Words of Wisdom 1.0 Serial numbers included

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    ERIAL NALYZER ’ PERATOR ANUAL December, 2007...

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    © 2007 by LeCroy Corporation. All rights reserved. LeCroy, ActiveDSO, WaveLink, JitterTrack, WavePro, WaveMaster, WaveSurfer, WaveExpert, WaveRunner and WaveJet are registered trademarks of LeCroy Corporation. Other product or brand names are trademarks or requested trademarks of their respective holders. Information in this publication supersedes all earlier versions.

  • Page 3: Table Of Contents

    Returning a Product for Service or Repair ..............19  Technical Support ......................19  Staying Up-to-Date ...................... 20  Warranty ........................20  Windows License Agreement ..................20  End-user License Agreement For LeCroy X-Stream Software ........21  Virus Protection ......................27  SDA Specifications ....................28   Vertical System ......................28 ...

  • Page 4: Table Of Contents

    Color Waveform Display ....................35  Analog Persistence Display ....................36   Zoom Expansion Traces ......................36   CPU ..........................36  Internal Waveform Memory ..................36  Setup Storage ......................36  Interface ........................36  Auxiliary Output ......................36  Auxiliary Input ......................36  General ........................

  • Page 5: Table Of Contents

    SDA Operator’s Manual Trace Annotation ......................50  Annotating a Waveform ......................51   Turning on a Channel Trace Label ..................52   Installation ......................53   Software........................53  Checking the Scope Status ....................53   Default Settings ......................53  DDA, SDA, and WaveRunner DSOs ..................53  ...

  • Page 6: Table Of Contents

    Probe Attenuation ......................68  Setting Probe Attenuation ....................... 68   Bandwidth Limit ......................69  Linear and (SinX)/X Interpolation ................69  Interpolation Setup ........................69   Inverting Waveforms ....................... 69   QuickZoom ........................69  Turning On a Zoom ......................... 69   Finding Scale .......................

  • Page 7: Table Of Contents

    SDA Operator’s Manual SMART Triggers ......................83  Width Trigger .......................... 83   Glitch Trigger .......................... 84   Interval Trigger......................85  Qualified Trigger ........................89   State Trigger ........................... 91   Dropout Trigger ........................92   Logic Trigger ........................... 94   Serial Trigger ..........................

  • Page 8: Table Of Contents

    Disk Utilities ....................... 110  Deleting a Single File ......................110   Deleting All Files in a Folder ....................111   Creating a Folder ........................111   Printing and File Management ................111   Print, Plot, or Copy ....................111  Printing ........................111  Printer Setup .........................

  • Page 9: Table Of Contents

    SDA Operator’s Manual Cursor Measurement Icons ....................136   Cursors Setup ......................137  Quick Display ........................137   Full Setup ..........................137   Overview of Parameters .................... 137  Turning On Parameters ......................137   Quick Access to Parameter Setup Dialogs ................138  ...

  • Page 10: Table Of Contents

    Waveform Qualifier Setup ..................... 178   Waveform Math ....................178   Introduction to Math Traces and Functions ............... 178  MATH MADE EASY ....................179  Setting Up a Math Function ....................179   Resampling To Deskew .................... 180  Resampling ........................... 180  ...

  • Page 11: Table Of Contents

    SDA Operator’s Manual FFT Algorithms ........................199   Glossary ..........................200   FFT Setup ..........................203   Analysis ......................204   Pass/Fail Testing ....................... 204  Comparing Parameters ......................204   Mask Tests ..........................205   Actions ..........................205   Setting Up Pass/Fail Testing ..................206  Initial Setup ...........................

  • Page 12: Table Of Contents

    Service ........................217  Show Windows Desktop .................... 217  Touch-Screen Calibration ..................217  Customization ....................218   Customizing Your Instrument ..................218  Introduction ........................... 218   Solutions ..........................219   Examples ..........................219   What is Excel? ........................224   What is Mathcad? ......................... 224  ...

  • Page 13: Table Of Contents

    SDA Operator’s Manual Arithmetic Operators ....................254  VBS Controls ......................255  IF . . . Then . . . Else . . . End If ..................... 256   Summary of If ..Then ..Else ..................257  ...

  • Page 14: Table Of Contents

    Creating a CustomDSO Setup File................283  CustomDSO PlugIn Mode ..................284  Creating a CustomDSO PlugIn.................. 284  Properties of the Control and its Objects ..............285  Removing a PlugIn ....................288  PlugIn Example 1: Exchanging Two Traces on the Grids ......... 289  Second Example PlugIn: Log-Log FFT Plot ..............

  • Page 15: Table Of Contents

    SDA Operator’s Manual Jitter Wizard ....................... 309  SDA Basic Setup ....................... 312  PLL Setup ........................315  Summary ........................317  Mask Test ........................317  Eye Setup ..........................318   Mask Margin ......................... 319   Testing ..........................320   Bit Error Rate - ASDA-J Option Only ................. 320  Serial Trigger ......................

  • Page 16: Table Of Contents

    SDA Function Reference .................. 346   AltNcycle ........................347  AltNcycle Control Summary ....................348   Htie to BER ........................ 350  Jitter Filter Function ....................352  Slice2Persist ......................353  Multi-Eye Measurements .................. 355   Overview of Multi-Eye Measurement Tools ............... 355  Setup and Installation ....................

  • Page 17: Table Of Contents

    SDA Operator’s Manual Vertical Noise Compensation ..................385  Introduction ........................... 385   Signal Slew Rate and How Vertical Noise Converts to Jitter ..........385   The Relative Impact of Noise on Jitter (Quadratic Addition of Noise) ........386   How the Measurement System Noise Is Subtracted from the Jitter Measurement ....386  ...

  • Page 18: Introduction, How To Use Online Help, Type Styles, Instrument Help

    Search locates every occurrence of the keyword that you enter. www.lecroy.com connects you to LeCroy's Web site where you can find Lab Briefs, Application Notes, and other useful information. This feature requires that the instrument be connected to the internet through the Ethernet port on the scope's rear panel.

  • Page 19: Windows Help, Returning A Product For Service Or Repair, Technical Support

    Windows task bar at the bottom of the screen and selecting Help. Returning a Product for Service or Repair If you need to return a LeCroy product, identify it by its model and serial numbers. Describe the defect or failure, and give us your name and telephone number.

  • Page 20: Staying Up-to-date, Warranty, Windows License Agreement

    LeCroy shall not be responsible for any defect, damage, or failure caused by any of the following: a) attempted repairs or installations by personnel other than LeCroy representatives, or b) improper connection to incompatible equipment or c) for any damage or malfunction caused by the use of non-LeCroy supplies.

  • Page 21: End-user License Agreement For Lecroy X-stream Software

    (i) for use in or with an instrument provided or manufactured by LeCroy (an “Instrument”), (ii) for testing your software product(s) (to be used solely by you) that are designed to operate in conjunction with an Instrument (“Your Software”), and (iii) make one copy for archival and back-up purposes;...

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    License will not take effect, and you will have no right to use or access the Software Product unless you are properly licensed to use a product identified by LeCroy as being eligible for the upgrade (“Underlying Product”). A Software Product labeled as an “upgrade” replaces and/or supplements the Underlying Product.

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    At LeCroy’s sole discretion, from time to time, LeCroy may provide Updates to the Software Product. LeCroy shall have no obligation to revise or update the Software Product or to support any version of the Software Product. At LeCroy’s sole discretion, upon your request, LeCroy may provide you with support services related to the Software Product (“Support Services”) pursuant...

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    As used herein, “Confidential Information” means LeCroy pricing or information concerning new LeCroy products, trade secrets (including without limitation all internal header information contained in or created by the Software Product, all benchmark and performance test results and all Documentation) and other proprietary information of LeCroy;...

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    It is your responsibility to comply with the latest United States export regulations, and you will defend and indemnify LeCroy from and against any damages, fines, penalties, assessments, liabilities, costs and expenses...

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    SERVICES AGREEMENT WITH LECROY, LECROY’S ENTIRE LIABILITY REGARDING SUPPORT SERVICES WILL BE GOVERNED BY THE TERMS OF THAT AGREEMENT. LECROY SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF DATA, INTERRUPTION OF BUSINESS, NOR FOR INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL,...

  • Page 27: Virus Protection

    LeCroy, its agents, or employees, but only by an instrument in writing signed by an authorized officer of LeCroy. No waiver by LeCroy of any breach or default of any provision of this EULA by you will be effective as to any other breach or default, whether of the same or any other provision and whether occurring prior to, concurrent with, or subsequent to the date of such waiver.

  • Page 28: Sda Specifications, Vertical System

    SDA SPECIFICATIONS Note: Specifications are subject to change without notice. Vertical System SDA 6000/6000A/6020 SDA 5000/5000A SDA 4000A/4020 SDA 3010 Analog Bandwitdth 6 GHz 5 GHz 4 GHz 3 GHz at 50 Ω (-3 dB) Rise Time 75 ps 90 ps 105 ps 150 ps (10-90% Typical)

  • Page 29: Horizontal System, Jitter Noise Floor, Acquisition System

    SDA Operator’s Manual Horizontal System • Timebases: Internal timebase common to 4 input channels; an external clock may be applied at the Auxiliary Input (SDA 6020 only) • Math & Zoom Traces: 8 math/zoom traces standard • Clock Accuracy: ≤ 1 ppm @ 0 to 40 degrees C (SDA 3010 ≤ 10 ppm @ 0 to 40 degrees C) •...

  • Page 30: Memory, Sda 18000/13000/11000/9000, Acquisition Modes, Acquisition Processing, Triggering System

    Memory • SDA 6020/4020: 20 Mpts/Ch. Option SDA-XL: 25 Mpts/Ch, 50 Mpts/Ch for 2 or 1 • Ch.SDA6000A XXL/SDA4000A XXL: 50 Mpts/Ch, 100 Mpts/Ch for 2 or 1 Ch • SDA3010: 10 Mpts/Ch, 20 Mpts/Ch for 2 or 1 Ch. Option SDA-XL: 25 Mpts/Ch, 50 Mpts.Ch for 2 or 1 Ch.

  • Page 31: Automatic Setup, Probes, Basic Triggers, Smart Triggers, Smart Triggers With Exclusion Technology

    SDA Operator’s Manual • External trigger input range: AUX (±0.4 V); AUX X10 (±0.04 V); AUX /10 (±4 V) Not available on SDA 6000A, SDA 5000A, SDA 4000A Automatic Setup • Auto Setup: Automatically sets timebase, trigger, and sensitivity to display a wide range of repetitive signals.

  • Page 32: Serial Trigger, Clock Recovery, Jitter Analysis

    Serial Trigger Available on SDA 6000A (XXL), SDA 5000A (XXL), SDA 4000A (XXL) Data Type NRZ encoded for clock extraction (needs edge density > 20%) Sensitivity 1 division minimum and at least 10 mV 50 MHz Min. Frequency Max. Frequency 2.7 GHz up to 32 bits Serial Trigger Length...

  • Page 33: Math Tools – Standard, Automated Measure Tools – Standard

    SDA Operator’s Manual Math Tools – Standard Display up to eight math function traces (F1 to F8). The easy-to-use graphical interface simplifies setup of up to two operations on each function trace. Function traces can be chained together to perform math-on-math. absolute value invert (negate) average (summed)

  • Page 34: Pass/fail Testing, Advanced Math Package (xmath) – Standard

    Pass/Fail Testing Simultaneously test multiple parameters against selectable parameter limits or pre-defined masks. Pass or fail conditions can initiate actions including document to local or networked files, email the image of the failure, save waveforms, send a pulse out of the front panel auxiliary BNC output, or (with the GPIB option) send a GPIB SRQ.

  • Page 35: Asda-j - Standard, B/10b Protocol Decoding - Standard, Advanced Customization Package (xdev) – Optional

    SDA Operator’s Manual ASDA-J - Standard This package includes: • Edge-to-edge jitter • Clock jitter • Filtered jitter • Effective and MJSQ jitter • ISI plot of data dependent jitter • N-cycle jitter plot • Bit error rate analysis • Mask violation 8B/10B Protocol Decoding - Standard Simultaneously translates up to 4 lanes of 8B/10B encoded Serial Data waveforms into symbol...

  • Page 36: Analog Persistence Display, Zoom Expansion Traces, Internal Waveform Memory, Setup Storage, Interface, Auxiliary Output

    Front Panel and Instrument Status Save to the internal hard drive, floppy drive or to a USB- connected peripheral device. Interface • Remote Control: Via Windows Automation, or via LeCroy GPIB command set • GPIB Port: (Optional) Supports IEEE-488.2 •...

