and plenty of it (Dickens). Ladies ' Mile. Rotten Row in Hyde Park the principal airing ground during the London season. Ladle. To enunciate pretentiously ; to mouth (q.v.). Lad of (or on) the Cross. See Cross. Lad o' Wax. 1. A cobbler, cock o' wax (q.v.). 2. A boy, doll of a man, man of wax, a proper man. Ladron. A thief (q.v.) : from the Spanish (1652). Lad's Leavings (A). A girl (1737). Lady. 1. A very crooked, deformed, and ill - shapen woman (1696): cf. Lord. 2. The reverse or tail (q. v. ) of a coin: see Head. 3. A quart or pint pitcher wrong side uppermost. 4. The keeper of the gunner's small stores : lady's hole, the place where such stores are kept. 5. A woman of any station ; usually in combination, as fore-lady, sales -lady, cook -lady. 6. In pi., cards, devil's books. 7. A sweet- heart. Ladybird. (1) A wanton ; and (2) a term of endearment (1595). Lady-chair. See King's cushion. Lady Dacre's Wine. Gin (Lex. Bal.): see Drinks. Lady-feast. A bout of debauchery (1653). Lady Fender. A woman who spends her time nursing the fire. Lady Green. A clergyman; speci- fically a prison chaplain. Lady-killer. A male flirt, a general lover. Lady - killing, assiduous gal- lantry. Lady of Pleasure. A prostitute: FT., fUle de joie (1750). Lady's Ladder. Rattlins set too close. Lady Ware. Trinkets, knick- knacks, ribands. Lag. 1. Sentence of transportation, penal servitude. 2. A returned trans- port, convict, ticket - of - leave man (1811). 3. Water: also Lage (1573). 4. (Westminster School), a fag. 5. A dialogue or scene of extra length, also a wait. As verb, (1) to transport, send to penal servitude : lagged, sentenced, imprisoned : Fr., otter d la grotto ; To lump the lighter (q.v.) (1819); (2) to steal, prig (q.v.) ; (3) to catch (1580) ; (4) to urinate ; (5) to dally, wait, drop behind. Lage. See Lag. As verb, to wash down, drink (1567). Lager Beer. To think no lager beer of oneself : see Small beer. Lag-fever. A term of ridicule ap- plied to men who, being under sentence or transportation, pretend illness, to avoid being sent from gaol to the hulks (Lex. Bal.). Lagger. 1. A sailor. 2. An infor- mer, witness. Lagging. A term of imprisonment : also lag (q.v.). Hence, lagging matter, a crime rendering persons liable to transportation (Grose). Lagging-dues. When a person is likely to be transported, the flash people observe, lagging-dues will be concerned (Grose). Lagging-gage. A chamber-pot, it (q.v.). Lagniappe (or Lagnappe). The equivalent of the thirteenth roll in a baker's dozen. It is something thrown in, gratis for good measure. The custom originated in New Orleans city. When a child or servant buys something .... he finishes the operation by saying, ' Give me something for Lagniappe.' The shopman always responds . . . When you are invited to drink, and you say, I've had enough, the other says, ' But just this one time more this is for lagniappe ' (Mark Twain). Lagranged. Vexed. Lag-ship. A convict transport. Laid. See Lavender, and Shelf. Lala. A swell. Lally. Linen, lully (q.v.) (1800). Lallycodler. One eminently success- ful in any particular line. Lam. See Lamb. Lamb. 1. A quiet easy - going person, simpleton, juggins (q.v.) (1669). 2. Ironically used of a rough (cruel, or merciless) person : speci- fically applied to Nottingham roughs, and hence to bludgeon men at elec- tions : the head-money given is called mint-sauce ( q. v. ). Engli sh synonyms : barker, basher, blood-tub, bouncer, bounder, boy of the Holy Ground, bruiser, dead duck, hoodlum, larrikin, mug, plug - ugly, rabbit (or dead rabbit), ramper, roarer (or roaring- boy), rough, roustabout, rouster, rowdy, rustler, short-ear. 3. A term of endearment (1595). 4. An elderly person dressed or got-up young. 5. 