  • Page 37: General, Environmental Characteristics, Certifications, Ce Declaration Of Conformity

    SDA Operator’s Manual General • Auto Calibration: Ensures specified DC and timing accuracy is maintained for 1 year minimum. • Power Requirements: 100 to 120 VAC at 50/60/400 Hz; 200 to 240 VAC at 50/60 Hz; Power consumption: 650 VA, 650 W max. (SDA 3010/4000A/5000A/6000A); 800 VA, 800 W max. (SDA 4020/6020/9000/11000/13000/18000) Environmental Characteristics Temperature...

  • Page 38: Physical Dimensions

    Warning This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference, in which case the user may be required to take appropriate measures. Electromagnetic Immunity: EN 61000-4-2/A2:2001 Electrostatic Discharge (4 kV contact, 8 kV air, 4 kV vertical/horizontal coupling planes) EN 61000-4-3/A1:2003 RF Radiated Electromagnetic Field (3 V/m, 80-1000 MHz) EN 61000-4-4:2004 Electrical Fast Transient/Burst...

  • Page 39: Warranty And Service, Optical Reference Receiver (with Oe425/oe455), Software Clock Recovery System

    SDA Operator’s Manual Warranty and Service 3-year warranty; calibration recommended annually. Optional service programs include extended warranty, upgrades, and calibration services. Optical Reference Receiver (with OE425/OE455) 4th order Bessel-Thompson filter response at the following data rates: SDA 3010/4000A/4020/5000A/6020/ 6000A/9000/11000/13000/18000 SONET/SDH OC-1/STM0 (51.84 Mb/s) OC-3/STM1 (155.52 Mb/s) OC-12/STM4 (622.08 Mb/s)

  • Page 40: Communications Mask Testing, Jitter Testing

    Communications Mask Testing 3010/4000A/4020/5000A/6020/6000A/9000/11000/13000/18000 SONET/SDH OC-1/STM0 OC-3/STM1 Optical OC-12/STM4 Optical OC-48/STM16 Optical Ethernet IEEE Std 802.3 and 1000Base-SX Short Wave Optical ANSI X3.263-1995 1000Base-LX Long Wave Optical Fibre Channel Electrical FC133E, FC266E, FC531E, FC1063E (ANSI X3.303-1997) S400 Optical S400b T1 S400b T2 S800 Optical IEEE 1394b (draft)

  • Page 41: Bit Error Rate (optional)

    SDA Operator’s Manual Bit Error Rate (optional) SDA 4000A/SDA 5000A/SDA 6000A Data Rate ≤ 2.7 Gb/s Maximum capture buffer 20 GS/s at 2.5 Gb/s data rate size (bits) (8 samples/bit) Std. VL (32M) XL (50M) XXL (100M) Minimum Detectable BER 1 X 10 (single acquisition) SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 42: Safety, Safety Requirements, Safety Symbols

    SAFETY Safety Requirements This section contains information and warnings that must be observed to keep the instrument operating in a correct and safe condition. You are required to follow generally accepted safety procedures in addition to the safety precautions specified in this section. Safety Symbols Where the following symbols appear on the instrument’s front or rear panels, or in this manual, they alert you to important safety considerations.

  • Page 43: Operating Environment

    SDA Operator’s Manual CAT I Installation (Overvoltage) Category rating per EN 61010-1 safety standard and is applicable for the oscilloscope front panel measuring terminals. CAT I rated terminals must only be connected to source circuits in which measures are taken to limit transient voltages to an appropriately low level.

  • Page 44: Cooling, Ac Power Source

    Installation (Overvoltage) Category II refers to local Note: distribution level, which is applicable to equipment The design of the instrument has been verified to connected to the mains supply (AC power source). conform to Installation (Overvoltage) Category I refers to signal EN 61010-1 safety standard per the following level, which is applicable to equipment measuring limits:...

  • Page 45: Power Consumption, Power And Ground Connections

    SDA Operator’s Manual Power Consumption SDA 6020, 4020, 9000, 11000, 13000, 18000: ≤ 800 watts (800 VA) depending on accessories installed (internal printer, probes, PC port plug-ins, etc.) SDA 4000A, 5000A, 6000A: ≤ 650 watts (650 VA) The power supply of the scope is protected against short circuit and overload by a 5x20 mm fuse (T10.0 A/250 V).

  • Page 46: Standby (power) Switch And Scope Operational States, Fuse Replacement

    Standby (Power) Switch and Scope Operational States The front Standby (Power) switch controls the operational state of the scope. This toggle switch is activated by momentarily pressing and releasing it. The color of the LED below the switch indicates the status of the scope as follows: •...

  • Page 47: Calibration, Cleaning, Abnormal Conditions

    SDA Operator’s Manual Calibration The recommended calibration interval is one year and should be performed by qualified personnel only. Cleaning Clean only the exterior of the instrument, using a damp, soft cloth. Do not use chemicals or abrasive elements. Under no circumstances allow moisture to penetrate the WARNING instrument.

  • Page 48: Basic Controls, Alternate Access Methods, Mouse And Keyboard Operation, Toolbar Buttons

    BASIC CONTROLS Alternate Access Methods Note: The instrument often provides more than one way to access dialogs and menus. Mouse and Keyboard Operation Touch-screen operation is used for most procedures explained in our manuals. However, if you have a mouse connected to the instrument, you can also be used to click on objects. Also, if you have a keyboard connected, it can be used instead of the virtual keyboard provided in the instrument.

  • Page 49: Trace Descriptors

    SDA Operator’s Manual Another example includes the buttons appearing at the bottom of the Measure Px dialogs. Each button opens a menu from which to choose a math trace (F1 to Fx - The number of math traces available depends on the software options loaded on your scope, so please refer to your scope specifications) to display the functions named in the following buttons: By using these buttons you can remain in the Measure dialog and set up other options.

  • Page 50: Trace Annotation

    Shown (as follows) the TimeBase and Trigger labels are setup information for horizontal cursors, including the time between cursors and the frequency. Trace Annotation The instrument gives you the ability to add an identifying label, bearing your own text, to a waveform display: For each waveform, you can create multiple labels and turn them all on or all off.

  • Page 51: Annotating A Waveform

    SDA Operator’s Manual Annotating a Waveform 1. Touch the waveform you want to annotate, and then Set label... in the pop-up menu. A dialog box opens in which to create the label. If you are creating a label for the first time for this waveform, Label1 is displayed with default text.

  • Page 52: Turning On A Channel Trace Label

    Turning on a Channel Trace Label Note: If you want to display each trace on its own grid automatically, enable Autogrid by touching Display in the menu bar, then Autogrid in the drop-down menu. • On the front panel, press a channel select button, such as , to display the trace label for that input channel and turn on the channel.

  • Page 53: Installation, Software, Checking The Scope Status, Default Settings, Dda, Sda, And Waverunner Dsos

    3. Then touch the on-screen Recall Default button: Adding a New Option To add a software option you need a key code to enable the option. Call LeCroy Customer Support to place an order and receive the code. To add the software option do the following: 1.

  • Page 54: Restoring Software, Restarting The Application

    2. In the dialog area, touch the tab. 3. Touch 4. Use the pop-up keyboard to type the key code. Touch O.K. on the keyboard to enter the information. 5. The name of the feature you just installed is shown below the list of key codes. You can use the scroll buttons to see the name of the option installed with each key code listed: The full array of installed software and hardware options is displayed on the left side of the dialog:...

  • Page 55: Restarting The Operating System, Removable Hard Drive

    SDA Operator’s Manual If you minimize the application, touch the appropriate task bar or desktop icon to maximize it: Restarting the Operating System To restart the Windows® operating system, reboot the scope by pressing and holding in the power switch for 10 seconds (until the system shuts down). Press the power button again to start the scope.

  • Page 56: Connecting To A Signal, Probus Interface, Prolink Interface

    ProLink Interface LeCroy's ProLink Adapters (LPA) give you the ability to connect your signal in one of three ways: • BMA connector •...

  • Page 57

    SDA Operator’s Manual (1) BMA-to-SMA Adapter; (2) BMA-to-BNC Adapter (1) BMA Female Connector, (2) ProLink BMA-to-SMA Adapter Installed, (3) ProLink BMA-to-BNC Adapter Installed Note: When connecting an active probe to the instrument, be sure to use a ProLink BMA-to-BNC adapter (item 3 in the figure).

  • Page 58: Connecting The Adapters

    Connecting the Adapters The mating end of the ProLink adapter has four fastening clips, as shown here: When installing an adapter on the instrument's connector panel, align the male 6-pin connector with the female connector and push the adapter straight in. There will be some resistance and you'll hear clicks as the four clips slide into place.

  • Page 59: Ap-1m Hi-z Adapter

    SDA Operator’s Manual AP-1M Hi-Z Adapter The AP-1M adapter provides a means to connect a high-impedance input to your instrument. In order to achieve high bandwidth with excellent signal integrity, these instruments have a ±4 V dynamic range and 50 Ω termination to ground. However, for applications that combine one or more high-speed signals with slower, higher-voltage signals, the AP-1M provides a 1 M input impedance path and a full-scale range of ±8 V.

  • Page 60: Auxiliary Output Signals, Auxiliary Output Setup

    Auxiliary Output Signals In addition to a calibration signal, the following signals can be output through the AUX OUTPUT connector: Square Wave Trigger Out - can be used to trigger another scope DC level - a reference level Trigger Enabled - can be used as a gating function to trigger another instrument when the scope is ready Pass/Fail - allows you to set a pulse duration from 1 ms to 500 ms;...

  • Page 61: Sampling Modes, Sampling Mode Selection, Single-shot Sampling Mode, Basic Capture Technique

    SDA Operator’s Manual SAMPLING MODES Sampling Modes Depending on your timebase, you can choose either Single-shot (Real Time) Sequence , or RIS mode sampling. Sampling Mode Selection 1. In the menu bar, touch Timebase, then Horizontal Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2.

  • Page 62: Sequence Sampling Mode Working With Segments

    Because each instrument input channel has a dedicated ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter), the voltage on each is sampled and measured at the same instant. This allows very reliable time measurements between the channels. On fast timebase settings, the maximum single-shot sampling rate is used. But for slower timebases, the sampling rate is decreased and the number of data samples maintained.

  • Page 63: Sequence Mode Setup

    SDA Operator’s Manual You can also use Sequence mode in remote operation to take full advantage of the instrument's high data-transfer capability. How the instrument captures segments Sequence Mode Setup Note: Once a single acquisition has started, you can interrupt the acquisition at any time by pressing the Single front panel button a second time.

  • Page 64: Sequence Display Modes

    7. At the far right of the "Display" dialog, touch inside the Display mode field, and make a selection from the pop-up menu. 8. Touch inside the Num seg displayed field and enter a value from 1 to 80, using the pop-up numeric keypad.

  • Page 65: Displaying Individual Segments

    SDA Operator’s Manual Overlay Perspective The number of segments you choose to display (80 maximum) can be less than the total number of segments in the waveform. For example, in the pop-up images above, the number of display segments is 10, but the total number of segments entered in the timebase dialog's Num Segments field is 100.

  • Page 66: Viewing Time Stamps, Ris Sampling Mode - For Higher Sample Rates

    Viewing Time Stamps 1. In the menu bar, touch Timebase, then touch Acquisition Status... in the drop-down menu. 2. Touch the Time tab. 3. Touch one of the channel buttons under Select Waveform. 4. Touch inside the Select Segment field and enter a segment number, using the pop-up keypad.

  • Page 67: Roll Mode, Vertical Settings And Channel Controls, Adjusting Sensitivity And Position, Adjusting Sensitivity

    SDA Operator’s Manual Roll Mode Roll mode applies only to WavePro 7000 and WaveRunner 6000 series scopes. It is invoked automatically when the time per division is 500 ms/div or greater. However, you can cancel Roll Mode and return to Real Time mode at any time. Roll mode displays, in real time, incoming points in single-shot acquisitions that have a sufficiently low data rate.

  • Page 68: Adjusting The Waveform's Position, Coupling, Overload Protection, Coupling Setup, Probe Attenuation, Setting Probe Attenuation

    Probe Attenuation Setting Probe Attenuation LeCroy's ProBus system automatically senses probes and sets their attenuation for you. If you want to set the attenuation manually, 1. In the menu bar, touch Vertical, then select a channel from the drop-down menu.

  • Page 69: Bandwidth Limit, Linear And (sinx)/x Interpolation, Interpolation Setup, Inverting Waveforms, Quickzoom, Turning On A Zoom

    SDA Operator’s Manual Bandwidth Limit Reducing the bandwidth also reduces the signal and system noise, and prevents high frequency aliasing. To set bandwidth limiting 1. In the menu bar, touch Vertical, then select a channel from the drop-down menu. 2. Touch inside the Bandwidth field and select a bandwidth limit value from the pop-up menu. The options are •...

  • Page 70: Finding Scale, Using Find Scale, Variable Gain, Enabling Variable Gain, Channel Deskew, Channel Deskew Setup

    Finding Scale You can access the Find Scale button from the channel setup dialog. This feature automatically calculates peak-to-peak voltage, and chooses an appropriate Volts/Div scale to fully display the waveform. Using Find Scale 1. Touch the trace label for the waveform you desire. 2.

  • Page 71: Group Delay Compensation

    SDA Operator’s Manual Group Delay Compensation Group delay is defined as the rate of change of the total phase shift with respect to angular frequency through a device or transmission medium. An unavoidable consequence of correcting for group delay is that preshoot and overshoot will be added to the signal. The SDA 18000/13000/11000/9000 provides a control in the channel "Vertical Adjust"...

  • Page 72: Timebase And Acquisition System, Timebase Setup And Control, Autosetup, Sda Dbi Controls, Sda18000 Dbi Controls

    SDA DBI Controls The SDA 18000/13000/11000/9000 oscilloscopes achieve higher bandwidth and sample rate using an innovative LeCroy technology called Digital Bandwidth Interleaving (DBI). This technology allows resources to be borrowed from unused channels to multiply not only sample rate but also bandwidth.

  • Page 73: Sda 13000/11000/9000 Dbi Controls, Smart Memory

    Smart Memory Note: When the SDA 18000/13000/11000/9000 is in DBI mode, only Fixed Sample Rate sampling is available. LeCroy's SMART Memory feature ensures the highest time resolution for the time window displayed, without aliasing. SMART Memory provides these advantages: •...

  • Page 74: Smart Memory Setup, External Timebase Vs. External Clock, Triggering, Trigger Setup Considerations, Trigger Modes

    SMART Memory Setup 1. Touch Timebase in the menu bar, then SMART Mem Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. Touch the SMART Memory tab. 3. Under Timebase Mode, touch the Set Maximum Memory or Fixed Sample Rate button. Information about your choice appears below the buttons. The calculated memory length and time per sample point appear below the scroll buttons.

  • Page 75: Trigger Types

    A simple trigger, Edge trigger is activated by basic waveform features or conditions such as positive or negative slope, and holdoff. One of LeCroy's SMART Triggers®, Width trigger allows you to define a positive- or negative-going pulse width bounded by a voltage level, above or below which a trigger will occur.

  • Page 76: Determining Trigger Level, Slope, Source, And Coupling

    Determining Trigger Level, Slope, Source, and Coupling Level defines the source voltage at which the trigger circuit will generate an event: a change in the input signal that satisfies the trigger conditions. The selected trigger level is associated with the chosen trigger source. Trigger level is specified in volts and normally remains unchanged when you change the vertical gain or offset.

  • Page 77: Trigger Source, Level, Holdoff By Time Or Events

    SDA Operator’s Manual Trigger Source The Trigger On source may be one of the following: • The acquisition channel signal (CH 1, CH 2, CH 3 or CH 4) conditioned for the overall voltage gain, coupling, and bandwidth. • The line voltage that powers the oscilloscope (LINE). This can be used to provide a stable display of signals synchronous with the power line.

  • Page 78: Hold Off By Time

    Hold Off by Time Sometimes you can achieve a stable display of complex, repetitive waveforms by placing a condition on the time between each successive trigger event. This time would otherwise be limited only by the input signal, the coupling, and the instrument's bandwidth. Select a positive or negative slope, and a minimum time between triggers.

  • Page 79: Hold Off By Events, Simple Triggers, Edge Trigger On Simple Signals

    SDA Operator’s Manual Hold Off by Events Select a positive or negative slope and a number of events. An event is the number of times the trigger condition is met after the last trigger. A trigger is generated when the condition is met after this number, counted from the last trigger.

  • Page 80: Control Edge Triggering, Edge Trigger Setup

    Control Edge Triggering Horizontal: Turn the Delay knob in the HORIZONTAL control group to adjust the trigger's horizontal position. Or, touch inside the Delay field in the timebase setup dialog and enter a value, using the pop-up keypad. The trigger location is shown by a marker under the grid: Post-trigger delay is indicated by a left-pointing arrow below-left of the grid: The time value is given in the title line of the TimeBase label below-right of the grid: Vertical: Turn the L...

  • Page 81

    SDA Operator’s Manual 3. Touch inside the Trigger On data entry field and select an input from the pop-up menu: 4. Touch inside the Level data entry field . In the pop-up numeric keypad, enter a value in millivolts or use the up/down buttons to increase or decrease the value in increments of 1 mV.

  • Page 82

    • Or, use the up/down buttons to increase or decrease the time value in increments of 200 ps. Or, touch one of the preset value buttons: The preset Time values are as follows: Max. 20.0 s Default 50.0 ns Min. 2 ns The preset Events values are as follows: Max.

  • Page 83: Smart Triggers, Width Trigger

    SDA Operator’s Manual SMART Triggers Width Trigger How Width Trigger Works Width trigger allows you to define a positive- or negative-going pulse width bounded by a voltage level, above or below which a trigger will occur. You can specify a pulse width and voltage range, within or outside of which a trigger will occur.

  • Page 84: Glitch Trigger

    Glitch Trigger How Glitch Trigger Works Glitch trigger can be used to catch glitches. You can specify a pulse width or a pulse width range. Pulse smaller than selected pulse width: Set a maximum pulse width. This glitch trigger is generated on the selected edge (positive or negative) when the pulse width is less than or equal to the set width.

  • Page 85: Interval Trigger

    SDA Operator’s Manual Glitch Trigger Setup 1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. Touch the Glitch trigger button 3. Touch inside the Trigger On data entry field and select a source on which to trigger. 4.

  • Page 86

    Interval Trigger that triggers when the interval width is smaller than the selected interval. The broken, upward- pointing arrow indicates a potential trigger, while the bold one shows where the actual trigger occurs on the positive edge within the selected interval. Interval Greater Than: For this Interval Trigger, generated on an interval larger than the one that you set, select a minimum interval between two edges of the same slope.

  • Page 87

    SDA Operator’s Manual Interval Trigger that triggers when the interval width is larger than the set interval. The broken upward-pointing arrow indicates a potential trigger, while the bold one shows where the actual trigger occurs on the positive edge after the selected interval. Interval In Range: This Interval Trigger is generated whenever an interval between two edges of the same slope falls within a selected range.

  • Page 88

    Interval Trigger that triggers when the interval falls within the selected range: t1 = range's lower time limit; t2 = range's upper limit. The broken upward-pointing arrow indicates a potential trigger, while the bold one indicates where the actual trigger occurs on the positive edge within the selected range.

  • Page 89: Qualified Trigger

    SDA Operator’s Manual 6. Touch the Delta button to set up a nominal range, plus or minus a delta value in seconds. Touch inside the Nominal Width and Delta data entry fields and enter values using the pop-up numeric keypads. 7.

  • Page 90

    Edge Qualified and Wait: Trigger after timeout. The broken upward-pointing arrows indicate potential triggers, while the bold ones show where the actual triggers occur. Qualified First Trigger Qualified First trigger is intended to be used exclusively in Sequence Mode to speed up the trigger rate.

  • Page 91: State Trigger

    SDA Operator’s Manual 4. Touch inside the After data entry field and select the qualifying signal source from the pop-up menu. If you select an input channel or external source, touch inside the has gone data entry field and select a logic level: Above or Below. Then touch inside the Level field and set a voltage level using the pop-up numeric keypad.

  • Page 92: Dropout Trigger

    State Qualified Trigger Setup 1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. Touch the State trigger button 3. Touch inside the Trigger On data entry field and select a source on which to trigger: 4.

  • Page 93

    SDA Operator’s Manual How Dropout Trigger Works Dropout Trigger: occurs when the timeout has expired. The bold upward-pointing arrows show where the trigger occurs. Dropout Trigger Setup 1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2.

  • Page 94: Logic Trigger

    Logic Trigger How Logic Trigger Works Logic Trigger enables triggering on a logical combination of up to five inputs: CH 1, CH 2, CH 3, CH 4, and EXT. The combination of inputs is referred to as a pattern. There are four logic gates available: AND, NAND, OR, NOR.

  • Page 95: Aux Input Trigger, Serial Trigger, Aux Input Setup

    SDA Operator’s Manual 5. Touch inside the Level data entry field for each input included in the pattern and enter a voltage level threshold using the pop-up numeric keypad. 6. Touch the Trigger tab. 7. If you want to hold off the trigger (either in time or events) when the pattern becomes true, touch one of the holdoff buttons: 8.

  • Page 96: Display Formats, Display Setup

    5. Touch Vertical in the menu bar, then Channels Status... in the drop-down menu to view a summary of the Aux Input setup: DISPLAY FORMATS Display Setup 1. In the menu bar, touch Display; then touch Display Setup in the drop-down menu. 2.

  • Page 97: Sequence Mode Display, Persistence Setup, Saturation Level

    SDA Operator’s Manual 6. Choose a line style for your trace: solid Line or Points Sequence Mode Display To a set up Sequence Mode display, you must first have selected Sequence trigger mode in the Timebase "Horizontal" dialog. You must also have entered a Num Segments value. 1.

  • Page 98: Dimensional Persistence

    You can select a saturation level as a percentage of the maximum population. All populations above the saturation population are then assigned the highest color intensity: that is, they are saturated. At the same time, all populations below the saturation level are assigned the remaining intensities.

  • Page 99: Show Last Trace

    SDA Operator’s Manual Here is a monochrome (analog) view of the same waveform. The lightest areas indicate highest intensity, corresponding to the red areas in the solid view. Here is a shaded (projected light) view of the same waveform. This view emphasizes the shape of the pulses. Here is a wire frame view of the same waveform in which lines of equal intensity are used to construct the persistence map.

  • Page 100: Persistence Time, Locking Of Traces, Persistence Setup

    Persistence Time You can control the duration of persistence by setting a time limit, in seconds, after which persistence data will be erased: 0.5 s, 1 s, 2 s, 5 s, 10 s, 20 s, or infinity. Locking of Traces The instrument gives you the choice of constraining all input channels to the same mode, saturation level, persistence time, and last trace display, or setting these for each input channel individually.

  • Page 101: Screen Saver, Moving Traces From Grid To Grid

    SDA Operator’s Manual 12. Under "3D settings," touch inside the Quality field and select an image quality from the pop- up menu: wire frame, solid, or shaded. 13. For each axis, touch inside the data entry field and enter a value from -90° to +90°. 14.

  • Page 102: Zooming Waveforms

    Zooming Waveforms The Zoom button appears as a standard button at the bottom of the channel "Cx Vertical Adjust" setup dialog if you want to create a math function zoom trace of your input waveform. On the other hand, you can zoom a memory or math function non-zoom trace directly without having to create a separate zoom trace.

  • Page 103: Zooming A Single Channel, Zooming By Touch-and-drag

    SDA Operator’s Manual Zooming a Single Channel 1. In the menu bar, touch Vertical; then touch a channel number in the drop-down menu. Alternatively, you can just touch the channel trace label for a displayed channel. 2. Touch at the bottom of the "Cx Vertical Adjust dialog." A zoom math trace (one of F5 to Fx [The number of math traces available depends on the software options loaded on your scope.

  • Page 104: Zooming Multiple Waveforms Quickly, Multi-zoom

    5. Turn the front panel Wavepilot position knobs to adjust the vertical and horizontal position of the zoom: 6. Turn the front panel Zoom knobs to control the boundaries of the zoom. Zooming Multiple Waveforms Quickly Press the QuickZoom button on the front panel.

  • Page 105: Xy Display

    SDA Operator’s Manual 5. Touch the Multi-zoom On checkbox to enable Multi-zoom. Then touch the Include checkbox for each zoom trace you want to include in the time-locked multi-zoom: Here the user has chosen to include only F2 and F3 in the Multi-zoom, even though F4 is also a zoom function and is also displayed.

  • Page 106: Xy Display Setup, Save And Recall, Saving And Recalling Scope Settings, Saving Scope Settings

    XY Display Setup 1. In the menu bar, touch Display; then touch Display Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. Choose an XY display by touching one of the XY display mode buttons . You have the choice of showing the two waveforms on just the XY grid, or you can also show the input waveforms on a single or dual grid.

  • Page 107: Recalling Scope Settings, Recalling Default Settings, Saving Screen Images

    SDA Operator’s Manual Recalling Scope Settings 1. In the menu bar, touch File; then touch Recall Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. To Recall From File, touch inside the Recall panels from file data entry field and use the pop-up keyboard to enter the path to the source folder. Or touch Browse to navigate to the source folder.