259 Lamback. Land- Security. See Pet Lamb. 6. See Kirke's Lambs. As verb, to beat : also lamb lambaste, lamback, and lambeake (1665). To akin the lamb. See Skin. Lamback. A blow (1591). Lambacker. A bully, hector (q.v.) (1593). Lamb and Salad. To give one lamb and salad, to thrash soundly. Lambaste. See Lamb. Lambasting. A thrashing. Lamb-down. To spend all in drink, to charter the bar (q.v.), to knock down one's cheque (q.v.), to blew the lot (q.v.). Lamb-pie. A drubbing (B. E.). Lambskin. To beat : see Lamb (1593). Lambskin-man. A judge (B. E.). Lamb's -wool. Hot ale, spiced, sweetened, and mixed with t the pulp of roasted apples (1189). Lame-dog. To help a lame dog over a stile, to give a hand, help, bunk up (q.v.) : FT., sauver la mise a quelqu'un (1605). Lame duck. 1. A defaulter on 'Change, who has to ' waddle out of the Alley r : cf. Bear, Bull, etc. (1766). 2. A scapegrace. Lame-hand. An indifferent driver, spoon (q.v.). Lammas. At later Lammas, never, at the Greek kalends (q.v.), at Tib's eve (q.v.) (1576). Lammermoor Lion. A sheep : cf. Cotewold lion, and Essex lion. Lammie Todd 1 I would if I could. Lammikin. A blow (1622). Lamming. A beating : cf. Lamb (1619). Lammy. A blanket : originally a thick quilted frock, or short jumper made of flannel or blanket cloth, worn by Bailors aa an outside garment in cold weather (Gentlemen's Magazine, 1866). Lamp. 1. An eye. 2. In pi., spec- tacles, giglamps (q.v.) : see Peepers. To smell of the lamp, to show signs of labour or study (1615). Lamp - post. A tall lanky person. English synonyms : clothes - prop, daddy-longlegs, Duke of Lankester, Duke of Lamos, gawk, gas-pipe, lath- legs, long-ghost, Long-shanks, long- 'un, rasher-of-wind, sky-scraper, sky- topper, spindle-shanks, split-up, tongs, matches. Lanceman (Lance-knight, or Lanceman-prigger). A highwayman (1591). Lancepresado. One who has only twopence in his pocket ; also a lance, or deputy corporal, that is, one doing the duty without the pay of corporal ; formerly a lancier or horseman, who being dismounted by the death of his horse, served in the foot by the title of lansprisado or lancepesato ; a broken lance (B. E. and Grose). Land. 1. To deliver, get home (q.v.). 2. To bring or take a posi- tion or place, set down, catch, arrive (1850). 3. To set up, make all right, secure. 4. To win, gain. To land out, to decamp, bunk (q.v.). To see how the land lies, to see how matters stand. Who has any land in Appleby, ' a Question askt the Man at whose Door the Glass stands long' (B. E.). Land-broker. An undertaker (Mat- sell). Land-carack. A mistress (1629). Land-crab. A landsman. Landed Estate. 1. The grave, Darby's dyke (q.v.). 2. Dirt in the finger nails. L a n d i e s (Winchester College). Gaiters : from tradespeople Landy and Currell who supplied them (Notions). Landlady. To hang the landlady, to decamp without payment, to moon- shine, to stand off the tailor. Landlubber (also Land-leaper and Land-loper). A vagabond, one who fled the country for crime or debt ; also (nautical) a landsman, in varying degrees of contempt, for incapacity in general or uselessness as sailors in particular : Fr., jus de cancre, terrien, or failli chien de terrien (1362). Land of Nod. Sleep. To go to the land of nod, to go to bed, fall asleep (1818). Land of Promises. The fair expect- ation cherished by a steady novice at Oxford (Orose). Land of steady habits. Connecticut. Land of Sheepishness. School- boy's bondage (Orose). Land-packet An ox-team. Land-pirate (or Land-rat). 1. A land thief: cf. Water-rat (1598). 2. See Land-shark. Land-raker. A vagabond, land- lubber (q.v.) (1696). Land Security. See Leg-bail. 260 Land-shark. Larking. Land-shark. 