  • Page 108: Saving And Recalling Waveforms, Saving Waveforms

    7. Touch inside the File Name field and type in a name for your image, using the pop-up keyboard. 8. Under Include On Print, touch the Grid Area Only checkbox if you do not want to include the dialog area in the image. 9.

  • Page 109

    SDA Operator’s Manual If you are saving to file, touch the Data Format field and select a format type from the pop-up menu: If you select ASCII or Excel, also touch the SubFormat field and select either Time Data or Time &...

  • Page 110: Recalling Waveforms, Disk Utilities, Deleting A Single File

    Recalling Waveforms 1. In the menu bar, touch File; then touch Recall Waveform... in the drop-down menu. 2. In the "Recall Waveform" dialog, touch the Recall From button. 3. If you selected Memory, touch inside the Source field and select a memory location: M1 to 4.

  • Page 111: Deleting All Files In A Folder, Creating A Folder, Printing And File Management

    SDA Operator’s Manual Deleting All Files in a Folder 1. Touch File in the menu bar, then Disk Utilities... in the drop-down menu. 2. Touch the Delete button in the "Disk Utilities" dialog. 3. Touch inside the Current folder data entry field and use the pop-up keyboard to enter the path to the folder that contains the file you want to delete.

  • Page 112: Printing, Adding Printers And Drivers, Changing The Default Printer, Managing Files, Hard Disk Partitions

    Printing You can print in one of three ways: • Press the printer button on the front panel: • In the menu bar, touch File, then Print in the drop-down menu. • Touch the Print Now button in the "Hardcopy" dialog Adding Printers and Drivers Note: If you want to add a printer driver, the driver must first be loaded on the scope.

  • Page 113: Base-t Ethernet Connection, Connecting To A Network, Communicating Over The Network, Windows Setups

    • Do not load any version of Windows not provided by LeCroy. Windows service packs and critical updates are generally safe, and LeCroy does encourage you to install them to keep your scope safe from network-borne viruses and worms. However, LeCroy cannot guarantee that any update distributed by Microsoft will not adversely affect the operation of your instrument.

  • Page 114: System Restore, Track Views, Creating And Viewing A Trend

    CD shipped with the scope. If your instrument is not equipped with a CD drive, you will need a USB CD-ROM to do this (not supplied by LeCroy). This does not apply to WaveSurfer or WaveRunner 6000A models, which can be recovered from their internal hard drives.

  • Page 115: Creating A Track View

    SDA Operator’s Manual 5. Touch the Trend button at the bottom of the dialog; then, from the Math selection for Trend menu, select a math function location (F1 to Fx The number of math traces available depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See specifications.) to store the Trend display.

  • Page 116: Histograms, Creating And Viewing A Histogram, Single Parameter Histogram Setup

    5. Touch the Track button at the bottom of the dialog; then, from the Math selection for Track menu, select a math function location (F1 to Fx The number of math traces available depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See specifications.) to store the Track display.

  • Page 117

    SDA Operator’s Manual 6. Touch the Histogram button at the bottom of the dialog. 7. Touch a math trace in which to place the resulting histogram, then close the pop-up menu. 8. Touch the math trace label for the math trace you just created. 9.

  • Page 118: Viewing Thumbnail Histograms, Persistence Histogram, Persistence Trace Range, Persistence Sigma

    Viewing Thumbnail Histograms Histicons are miniature histograms of parameter measurements that appear below the grid. These thumbnail histograms let you see at a glance the statistical distribution of each parameter. In the menu bar, touch Measure, then one of the Measure Mode buttons: Std Vertical, Std Horizontal, or My Measure.

  • Page 119: Histogram Parameters

    SDA Operator’s Manual Histogram Parameters fwhm  Full Width at Half Maximum  Definition: Determines the width of the largest area peak, measured between bins on either side of the highest bin in the peak that have a population of half the highest's population. If several peaks have an area equal to the maximum population, the leftmost peak is used in the computation.

  • Page 120

    fwxx  Full Width at xx% Maximum  Definition: Determines the width of the largest area peak, measured between bins on either side of the highest bin in the peak that have a population of xx% of the highest's population. If several peaks have an area equal to the maximum population, the leftmost peak is used in the computation.

  • Page 121

    SDA Operator’s Manual hist ampl  Histogram Amplitude  Definition: The difference in value of the two most populated peaks in a histogram. This parameter is useful for waveforms with two primary parameter values, such as TTL voltages, where hampl would indicate the difference between the binary `1' and `0' voltage values.

  • Page 122

    hbase  Histogram Base  Definition: The value of the leftmost of the two most populated peaks in a histogram. This parameter is primarily useful for waveforms with two primary parameter values such as TTL voltages where hbase would indicate the binary `0' voltage value. Description: The two highest histogram peaks are determined.

  • Page 123

    SDA Operator’s Manual    hist rms  Histogram Root Mean Square  Definition: The rms value of the values in a histogram. Description: The center value of each populated bin is squared and multiplied by the population (height) of the bin. All results are summed and the total is divided by the population of all the bins.

  • Page 124

    hist top  Histogram Top  Definition: The value of the rightmost of the two most populated peaks in a histogram. This parameter is useful for waveforms with two primary parameter values, such as TTL voltages, where htop would indicate the binary `1' voltage value. Description: The two highest histogram peaks are determined.

  • Page 125

    SDA Operator’s Manual    maxp  Maximum Population  Definition: The count (vertical value) of the highest population bin in a histogram. Description: Each bin between the parameter cursors is examined for its count. The highest count is returned as maxp. Example: On the following histogram, the maxp is 14. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 126

    mode  Mode  Definition: The value of the highest population bin in a histogram. Description: Each bin between the parameter cursors is examined for its population count. The leftmost bin with the highest count found is selected. Its center value is returned as mode.

  • Page 127

    SDA Operator’s Manual    pctl  Percentile  Definition: Computes the horizontal data value that separates the data in a histogram such that the population on the left is a specified percentage `xx' of the total population. When the threshold is set to 50%, pctl is the same as hmedian. Description: The total population of the histogram is determined.

  • Page 128

    pks  Peaks  Definition: The number of peaks in a histogram. Description: The instrument analyzes histogram data to identify peaks from background noise and histogram binning artifacts such as small gaps. Peak identification is a 3-step process: The mean height of the histogram is calculated for all populated bins. A threshold (T1) is calculated from this mean, where: T1= mean + 2 sqrt (mean).

  • Page 129

    SDA Operator’s Manual    range  Range  Definition: Computes the difference between the value of the rightmost and that of the leftmost populated bin. Description: The rightmost and leftmost populated bins are identified. The difference in value between the two is returned as the range. Example: In this example, the range is 2 mV.

  • Page 130

       totp  Total Population  Definition: Calculates the total population of a histogram between the parameter cursors. Description: The count for all populated bins between the parameter cursors is summed. Example: The total population of this histogram is 9. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 131

    SDA Operator’s Manual xapk  X Coordinate of xx  Peak  Definition: Returns the value of the xx peak that is the largest by area in a histogram. Description: First the peaks in a histogram are determined and ranked in order of total area (for a discussion on how peaks are identified see the description for the pks parameter).

  • Page 132: Histogram Theory Of Operation

    Histogram Theory of Operation An understanding of statistical variations in parameter values is needed for many waveform parameter measurements. Knowledge of the average, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation of the parameter are often enough. However, in many cases you may need a more detailed understanding of the distribution of a parameter's values.

  • Page 133: Dso Process, Parameter Buffer

    SDA Operator’s Manual DSO Process This instrument can be used to generate histograms of the parameter values of input waveforms. The follwing items must be defined before doing so: • The parameter to be histogrammed • The trace on which the histogram is to be displayed •...

  • Page 134: Capture Of Parameter Events, Histogram Parameters (xmap And Jta2 Options)

    Capture of Parameter Events The number of events captured per waveform acquisition or display sweep depends on the parameter type. Acquisitions are initiated by the occurrence of a trigger event. Sweeps are equivalent to the waveform captured and displayed on an input channel (1, 2, or 3 or 4). For non- segmented waveforms an acquisition is identical to a sweep.

  • Page 135: Histogram Peaks, Binning And Measurement Accuracy

    SDA Operator’s Manual • hist top histogram top or rightmost of two largest peaks • max populate population of most populated bin in histogram • mode data value of most populated bin in histogram • percentile data value in histogram for which specified `x'% of population is smaller •...

  • Page 136: Waveform Measurements, Measuring With Cursors, Cursor Measurement Icons

    Nevertheless, using more bins may require that you perform a greater number of waveform parameter measurements, in order to populate the bins sufficiently for the identification of a characteristic histogram distribution. In addition, very fine grained binning will result in gaps between populated bins that may make it difficult to determine peaks.

  • Page 137: Cursors Setup, Quick Display, Full Setup, Overview Of Parameters, Turning On Parameters

    SDA Operator’s Manual Cursors Setup Quick Display At any time, you can change the display of cursor types (or turn them off) without invoking the "Cursors Setup" dialog as follows: 1. In the menu bar, touch Cursors, then Off, Abs Horizontal, Rel Horizontal, Abs Vertical, or Rel Vertical.

  • Page 138: Quick Access To Parameter Setup Dialogs

    Quick Access to Parameter Setup Dialogs You can quickly gain access to a parameter setup dialog by touching the parameter list box below the grid. For example, touching within P1 below the grid displays the setup dialog for P1: Touching the row titles displays the top Measure dialog. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 139: Status Symbols, Using X-stream Browser To Obtain Status Information

    SDA Operator’s Manual Status Symbols Below each parameter appears a symbol that indicates the status of the parameter, as follows: A warning symbol indicates that there is something wrong with the signal or the setup. Touch the parameter list box and read the explanation in the message line at the bottom of the screen.

  • Page 140

    2. Touch the X-Stream Browser desktop icon to open the browser. 3. Touch the left scope icon ("Connect to a local X-Stream DSO device") in the X-Stream Browser toolbar: 4. Select Measure Parameter in error (P1) Out Result 5. Read the status information in line StatusDescription. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 141: Statistics, Applying A Measure Mode, Measure Modes, Standard Vertical Parameters

    SDA Operator’s Manual Statistics Touching the Statistics On checkbox in the "Measure" dialog displays statistics for standard vertical or horizontal parameters, or for custom parameters. The statistics shown are as follows: value (last) mean min. max. sdev The values displayed in the num row are the number of measurements computed. For any parameter that computes on an entire waveform (like edge@level, mean, minimum, maximum, etc.) the value displayed represents the number of sweeps.

  • Page 142: My Measure, Parameter Math (xmath Or Xmap Option Required), Logarithmic Parameters, Excluded Parameters

    Standard Horizontal Parameters These are the default Standard Horizontal Parameters: Horizontal freq period width rise fall delay duty npoints My Measure You can choose to customize up to eight parameters by touching My Measure. Parameter Math (XMath or XMAP option required) The instrument gives you the ability to perform arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) on the results of two parameter measurements.

  • Page 143: Parameter Script Parameter Math, Param Script Vs. P Script

    SDA Operator’s Manual • mTnTmT shift (BEES) • mTnTmT shift sigma (BEESS) • mTnTmT shift sigma – list (BEESS) Parameter Script Parameter Math In addition to the arithmetic operations, the Parameter Math feature allows you to use VBScript or JavaScript to write your own script for one or two measurements and produce a result that suits your needs.

  • Page 144: Parameter Math Setup, Parameter Script Math Setup

    The inputs to Param Script can also be math (F1-Fx) or memory (M1-Mx) traces. The inputs to P Script can be the results of any parameter measurement, not necessarily Param Script. Parameter Math Setup 1. Touch Measure in the menu bar, then Measure Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2.

  • Page 145: Measure Gate

    SDA Operator’s Manual 4. In the "Px" dialog, touch the math on parameters button . The Source field will expand to two fields. 5. Touch inside the Source1 and Source2 fields and select the parameters you want to apply math to (P1 to Px). If you are applying math to a single parameter (for example, invert), just touch inside the Source1 field and select a parameter (P1 to Px).

  • Page 146: Measure Gate Setup

    In this example, you can see that the Measure Gate includes only five rising edges. Therefore, parameter calculations for rise time are performed only on the five pulses bounded by the gate posts. The position of the gate posts is shown in the Start and Stop fields in the accompanying dialog.

  • Page 147: Help Markers

    SDA Operator’s Manual Example Parameter Readout 3. Touch inside the Start data entry field and enter a value, using the pop-up numeric keypad. Or, you can simply touch the leftmost grid line and drag the gate post to the right. 4.

  • Page 148

    Standard Horizontal Parameter Help Markers Standard Vertical Parameter Help Markers SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 149: Help Marker Setup, Turning Off Help Markers, Customizing A Parameter, From The Measure Dialog

    SDA Operator’s Manual Help Marker Setup 1. In the menu bar, touch Measure Setup... 2. Select a Measure Mode: Std Vertical, Std Horizontal, or My Measure. 3. Touch the Show All button to display Help Markers for every parameter being measured on the displayed waveform (C2 in the examples above). 4.