1. A boarding-house keeper, runner, crimp any one living by the plunder of seamen : FT., ver- mine (1838). 2. A usurer. 3. A land- grabber, one who seizes land by craft or force. 4. A custom-house officer (1815). Land-swab. A landlubber (q.v.), grasscomber (q.v.). Land-yard. A cemetery. Lane. 1. The throat : see Gutter alley : also Red lane and Red lion lane (1534). 2. The course laid out for ocean steamers between England and America : there are two lanes, or lane-routes both narrowly defined the northern for westward bound, and the southern for eastern bottoms. The Lane, (1) Drury Lane Theatre; (2) Mincing Lane ; (3) Mark Lane ; (4) Chancery Lane ; (5) Petticoat Lane, and (6) the old Horsemonger Lane Jail, now demolished : cf. Cade, House, Garden, etc. Harriet Lane, tinned or preserved meat. Langret. In pi., dice loaded so as to show 4 or 3 more often than any other number : the opposite is bardquater- tray (1591). Lank. After a lank comes a bank, said of breeding women (1767). Lank Sleeve. The empty sleeve of a one-armed man. A fellow with a lank sleeve ; a man who has lost an arm (Lex. Bal.). Lanspresado (or Lansprisado). See Lancepresado. Lant. To make water, stale (q.v.) : also, subs., urine (Cotgrave). Lantern. To hang from a lamp- post : Fr., d la lanterne : see Lanthorn. Lantern- jaws. Lean, thin-faced (1696). Lanthorn. Dark lanthorn, the ser- vant or agent that receives the bribe (at Court) (B. E.). Lap. 1. Any sort of potable (among ballet-girls), gin : also lapper (1573). 2. One round of a course (1861). As verb, (1) to drink: also, to go on the lap (1819) ; (2) in running a race in laps, to overtake : as, to be one or more laps ahead ; (3) to pick up, take, steal (Matsell) ; (4) to seat a girl on one's knees ; (5) to throw candy, papers, etc. into the laps of passen- gers. To lap the gutter : see Gutter. To lap up, to wipe out, put out of sight. Cat-lap (see ante). Lap-ear. 1. A student of a religious turn of mind. 2. A donkey. Lap-ful. 1. A lover or husband ; 2. an unborn child. Lapland. The society of women. Lapper. 1. Drink, lap (q.v.) : hence, 2. rare-lapper, a hard drinker. Lap-feeder. A silver table-spoon. Lappel. To ship the white lappel, to be raised from the ranks. Lap-priest. A clerical apple-squire (q.v.), a servant (q.v.) (1690). Lap-tea. An informal afternoon meal. Lardy. Grand, rich, swell (q.v.). Lardy - dardy, affected, effeminate : lardy-dah (or la-di-da), a swell or fop. To do (or come) the lardy-dah, to dress for the public. Lareover. Lareovers for medlers, an answer frequently given to children, or young people, as a rebuke for their impertinent curiosity, in en- quiring what is contained in a box, bundle, or any other closed convey- ance (Grose). Large. A vulgarism expressive of excess : thus, to dress large, to dress showily ; to go large, to go noisily ; to play large, to play high ; to talk large, to brag, etc. (1852). Large blue kind, a general intensitive ; e.g. a mon- strous lie, bad headache, interesting book, and so forth. Large House. A workhouse. English synonyms : big-house, grubbing-ken, lump, Lump-Hotel, pan, spinniken, wool-hole. Large Order. A difficult undertak- ing, something exaggerated (exten- sive, or big). Lark. 1. A piece of merriment (1811). 2. A boat (Lex. Bal.). As verb, (1) to sport, tease, spree (q.v.). (2) See Larking. (3) A boy who steals newspapers from doorsteps. Larking. 1. To clear a jump, go over like a bird. 2. Exclusive of work for horses when hounds are running, there is another way of making use of horse- flesh in Leicestershire ; and that is, in coming home from hunting, or what in the language of the day is called larking. One of the party holds up his hat, which is a signal for the start; and, putting their horses' heads in a direction for Melton, away they go, and stop at nothing till they get there (Nimrod). 