  • Page 150: From A Vertical Setup Dialog, From A Math Setup Dialog, Parameter Calculations

    3. If you want to change the parameter listed, or a measurement characteristic, touch the parameter button (P1 for example) alongside the check box. A pop-up menu of parameters categorized by type appears. To display parameter icons only, touch the icon button at the bottom of the menu.

  • Page 151

    SDA Operator’s Manual The analysis attempts to identify the two clusters containing the largest data density. Then, the most probable state (centroids) associated with these two clusters is computed to determine the top and base reference levels: the top line corresponds to the top and the base line to the bottom centroid.

  • Page 152: Determining Time Parameters

    The time interval separating the points on the rising or falling edges is then estimated to yield the rise or fall time. These results are averaged over the number of transition edges that occur within the observation window. Rising Edge Duration Falling Edge Duration Where Mr is the number of leading edges found, Mf the number of trailing edges found,...

  • Page 153

    SDA Operator’s Manual Time-parameter estimation depends on the number of cycles included within the observation window. If the number of cycles is not an integer, parameter measurements such as rms or mean are biased. However, only the last value is actually displayed, the mean being available when statistics are enabled.

  • Page 154: Determining Differential Time Measurements, Level And Slope

    Determining Differential Time Measurements The instrument enables accurate differential time measurements between two traces: for example, propagation, setup and hold delays (see Figure 3). Parameters such as Delta c2d± require the transition polarity of the clock and data signals to be specified.

  • Page 155: List Of Parameters

    SDA Operator’s Manual List of Parameters The following table describes the instrument parameters. Availability of some parameters depends on the options installed. See the comments in the "Notes" column of the table. Parameter Description Definition Notes 100BT Fall Fall time between 2 levels (upper- Available with ENET option.

  • Page 156

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Area Integral of data: Computes area of Sum from first to last Standard parameter.. waveform between cursors relative of data multiplied by to zero level. Values greater than horizontal time zero contribute positively to the between points area;...

  • Page 157

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes cyclic Cyclic standard deviation: Standard Where: v denotes measured Std dev deviation of data values from mean sample values, and N = value over integral number of number of data points within periods. Contrary to sdev, the periods found.

  • Page 158

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Dtime@level t at level: Computes transition Time between Reference levels and edge- between selected levels or transition levels of transition polarity can be sources. two sources, or from selected. Hysteresis argument trigger to transition used to discriminate levels level of a single from noise in data.

  • Page 159

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes Edge@level Number of edges in waveform. Reference levels and edge- transition polarity can be selected. Hysteresis argument used to discriminate levels from noise in data. Available with JTA2, USB2, SDA, and XMAP options. Standard in SDA100G and WavePro 7000A scopes.

  • Page 160

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Eye FallTime Fall time of the mean of Standard in SDA and persistence data WaveExpert scopes. Eye Height Size of the vertical opening of an Available with SDA and SDM eye diagram options. Standard in SDA, SDA100G, and WaveExpert scopes.

  • Page 161

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes Fall time Fall time: Duration of falling edge Time at upper On signals not having two from 90-10%. threshold minus major levels (triangle or saw- Time at lower tooth waves, for example), top threshold and base can default to averaged over each...

  • Page 162

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Frequency Frequency: Period of cyclic signal 1/period Standard parameter. measured as time between every other pair of 50% crossings. Starting with first transition after left cursor, the period is measured for each transition pair. Values then averaged and reciprocal used to give frequency.

  • Page 163

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes Hist maximum Value of the highest (right-most) Available with DDM2, JTA2, populated bin in a histogram. XMATH, XWAV, CAN02, SDA, and XMAP options. Standard in DDA-5005A, SDA100G, WaveExpert, and sampling scopes. Hist Max Pop Peak with maximum population in a Available with DDM2, JTA2, histogram.

  • Page 164

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Hist Range Calculates range (max - min) of a Available with DDM2, JTA2, histogram. ENET, XMATH, XWAV, CAN02, SDA, and XMAP options. Standard in DDA-5005A, SDA100G, WaveExpert, and sampling scopes. Hist rms Root mean square of the values in Available with DDM2, JTA2, a histogram.

  • Page 165

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes Jitter Filter Jitter in the specified frequency Available with ASDA option. band. Generates a time sequence of jitter measurements that are filtered by the selected band-pass filter. Last Time from trigger to last (rightmost) Time from trigger to Indicates location of right cursor.

  • Page 166

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Local number Number of local features Hysteresis argument used to (peak/trough pairs). discriminate levels from noise in data. Available with DDM2 option. Standard in DDA-5005A. Local pkpk Vertical difference between the Hysteresis argument used to peak and trough of a local feature discriminate levels from noise (lmax lmin).

  • Page 167

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes Local ttp Time between local feature trough Hysteresis argument used to and the next local peak. discriminate levels from noise in data. Available with DDM2 option. Standard in DDA-5005A. Local tut Time a local feature spends under Hysteresis argument used to a user specified percentage of its discriminate levels from noise...

  • Page 168

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Minimum Measures the lowest point in a Lowest value in Gives similar result when waveform. Unlike base, does not waveform between applied to time domain assume waveform has two levels. cursors waveform or histogram of data of same waveform.

  • Page 169

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes Param Script Visual Basic or Java script that Available with XMAP, produces a measurement from XDEV, and ASDA options. one or two input waveforms. Standard in DDA-5005A. Peak Mag Peak mag away from a Available with ENET option.

  • Page 170

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Period@level Period at a specified level and Reference levels and edge- slope for every cycle in waveform. transition polarity can be selected. Hysteresis argument used to discriminate levels from noise in data. Available with JTA2, AORM, ENET, SDA, and XMAP options.

  • Page 171

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes PW50+ Average pulse width at the 50% Hysteresis argument used to point between the local baseline discriminate levels from noise and the local peak. in data. Available with DDM2 option. Standard in DDA-5005A. Real Power Mean of the product of voltage and Available with PMA2 option.

  • Page 172

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Rise@level Rise at level: Duration of pulse On signals not having two Slew rate for % or waveform's rising edges between major levels (triangle or saw- absolute levels of transition levels. tooth waves, for example), top rising or falling edges.

  • Page 173

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes Skew Time of clock1 edge minus time of Reference levels and edge- nearest clock2 edge. transition polarity can be selected. Hysteresis argument used to discriminate levels from noise in data. Hysteresis on a measurement (if set to 500 mdiv) requires that the signal must transition one way 1/2 division (total swing)

  • Page 174

    Parameter Description Definition Notes TAA- Average local baseline-to-trough Hysteresis argument used to amplitude for all local features. discriminate levels from noise in data. Available with DDM2 option. Standard in DDA-5005A. TAA+ Average local baseline-to-peak Hysteresis argument used to amplitude for all local features. discriminate levels from noise in data.

  • Page 175

    SDA Operator’s Manual Parameter Description Definition Notes Total Pop Total population of a histogram. Available with DDM2, JTA2, XMATH, XWAV, CAN02, SDA, and XMAP options. Standard in DDA-5005A, SDA100G, WaveExpert, and sampling scopes tUpS Upsamples a time parameter by nX Available with SDA and SDM options.

  • Page 176

    Parameter Description Definition Notes Width@level Width measured at a specific level. Reference levels and edge- Time between two transition polarity can be transitions of opposite selected. Hysteresis argument slope at a specified used to discriminate levels level. (Slope specified from noise in data. for 1st transition.) Available with JTA2, USB2, Enhanced version...

  • Page 177: Qualified Parameters, Range Limited Parameters

    SDA Operator’s Manual Qualified Parameters Some LeCroy instruments and software packages give you the ability to constrain parameter measurements to a vertically or horizontally limited range, or to occurrences gated by a second waveform. Furthermore, both constraints can operate together. This capability enables you to exclude unwanted characteristics from your measurements.

  • Page 178: Waveform Gated Parameters, Waveform Qualifier Setup, Waveform Math, Introduction To Math Traces And Functions

    Waveform Gated Parameters Waveform Qualifier Setup 1. From the menu bar, select Measure, then Measure Setup... from the drop-down menu. 2. Touch a Px tab to open the setup dialog. 3. Touch inside the Source field and select a source from the pop-up menu. 4.

  • Page 179: Math Made Easy, Setting Up A Math Function

    SDA Operator’s Manual For example: you could set up Trace F1 as the difference between Channels 1 and 2, Trace F2 as the average of F1, and Trace F3 as the integral of F2. You could then display the integral of the averaged difference between Channels 1 and 2.

  • Page 180: Resampling To Deskew, Resampling, Rescaling And Assigning Units

    7. Touch the Graph button, then touch inside the Graph with field to select a graph mode. The Graph modes are as follows: Histogram of the values of a parameter Track of the values of a parameter Trend of the values of a parameter Resampling To Deskew Deskew whenever you need to compensate for different lengths of cables, probes, or anything else that might cause timing mismatches between signals.

  • Page 181

    SDA Operator’s Manual Event Events Farad Gram Henry Hertz Joule Degree Kelvin Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Liter Meter Foot Inch YARD yard MILE mile Newton Pascal Percent POISE Poise parts per million Radian Degree (of arc) Minute (of arc) SAMPLE sample SWEEP sweeps...

  • Page 182: Rescaling Setup, Averaging Waveforms, Summed Vs. Continuous Averaging

    You can also enter combinations of the above units following the SI rules: • for the quotient of two units, the character / should be used • for the product of two units, the character . should be used • exponents can be represented by a digit appended to the unit without a space For example, •...

  • Page 183

    SDA Operator’s Manual Summed Averaging Summed Averaging is the repeated addition, with equal weight, of successive source waveform records. If a stable trigger is available, the resulting average has a random noise component lower than that of a single-shot record. Whenever the maximum number of sweeps is reached, the averaging process stops.

  • Page 184: Continuous Averaging Setup, Summed Averaging Setup, Enhanced Resolution, How The Instrument Enhances Resolution

    Note: The number of sweeps used to compute the average will be displayed in the bottom line of the trace descriptor label: Continuous Averaging Setup 1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. Select a function tab from F1 through Fx [The number of math traces available depends on the software options loaded on your scope.

  • Page 185

    SDA Operator’s Manual The instrument's constant phase FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters provide fast computation, excellent step response in 0.5 bit steps, and minimum bandwidth reduction for resolution improvements of between 0.5 and 3 bits. Each step corresponds to a bandwidth reduction factor of two, allowing easy control of the bandwidth resolution trade-off.

  • Page 186

    In low-pass filtering: The spectrum of a square signal before (left top) and after (left bottom) enhanced resolution processing. The result clearly illustrates how the filter rejects high-frequency components from the signal. The higher the bit enhancement, the lower the resulting bandwidth.

  • Page 187: Enhanced Resolution (eres) Setup, Waveform Copy, Waveform Sparser

    SDA Operator’s Manual Enhanced Resolution (ERES) Setup 1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. Touch a function tab F1 through Fx [The number of math traces available depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See Specifications.]. 3.

  • Page 188: Waveform Sparser Setup, Interpolation, Interpolation Setup, Fast Wave Port

    Up/Down buttons to increment the displayed value in a 1-2-5 sequence. Fast Wave Port FastWavePort is a processing function for the LeCroy X-Stream family of digital oscilloscopes that enables you to insert your own custom processing algorithm, written in the C/C++ languag into the DS O's processing stream.

  • Page 189: Fast Wave Port Setup - Initial

    SDA Operator’s Manual The technology that makes this system possible is the ability of two processes in a Windows system to share a region of memory. This enables the transfer of data at high-speed between the acquisition software and the custom processing function, which runs in a separate process from the DSO application.

  • Page 190: Setup - Case 1, Setup - Case 2, Setup - Case 3

    5. In the right-hand mini-dialog, touch the Fast Wave Port tab: 6. Touch inside the "Timeout" field and enter a suitable value. Setup - Case 1 This scenario assumes you have developed your application on a PC. 1. Compile your application on your PC. 2.

  • Page 191: Operational Notes, Data Length Limitations, Performance, Choice Of Programming Language, Example Application

    SDA Operator’s Manual Operational Notes Once FastWavePort is selected, the right-hand dialog shows the current settings. The first of these is critical, and indicates the base name of the memory window and the two events, which are global within the Windows O/S. This should be left at its default value and only changed if multiple FastWavePort functions are used in parallel.

  • Page 192

    //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ // FastWavePortClient.cpp : // Prototype C++ client application for "Fast Wave Port' Math Processor // Compatibility: Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, 7.1 MinGW 'gcc' based compiler (free download from www.mingw.org) Compile with: mingw32-c++ -o fastWavePortClient.exe fastwaveportclient.cpp //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ #include "windows.h" #include <stdio.h> //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ // FastWavePort header, describes various properties of the waveform passed to the user- processing...

  • Page 193

    SDA Operator’s Manual #pragma pack(pop) // restore packing //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ // The buffer size is 80MB (40,000,000 samples, stored as short integers) plus 0x1000 bytes for the header. const unsigned long HEADER_SIZE = 0x1000 const unsigned long MEM_MAP_FILE_SIZE = 80000000 + HEADER_SIZE; // = 40MSamples, or 80MBytes int main(int argc, char argv[])

  • Page 194: Header Description

    while(1) int i = 0; printf("Waiting for new data...\n"); // wait an infinite amount of time for data to be available DWORD waitSuccess = WaitForSingleObject(m_hDataAvailable, INFINITE); // print the first few bytes of the input waveform CDescHeader descHeader = (CDescHeader ) &m_lpMMFile[0]; short m_lpWaveform = &m_lpMMFile[descHeader->headerSize / sizeof(short)];...

  • Page 195: Data Length Limitations, Performance, Choice Of Programming Language, Why Use Fft?

    SDA Operator’s Manual double verResolution; // vertical resolution of the measurement system (also in vertical units) double horInterval; // scale factor that relates integer sample indices to the horizontal units of the waveform. double horOffset; // horizontal offset (in horizontal units, e.g. seconds) of the waveform double horResolution;...

  • Page 196

    This variation in spectrum magnitude is the picket fence effect. The corresponding attenuation loss is referred to as scallop loss. LeCroy scopes automatically correct for the scallop effect, ensuring that the magnitude of the spectra lines correspond to their true values in the time domain.

  • Page 197

    SDA Operator’s Manual If a signal contains a frequency component above Nyquist, the spectrum will be aliased, meaning that the frequencies will be folded back and spurious. Spotting aliased frequencies is often difficult, as the aliases may ride on top of real harmonics. A simple way of checking is to modify the sample rate and observe whether the frequency distribution changes.

  • Page 198: Improving Dynamic Range, Record Length

    ERES low-pass filter and the noise shape (frequency distribution). LeCroy digital oscilloscopes employ FIR digital filters so that a constant phase shift is maintained. The phase information is therefore not distorted by the filtering action.

  • Page 199: Fft Algorithms

    SDA Operator’s Manual FFT Algorithms A summary of the algorithms used in the oscilloscope's FFT computation is given here in a few steps: 1. The data are multiplied by the selected window function. 2. FFT is computed, using a fast implementation of the DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform): Where: x is a complex array whose real part is the modified source time domain waveform, and whose imaginary part is 0;...

  • Page 200: Glossary

    The waveforms for the other available spectrum types are computed as follows: Phase: angle = arctan (I > M _angle = 0_ Where M is the minimum magnitude, fixed at about 0.001 of the full scale at any gain setting, below which the angle is not well defined.

  • Page 201

    SDA Operator’s Manual Window Frequency Domain Parameters Highest Side Scallop Loss ENBW Coherent Gain Window Type Lobe (dB) (bins) (dB) (dB) Rectangular 3.92 Hanning (Von Hann) 1.42 -6.02 Hamming 1.78 1.37 -5.35 Flattop 0.01 2.96 -11.05 Blackman–Harris 1.13 1.71 -7.53 •...

  • Page 202

    width. The table of Window Frequency-Domain Parameters lists the ENBW values for the implemented windows. • Leakage - In the power spectrum of a sine wave with an integral number of periods in the (rectangular) time window (that is, the source frequency equals one of the bin frequencies), the spectrum contains a sharp component whose value accurately reflects the source waveform's amplitude.

  • Page 203: Fft Setup

    SDA Operator’s Manual • Window Functions - All available window functions belong to the sum of cosines family with one to three non-zero cosine terms: where: M = 3 is the maximum number of terms, a are the coefficients of the terms, N is the number of points of the decimated source waveform, and k is the time index.

  • Page 204: Analysis, Pass/fail Testing, Comparing Parameters

    7. Choose whether to Truncate or Zero-fill the trace display. 8. Touch the Suppress DC checkbox if you want to make the DC bin go to zero. Otherwise, leave it unchecked. 9. Touch inside the Output type field, and make a selection from the pop-up menu. 10.

  • Page 205: Mask Tests, Actions

    SDA Operator’s Manual In Dual Parameter Compare mode, your X-Stream scope gives you the option to compare to each other parameter results measured on two different waveforms. You can set your test to be true if Any waveform or All waveforms fit the criterion stipulated by the comparison condition. Your setup is conveniently shown in the Summary box of the Qx dialog.

  • Page 206: Setting Up Pass/fail Testing, Initial Setup, Comparing A Single Parameter

    The boolean conditions to determine if your waveform passes are as follows: All True All False Any True Any False All Q1 to Q4 Or All Q5 to Q8 Any Q1 to Q4 And Any Q5 to Q8 Setting Up Pass/Fail Testing Initial Setup 1.

  • Page 207

    SDA Operator’s Manual 5. Touch inside the Compare Values field and select All or Any from the pop-up menu By selecting All, the test is true only if every waveform falls within the set limit. By selecting Any, the test is be true if just one waveform falls within the limit. 6.

  • Page 208: Comparing Dual Parameters

    Comparing Dual Parameters 1. Touch Analysis in the menu bar, then Pass/Fail Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. Touch a Qx tab; a setup dialog for that position will open. 3. Touch inside the Condition field in the main dialog and select DualParamCompare 4.

  • Page 209: Mask Testing

    SDA Operator’s Manual 9. If you chose either WithinDeltaPct or WithinDeltaAbs from the Condition menu, touch inside the Delta field and enter a value. Mask Testing 1. Touch Analysis in the menu bar, then Pass/Fail Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2.

  • Page 210: Utilities, Status, Status Dialog Access, Remote Communication, Remote Communication Setup

    UTILITIES Status The status read-only dialog displays system information including serial number, firmware version, and installed software and hardware options. Status Dialog Access 1. In the menu bar, touch Utilities. 2. Touch the Status tab. Remote communication The Remote dialog is where you can select a network communication protocol, establish network connections, and configure the Remote Control Assistant log.

  • Page 211: Configuring The Remote Control Assistant Event Log, Hardcopy, Printing, Clipboard, File

    SDA Operator’s Manual 6. Touch Make New Connection and use the Windows Network Connection Wizard to make a new connection; or, touch Local Area Connection to reconfigure the scope's connection if it is already connected to the network. Configuring the Remote Control Assistant Event Log 1.

  • Page 212: E-mail, Aux Output, Date & Time, Setting The Time And Date Manually

    6. Touch inside the File Name data entry field and enter a name for the display image, using the pop-up keyboard. 7. Touch the Grid Area Only checkbox if you do not need to print the dialog area and you only want to show the waveforms and grids.

  • Page 213: Setting The Time And Date From The Internet, Setting The Time And Date From Windows

    SDA Operator’s Manual Setting the Time and Date from the Internet The Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) is used. 1. Ensure that the scope is connected to the Internet through the LAN connector at the rear of the scope. 2. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu. 3.

  • Page 214: Options, Preferences, Audible Feedback, Auto-calibration, Offset Control

    Options Use this dialog to add or remove software options. For information about software options, contact your local LeCroy Sales and Service office, or visit our Web site at www.lecroy.com/options. Options that you purchase, such as JTA2, add performance to you instrument. This added performance is seen in the new math functions or parameters that you can choose from when doing Measure or Math setups.

  • Page 215: Delay Control, Trigger Counter, Performance Optimization

    SDA Operator’s Manual Delay Control As you change the timebase, this control allows you to either keep the horizontal offset indicator stationary (when Div is selected) or to have it move with the trigger point (when Time is selected). The advantage of selecting Div is that the trigger point will remain on the grid as you increase the timebase;...

  • Page 216: Acquisition Status, E-mail

    E-mail Before you can send e-mail from the scope, it must first be configured. 1. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Preference Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. Touch the E-mail tab. Choose an e-mail server protocol: MAPI (Messaging Application Programming Interface) is the Microsoft interface specification that allows different messaging and workgroup applications (including e-mail, voice mail, and fax) to work through a single client, such as the Exchange client included with Windows 95 and Windows NT.

  • Page 217: Service, Show Windows Desktop, Touch-screen Calibration

    SDA Operator’s Manual Service This button provides access to service dialogs, which are for the sole use of LeCroy service personnel. A security code is required to gain access. Show Windows Desktop Touching the Show Windows Desktop button in the main "Utilities" dialog minimizes the instrument application to reveal the underlying desktop.

  • Page 218: Customization, Customizing Your Instrument, Introduction

    CUSTOMIZATION Customizing Your Instrument The instrument provides powerful capability to add your own parameters, functions, display algorithms, or other routines to the scope user interface without having to leave the instrument application environment. You can customize the instrument to your needs by using the power of programs such as Excel™, Mathcad™, and MATLAB™, or by scripting in VBS.

  • Page 219: Solutions, Examples

    SDA Operator’s Manual The instrument does not just provide connectivity with data downloads to other programs. It provides true customizable interaction with these other programs, and allows you to truly customize the scope to do the exact job you want it to do. The advantages to this are many: •...

  • Page 220

    WaveOut is the waveform being returned to the instrument (F1 in this case). WaveIn is the input waveform (C1 in this case). You can see that the F1 result is displayed on the scope, and can be processed further. Example 2: Another simple math functions using VBScript Example 3 (as follows) doesn’t use the input data at all.

  • Page 221

    (C3). By using a VBScript to create a clock waveform of the appropriate frequency (waveform F1), the customer was able to display and measure data-clock skew using a LeCroy instrument function and parameter. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 222

    Example 5 This next example shows a logarithmic vertical scale, for which the script can be found here. (Most scripts would be far simpler than this one.) Frequency response curves are frequently drawn on a logarithmic scale. The upper trace is a frequency spectrum of a square wave after enhanced resolution has been applied.

  • Page 223

    SDA Operator’s Manual Example 6 SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 224: What Is Excel, What Is Mathcad, What Is Matlab

    The examples above illustrate only the capability to use VBScript and MATLAB. The instrument with the LeCroy XMAP software option allows you to use Excel, Mathcad, MATLAB, and VBScript in this manner. Of course, you will need to load Excel, Mathcad, or MATLAB in the scope (VBScript does not require any additional software) to take advantage of the capability.

  • Page 225

    SDA Operator’s Manual SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 226: What Can You Do With A Customized Instrument

    These examples are purely illustrative, but you can easily imagine that with a VBScript you can add value to the scope in a very short time. This gives you an instrument that does exactly what you want, time after time, by using your stored setups and scripts. What can you do with a customized instrument? If you require a result that can be derived logically from the input waveform, you can do it.

  • Page 227: Number Of Samples, Calling Excel From Your Instrument, How To Select A Math Function Call

    Excel calculation. • To use this capability, you must have the LeCroy XMAP software option and Excel loaded in your instrument. Select Minimize from the instrument's File menu to access the Excel program directly.

  • Page 228: The Excel Control Dialog, Entering A File Name

    The Excel Control Dialog Once you have invoked an Excel call, you will see a dialog at the right of the screen, allowing you to control the zoom, Excel properties, linking cells, and scale of the output trace from Excel: Entering a File Name If you uncheck the New Sheet checkbox, you can enter the file name of an existing file.

  • Page 229: Organizing Excel Spreadsheets

    SDA Operator’s Manual Organizing Excel Spreadsheets The Cells tab allows you to organize your Excel chart. When placing the components in the sheet, be careful to avoid over-writing needed information, especially when you are using multiple input waveforms. As depicted here, the instrument panel has been pasted over the Excel Spreadsheet: There are three arrays of data for the three waveforms: up to two inputs and one output.

  • Page 230: Setting The Vertical Scale, Trace Descriptors, Multiple Inputs And Outputs

    Setting the Vertical Scale The vertical scale of the output waveform from Excel may be set in three ways: Automatic For each acquisition, the instrument fits the waveform into the grid. Manual For one acquisition, click Find Scale; the instrument fits the current waveform into the grid.

  • Page 231: Simple Excel Example 1

    SDA Operator’s Manual Because filling cells in the spreadsheet is a relatively slow process, all unwanted sources (inputs) should be left disabled (unchecked). For example, if you want one waveform and two parameters derived from the data of three waveforms, you can have one function with both sources enabled, one with one source enabled, and one with no sources enabled.