3. Frolicking.horse- play, rowdyism. As adj . , Larkish (q. v. ) 261 Larkish. Lay. ' Larkish (Larky or Larking). Frolic- some, rowdy. Larky Subaltern's Train. See Cold meat train. Larrence. See Lazy Laurence. Larrey. Artful (MatseU). Larrikin. A rough : cf. Arab, cab- bage-tree, mob, hoodlum, etc. ' It was in a Sydney newspaper that I read about Larrikins, but the term would appear to have spread throughout Australia. H. de 8. tells me that larrikin was originally Melbourne slang, applied to rowdy youngsters, who, in the early days of the gold fever, gave much trouble to the police. An Australian born spells the word larakin .... Finally, Archibald Forbes tells me : A larrikin is a cross between the street arab and the hoodlum, with a dash of the rough thrown in to im- prove the mixture. It was thus the term had its origin. A Sydney police- man of the Irish persuasion brought up a rowdy youngster before the local beak. Asked to describe the conduct of the misdemeanant, he said, ' Av it please yer honnor, the blaggard wor a larrakin' (larking) all over the place.' The expression was taken hold of and applied ' (Sola). As adj., rowdy. Larrikinism, rowdyism. Larrup. To flog: Fr., cotter du rotate. Larruping. A thrashing : Fr., schlague (1844). Larry Dugan's Eye-water. Black- ing (Grose). Lash (Blue Coat School). To envy : usually used in the imperative as a taunt (Blanch). Lashings (or Lashins). Plenty, abundance : also lashin's and lavin's, plenty and to spare (1841). Lask. A looseness of the bowels. Lass in a red petticoat. A wife with a good portion. Last Compliment. Burial (1780). Last-feather. The latest fashion (1607). Latch. To let in (New Cant Diet. ). Latch-drawer. A thief (q.v.) who stole into houses by drawing the latch (1362). Latch -pan. The under -lip; to hang one's latch-pan, to pout, to sulk. Late-play (Westminster School). A half-holiday or holiday beginning at noon. Lath-and-plaster. A master. Lather. To beat, thrash: also Leather (q.v.) (1849). Lathy. Thin (1748). Latitat An attorney (Grose) : from an obsolete form of writ (1771). Latter-end. The breech. Lattice. See Red lattice. Latty. See Letty. Laugh. To laugh on the wrong (or other) side of one's mouth (or face), to cry (1811). Launch. A lying-in (Grose). As verb, 'I had [at Sandhurst about 1815] to undergo the usual torments of being launched, that is having my bed reversed while I was asleep ; of being thrown on the floor on my face, with the mattress on my back and all my friends or foes dancing on my prostrate body' (Berkeley). Laundress. A bed maker in chambers. Laurence. See Lusty Laurence. Lavender. To lay (or put) in laven- der, (1) to lay up or put aside care- fully ; as linen among lavender. Hence (2) to pawn; (3) to leave in lodging for debt ; (4) to hide from the police ; and (5) on the turf, to be ill or out of the way (1592). Lavender - cove. A pawnbroker, uncle (q.v.). Law. A time allowance : hence a preliminary notice, a chance of escape (Grose). To stab the law, to rail against authority. Lawful Blanket (or Jam). A wife : see Dutch (Lex. Bal.). Lawful pictures. Money : see Rhino and cf. King's pictures (1607). Lawk ! (or Lawks !) An exclama- tion of surprise. Lawful Time (Winchester College). Recess, playtime. Lawn. A handkerchief (Grose). The lawn, the lawn on the course at Ascot : cf. House, Lane, etc. Lawrie (or Laurie). A fox (1567). Lawyer. High (or highway) lawyer, a mounted robber or high- wayman (1592). Lay. 1. A pursuit, scheme, device, lurk. Also in combination, kinchin- lay (q.v.); avoirdupois-lay (q.v.); ken-crack-lay, house-breaking ; fancy- lay, pugilism. English synonyms : dodge, game, huff, j