  • Page 232

    In this figure, the panel has been pasted onto the Excel sheet for comparison: SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 233

    SDA Operator’s Manual To get the output values in column C, we set C2 = - A2 and copy this formula down the column. This is the only action needed in Excel, and can be seen in the next figure: SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 234: Simple Excel Example 2

    Simple Excel Example 2 In this example we use Excel to invert or negate a waveform: The first figure shows a part of the instrument screen. The upper trace (C1) is the original signal. The lower trace (F1) is the result calculated in Excel and displayed on the screen. The input data is in columns A and B (though by default, only a single input/column is used), and the output is in column C.

  • Page 235

    SDA Operator’s Manual 2. Choose a function, and select ExcelMath as Operator1 for the function. Excel will open automatically in the background. 3. Choose File, Minimize from the menu bar to minimize the instrument display and open the Excel program. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 236

    4. Create your formula for each data point in column A (in this case, our formula for cell C2 is – A2, copied for the entire column), as shown here: 5. Retrigger the scope (if it is not currently triggering) 6.

  • Page 237

    SDA Operator’s Manual You can also create a chart of the data in Excel automatically and view the data there: Simply press the Add Chart button in the instrument's Excel dialog and a chart of the input (top chart) and Excel calculated output (bottom chart) will be automatically created in the spreadsheet. The chart will be updated automatically as the scope is triggered.

  • Page 238: Excel Example 1: Exponential Decay Time Constant Excel Parameter

    Excel Example 1: Exponential Decay Time Constant Excel Parameter This example calculates the time constant of an exponentially falling pulse, such as the light output of a phosphor. The first figure shows a typical pulse, including pseudo-random noise, generated by a VBScript: (1 –...

  • Page 239: Excel Example 2: Gated Parameter Using Excel

    SDA Operator’s Manual For the actual measurement, Parameter P1 was set up as an Excel call. In Excel, the selected portion of the trace was converted to logarithms, and the Excel function SLOPE was used, as shown here: Here we see the input data in column B (with a time scale in A) created using the contents of cell F9, Horizontal Per Step.

  • Page 240

    This figure shows the instrument screen: These traces were made using VBS scripts in functions F1 and F2, based on pseudo-random numbers to provide noise and varying pulse widths. Randomize Timer was used in both scripts ensuring successive acquisitions to produce different data. Script F1 generates pulses having widths that are multiples of a set clock period.

  • Page 241: How Does This Work

    SDA Operator’s Manual The next figure shows a part of the Excel workbook: Here we see the gated waveform that has been created in Excel. The Mean parameter during the region of interest (ROI) is placed in cell H3. How Does this Work? The amplitude of the signal is about 0.3 volts, and the screen height is 0.4 volts, as derived from cells F7 and Fx.

  • Page 242: Excel Example 3: Correlation Excel Waveform Function

    Excel Example 3: Correlation Excel Waveform Function This example uses an Excel waveform function to examine the cross-correlation between two signals, which are both noisy sinusoidal segments. The correlation trace is, of necessity, shorter than the input traces: The noise was generated using pseudo-random numbers. Randomize Timer was included in the VBScript to ensure that the two traces differed, and that subsequent acquisitions differed.

  • Page 243

    SDA Operator’s Manual This example used the CORREL (Array1, Array2) function of Excel, as depicted below: SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 244: Excel Example 4: Multiple Traces On One Grid

    Excel Example 4: Multiple Traces on One Grid This example shows how you can place multiple traces in one picture, with only two operations in an Excel sheet. Depicted below is an example from an Excel spreadsheet. Here is an original instrument trace: The method is very simple.

  • Page 245

    SDA Operator’s Manual The required Excel formula required is shown as follows: In fact, the simple expression B374 + 0.02 comprise several components. The original instrument trace is in column B, and the plot is required to start at cell B134. The traces repeat at intervals of 250 cells.

  • Page 246

    SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 247: Excel Example 5: Using A Surface Plot

    SDA Operator’s Manual Excel Example 5: Using a Surface Plot SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 248: Writing Vbscripts, Types Of Scripts In Vbs, Loading And Saving Vbscripts

    Writing VBScripts VBScripting is one of the custom features of your instrument. Others include the ability to work with programs such as Excel, Mathcad and MATLAB. Types of Scripts in VBS The instrument's VBS provides two types of script. 1. The Waveform Function script allows you to take the data from one or two traces and make a new trace whose values may depend on the values of the input trace.

  • Page 249

    SDA Operator’s Manual newArray(i) = ScaleFactor (unscaledData(i)) ^ 2 Next OutResult.DataArray(False) = newArray ' signed long integer data output Example Parameter Function Script: RMS of a waveform ' Example script to produce a parameter. ' This script calculates the root mean square ' of the input waveform.

  • Page 250

    If you try to set something outside the bounds of an array, or you make some other error, or something overflows, or you ask for something impossible, such as log(-13), the instrument tells you the line number, and the nature of the problem. Other types of error may not be given the correct line number, for example, if "Next"...

  • Page 251: The Default Parameter Function Script: Explanatory Notes

    SDA Operator’s Manual InResult.DataArray and OutResult.DataArray are only to be used as shown in the default scripts and in the example scripts: you cannot refer directly to individual elements of these arrays. You have to use your own arrays, in this example, unscaledData and newDataArray. You are not allowed to write statements like the following: Y = InResult.DataArray (17) OutResult.DataArray (257) = Z...

  • Page 252: Scripting With Vbscript, Variable Types

    newValueArray(i) = -scaledData(i)_' Change this to do something useful. Next OutResult.ValueArray = newValueArray 'only support raw data Your parameter script should include something like this: A. Do calculation to obtain your parameter value from the input data array. B. newValueDataArray (0) = ParameterValue C.

  • Page 253: Variable Names

    SDA Operator’s Manual Variable Names Upper and lower case have no significance in VBS, either in variable names or in keywords (the names reserved by the system), but it is a good idea to be consistent about the spelling of a variable name to avoid confusion.

  • Page 254: Arithmetic Operators

    Arithmetic Operators As with most other languages, the arithmetic operators are used as follows: Exponentiation A ^ B = A = A raised to the power B Division A / B = A divided by B Integer division A \ B = A divided by B, truncated to next integer below Multiplication A B = A multiplied by B...

  • Page 255: Vbs Controls

    SDA Operator’s Manual Order of Calculations Operations are performed in the following order: 1. Contents of brackets 2. Exponentiation 3. Division and multiplication 4. Addition and subtraction If there is any doubt as to how the calculation will be done, use brackets. These will also make the order of the calculations clear to any reader of the program, which is desirable if you are to give it to a customer, who will want to know what was intended.

  • Page 256

    If . . . Then . . . End If__ If . . . Then . . . Else . . . End If Select Case ..End Select While ..Wend Choose the construction that best satisfies the requirements of speed and clarity. The construction GoTo LabelledStatement is available in many languages, including VBA, but not in VBS.

  • Page 257: Summary Of If . . . . Then . . . . Else

    SDA Operator’s Manual Z = 17 Else_ Z = 31 End If Else_ If A > 3 Then Z = 63 Else Z = 127 End If End If If A > 0 Then If B > 0 Then Z = Y End If End If This is equivalent to:...

  • Page 258: Select Case, Summary Of Select Case . . . . End Select

    If you find that you are building up a rather complicated set of Ifs, you might want to consider the Select Case construction. Select Case This is a very powerful construction, which is also easy to understand when written out. It is best for Integers and Strings, where exact values are always obtained.

  • Page 259: While . . . Wend, For . . . Next

    SDA Operator’s Manual Loop While D <= Pi Do While Y >=Z AnyVBSCalculation Loop These constructions enable you to make the test before or after the calculation. If the test is made before, the calculation might not even be done one time (if the condition for terminating were already true).

  • Page 260: Vbs Keywords And Functions

    It is possible to make a For loop with steps greater than 1, as in the following example in which K takes the values 3, 7, 11, 15, ..83. For K = 3 To 82 Step 4 AnyVBScripting Next K You may place loops inside one another (nested loops), but they must all use different control...

  • Page 261: Other Vbs Words

    SDA Operator’s Manual Take the modulus of a value in terms of another value. On Error Take some action if an error occurs. Open a file. Open Send some ASCII data to a file. Print Send some data to a file. Randomize Randomize Timer re-seeds the pseudo-random number generator.

  • Page 262: Functions

    Functions These are mainly of the form C = F (A), where A is the argument, or input to the function. Abs (A) calculates the absolute value of an integer or a real number, so the result is always positive or zero. A can be any number in the range of the VB system.

  • Page 263: Hints And Tips For Vbscripting

    SDA Operator’s Manual Hints and Tips for VBScripting Set the trigger to Single or Stopped if you need to do a lot of editing: it is faster. Before starting a script, remove any existing scripts that you do not need. This is because errors in an existing script will give you error messages, even if your current script is perfect.

  • Page 264: Errors

    You can highlight a section of a trace by making the points alternately too high and too low by a suitable amount. Providing the memory length is not too short, the compaction algorithm will give the effect of a thicker trace. The lengths of the output trace and the input trace need not be the same.

  • Page 265

    SDA Operator’s Manual In the following example, the red trace has gone outside the allowed range at the beginning, resulting in the message at the bottom of the instrument screen: This array is fixed or temporarily locked: OutResult.DataArray. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 266: Error Handling, Speed Of Execution

    Error Handling Note that the construction OnError GoTo Label: is not allowed in VBS. In fact no GoTos or labels are allowed. Therefore there is no way for you to provide handlers to deal with errors and exceptions. You must be aware of all possibilities at all points in your program, and you must either be certain that errors will not occur, or you must take action to ensure that they do not.

  • Page 267: Scripting Ideas, Debugging Scripts

    SDA Operator’s Manual Y = Cos (XK) Sin (XK) Sqr (XK) OldXK = XK End If Next VBS runs slower than the "internal" calculations, because the scripts are interpreted. This could be serious for calculations where many operations are needed on each sample, such as convolution, correlation, and long digital filters.

  • Page 268: Horizontal Control Variables, Vertical Control Variables, List Of Variables Available To Scripts

    Horizontal Control Variables InResult.HorizontalOffset Double precision Time shift of input waveform on grid in units of horizontal scale OutResult.HorizontalOffset Double precision Time shift of output waveform on grid in units of horizontal scale InResult.HorizontalPerStep Double precision Time between successive samples in the input waveform Double precision Time between successive samples in the output OutResult.HorizontalPerSte...

  • Page 269: Communicating With Excel From A Vbscript

    SDA Operator’s Manual [out, retval] VARIANT pArray); DataArray([in, defaultvalue(TRUE)] BOOL arrayValuesScaled, [in, defaultvalue(LEC_ALL_DATA)] int numSamples, [in, defaultvalue(0)] int startIndex, [in, defaultvalue(1)] int sparsingFactor, [in] VARIANT array); HorizontalUnits([out, retval] BSTR pVal); HorizontalUnits([in] BSTR newVal); Samples([out, retval] int pVal); Samples([in] int newVal); HorizontalResolution([out, retval] double pVal);...

  • Page 270: Calling Matlab From The Instrument

    ExcelApp.ActiveSheet.Cells("ExcelRow + K, ExcelColumnA ") = - USD(K) Next Once the data are in Excel, any Excel functions can be applied to the data. The results can be returned to the VB script. For K = 0 To LastPoint NDA(K) = ExcelApp.ActiveSheet.Cells("ExcelRow + K, ExcelColumnB") Next Transferring data cell by cell is very slow, so it is better to do a block transfer.

  • Page 271: How To Select A Waveform Function Call

    SDA Operator’s Manual How to Select a Waveform Function Call The MATLAB Waveform functions are selected from the Select Math Operator menu. Please note that once you have clicked on "MATLAB Wave" there will be a slight pause before MATLAB starts.

  • Page 272: The Matlab Waveform Control Panel, Matlab Waveform Function Editor - Example

    The MATLAB Waveform Control Panel Once you have invoked a MATLAB waveform call, you will see the zoom dialog at the right of the screen. Touch the MATLAB tab to see a panel like this: Touch Find Scale to make your output fit the grid, or use the text boxes to choose a scale. MATLAB Waveform Function Editor - Example By touching Edit Code, you can reach the MATLAB Editor where you will see the default waveform function.

  • Page 273

    SDA Operator’s Manual This is the default waveform function, with one important change – the semi-colon (;) has been removed from the end of the line. If the semicolon is present, your function will run much faster, because the output values will not be shown in MATLAB Response. With a long waveform, the time needed to display it could be quite long.

  • Page 274: Matlab Example Waveform Plot, How To Select A Matlab Parameter Call

    MATLAB Example Waveform Plot If you touch the MATLAB Plot checkbox you will see a MATLAB plot like this one: How to Select a MATLAB Parameter Call Menu position for MATLAB parameter call in Select Measurement menu. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 275: The Matlab Parameter Control Panel, The Matlab Parameter Editor

    SDA Operator’s Manual The MATLAB Parameter Control Panel Once you have invoked a MATLAB parameter call, a mini-dialog to the right of the main dialog will appear: You can touch the MATLAB Plot checkbox if you want to see a plot in MATLAB as well as getting a result in the instrument.

  • Page 276: Matlab Example Parameter Panel

    If you are familiar with MATLAB you might prefer to launch MATLAB and create a MATLAB function that performs your task. Your program in the instrument could then be a one-line call of your MATLAB function. MATLAB Example Parameter Panel SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 277: More Examples Of Matlab Waveform Functions

    SDA Operator’s Manual The next example calculates the ratio of the number of data points that are above a given level to the number of points below the level, in this case one half of the amplitude. More Examples of MATLAB Waveform Functions Negating the input signal.

  • Page 278

    Squaring the input signal. Creating pulses from a sinusoid. Creating pulses at the zero crossings of the signal. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 279

    SDA Operator’s Manual Convolving two signals. SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 280: Creating Your Own Matlab Function

    Creating Your Own MATLAB Function The procedure is simple. Create a MATLAB function using any text editor, and save it as a MATLAB m-file by giving it a name of the form Filename.m. Call the function using the MATLAB math editor or the MATLAB parameter editor as appropriate. A simple example is shown below. function out = negatewf(wf1) % NEGATEWF changes the sign of all the data.

  • Page 281: Customdso, What Is Customdso, Invoking Customdso

    SDA Operator’s Manual CUSTOMDSO What is CustomDSO? CustomDSO, in its Basic mode, allows you to create DSO setups that can be called by the touch of a single button. The recalled setups can themselves include calls to other setups. A very simple example would be a toggle between two setups.

  • Page 282: Customdso Basic Mode, Editing A Customdso Setup File

    In the example used here, three setup files were made, called CustomA.lss, CustomB.lss and CustomC.lss. Fragments from all three are shown below. 1160 Set CustomDSO = XStreamDSO.CustomDSO 1161 ‘ CustomDSO Setup A.lss 1162 CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\A.lss” 1163 CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = False 1164 CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\B.lss” 1165 CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = True 1166 CustomDSO.ActionScript1 =...

  • Page 283: Creating A Customdso Setup File

    SDA Operator’s Manual 1163 CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = True 1164 CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\B.lss” 1165 CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = False 1166 CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\C.lss” 1167 CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = True 1168 CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\A.lss” 1169 CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = False 1160 CustomDSO = XStreamDSO.CustomDSO 1161 ‘ CustomDSO Setup C.lss 1162 CustomDSO.ActionScript1 =...

  • Page 284: Customdso Plugin Mode, Creating A Customdso Plugin

    ' Created by CustomDSO ... On Error Resume Next set dso = CreateObject("LeCroy.XStreamDSO.1") ' dso.Display.GridMode = "Dual" ' dso.Acquisition.C1.VerScale = 0.1 ' dso.Acquisition.Horizontal.HorScale = 1e-6 ' dso.Acquisition.TriggerMode = "Auto" You can add to this fragment any commands you need. CustomDSO PlugIn Mode This is the mode in which CustomDSO really shows its power.

  • Page 285: Properties Of The Control And Its Objects

    In the resulting code window, insert code to make the following subroutine: Private Sub AutoButton_Click() Dim app as Object Set app = CreateObject(“LeCroy.XStreamApplication”) app.Acquistion.TriggerMode = “Auto” End Sub Test the Component in Internet Explorer. (This is an optional, but very useful step, because you can test your work without installing anything in the instrument.) A.

  • Page 286

    In the next example you can see a command button, a picture box, a list box and a Tabbed Dialog Control. The Tabbed Control (arrow) is not in the basic tool box. To gain access to it, right click in the tool box at left (but not on an icon.) You will see this menu: SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 287

    SDA Operator’s Manual Now select the Microsoft Tabbed Control as shown below, and click on Apply. The control will be added into the toolbox at the left of the screen, where you can double click on it as usual. The new control is shown below (arrow). SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 288: Removing A Plugin

    The system is very versatile, and you can place controls on the tabs of the Tabbed Control. Look in the properties window to see how you can customize your tabs, illustrated as follows. Removing a PlugIn To remove a plug-in, click on Remove in the PlugIn dialog as follows: Close the CustomDSO dialog and then reopen it.

  • Page 289: Plugin Example 1: Exchanging Two Traces On The Grids

    Private Sub Command1_Click() Dim wm As Object Set wm = CreateObject("LeCroy.XStreamApplication") Set acq = wm.Acquisition ' To save typing Set mat = wm.Math ' To save typing Dim t(16) As Object ‘...

  • Page 290

    Text1.Text = TextString End Sub This routine exchanges the first two traces that it finds. You can make it exchange all the traces on a dual grid by changing the penultimate line to this - Loop Until trace = 12 The next figure shows the Visual Basic Screen just after the Text Box text has been set to “0”...

  • Page 291: Second Example Plugin: Log-log Fft Plot

    SDA Operator’s Manual Second Example PlugIn: Log-Log FFT Plot A frequent requirement is to plot a frequency spectrum on two logarithmic scales. The instrument provides a vertical scale, so CustomDSO has only to change the horizontal one. Here is an example.

  • Page 292

    Private Sub Command1_Click() Draw a DSO trace on a logarithmic horizontal scale. Dim WM As Object Set WM = CreateObject("LeCroy.XStreamApplication") Dim Samples As Long Samples = WM.Math.F1.Out.Result.Samples Samples = Samples - 1 ' Make it a round number. Calculate the horizontal scale.

  • Page 293: Control Variables In Customdso, Labnotebook, Introduction To Labnotebook, Preferences, Miscellaneous Settings

    SDA Operator’s Manual Here is an example showing a simple one-pole roll-off compared to a curve. Control Variables in CustomDSO The simplest way to select variables for use in CustomDSO is to use LeCroy’s X-Stream Browser. LABNOTEBOOK Introduction to LabNotebook LeCroy's LabNotebook feature extends the documentation capabilities of your scope.

  • Page 294: Hardcopy Setup, E-mail Setup, Creating A Notebook Entry

    Check the last box if you want to generate a notebook entry by simply touching the Hardcopy (Print) front panel button . By checking this box, you override any other configuration for this button; for example, send e-mail or output to printer. Hardcopy Setup Check the Use Print Colors checkbox to place your waveforms on a white background in the notebook entry.

  • Page 295

    SDA Operator’s Manual A dialog box is shown for providing a title and comments for the entry. By default, the entry is titled with the current date and time. 2. Touch inside the Title field and enter a title, using the pop-up keyboard. Then touch inside the Description field and enter a description, if desired, and touch Close.

  • Page 296

    After you touch Close, your text will appear on the display as a draggable object. These are the three default colors that you can select for shapes, lines, and text. To use additional colors, touch More. When you touch More, a Custom box opens with the default color yellow displayed.

  • Page 297

    SDA Operator’s Manual Then touch the color to enable it, and touch OK. The next object that you create will be in that color. If you want to erase a drawing object, touch it to select it, then touch Erase Selected.

  • Page 298: Recalling Notebook Entries

    Recalling Notebook Entries After a notebook entry is made, you can recall it at any time. The recall includes waveforms and scope settings. 1. Select the notebook entry from the list box. 2. Touch Flashback. 3. To exit Flashback, touch the Undo Flashback button in the top-right corner of the screen, or press the Auto trigger button.

  • Page 299: Creating A Report, Previewing A Report, Locating A Notebook Entry, Creating The Report

    SDA Operator’s Manual Creating a Report Once the notebook entry is created, you can easily generate a hardcopy report for e-mailing or printing. Previewing a Report Before creating a report, you can preview it by simply touching the View button .

  • Page 300: Formatting The Report

    If you select E-Mail, the report will be sent immediately to the e-mail address configured in Utilities Preferences. Formatting the Report LeCroy provides a default report format (template); however, you can use your own format, including company logo. 1. Touch the Advanced tab.

  • Page 301: Managing Notebook Entry Data, Adding Annotations, Deleting Notebook Entries, Saving Notebook Entries To A Folder

    SDA Operator’s Manual Managing Notebook Entry Data Adding Annotations You can add annotations to your notebook entry at any time. 1. Touch the "LabNotebook" tab. 2. Touch the notebook entry you want to annotate in the scroll list box. A new tab will appear bearing the name of the selected notebook entry.

  • Page 302: Starting A New Database, Processing Web Option

    Touch Compact to reduce the size of a database. This function "defragments" the notebook after a large amount of entries have been deleted. Insert a memory stick into a USB port, then touch Backup to send the database to the external media: Starting a New Database Touch the Start New button.

  • Page 303: Using The Web Editor

    SDA Operator’s Manual Another key feature of the Processing Web is that you can preview your waveform at any math or parameter node in the web. Math previews are thumbnail images of the waveform. For parameters, the statistic displayed is the value of the last acquisition. Once you have created a Processing Web setup, you can save and recall it for future use, the same as for any panel setup.

  • Page 304

    The parameter location you choose will display "Web Edit" under the waveform display grid: 3. Touch the Web Editor tab to return to the web setup dialog. The math and parameter locations you selected appear as outputs at the far right: You may have to scroll up or down to see it.

  • Page 305: Adding Parameters, Adding Previews, Exiting The Web Editor

    SDA Operator’s Manual (M1 to M4) as an input, drag a line to the math function in the same way as for channel inputs. Note: You can use a combination of channel input and memory input to your math function. 6.

  • Page 306: Viewing The Output, Serial Data Analyzer, Serial Data Analyzer Standard And Optional Capabilities, Sda Capabilities

    Viewing the Output 1. Touch Math in the menu bar, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu. 2. Touch the On checkbox for the function you want to view: SERIAL DATA ANALYZER Serial Data Analyzer Standard and Optional Capabilities The Serial Data Analyzer is an instrument designed to provide comprehensive measurement capabilities for evaluating serial digital signals.

  • Page 307: Sdm Capabilities, Asda-j Capabilities

    SDA Operator’s Manual SDM Capabilities The capabilities of option SDM are standard in the SDA, so it is not available for purchase for the SDA. This option is only available for the WaveMaster, WaveRunner 6000A Series, and WavePro 7000A Series of oscilloscopes. SDM adds eye pattern testing to these oscilloscopes. The option also adds other key components to the basic scope, including JTA2 with its TIE@lvl parameter.

  • Page 308

    AVAILABLE MEASUREMENTS SDA w/ ASDA- Single-Signal Measurements SDA (std.) SDM option Data Stream Mask testing w/ software PLL clock recovery Mask violation locator Jitter Rj, Dj, Tj, ISI, DCD (DDj), Filtered jitter ISI plot Edge-to-edge jitter Effective and MJSQ jitter breakdown Bit error testing with error map N-cycle jitter parameter (data)

  • Page 309: Jitter Wizard

    SDA Operator’s Manual STANDARD MODE Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-CX TX normalized/absolute, RX Gigabit Ethernet (optical long-haul) 1000Base- Gigabit Ethernet (optical short-haul) 1000Base- 10GBase-LX4 TX normalized Transmitter, receiver low, receiver high, cable test low, cable test high Fibrechannel (optical) FC2125, FC1063 TX normalized Fibrechannel (electrical) FC531, FC266, FC133 TX normalized, TX absolute, receiver IEEE1394b 400 beta TP2 absolute, 400 beta TP2...

  • Page 310

    The jitter wizard is accessed from the Analysis drop-down menu: SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 311

    SDA Operator’s Manual The initial dialog for the wizard gives you an overview of wizard operation. This dialog can be disabled after the first use of the wizard by checking the “Don’t show me this message again” checkbox. In this case, the dialog will not be displayed until the instrument is restarted. The remainder of the jitter setup wizard guides you through a series of dialogs that request input concerning the signal type and measurement method that is desired.

  • Page 312: Sda Basic Setup

    SDA Basic Setup Note: Many of the measurements in the SDA require both a high sampling rate and long memory to compute accurately. Verify that you are in two channel mode (20 GS/s) and that at least 400k samples are being captured before performing any SDA measurements.

  • Page 313

    SDA Operator’s Manual 3. There are two crossing-level controls in the SDA main dialog: one for the data signal under test and another for the reference clock (if the Recover clock checkbox is unchecked). The crossing time used by both the jitter and eye pattern measurements is determined as the absolute time at which the signal level crosses the selected threshold.

  • Page 314

    6. The Pattern Length (number of bits in the pattern) control sets the repetition length of the data pattern in the signal under test. Serial data signals generally transmit a repeating data pattern of some sort. For example a PRBS7 pattern repeats every 127 bits while a K28.5 repeats every 20 bits.

  • Page 315: Pll Setup

    SDA Operator’s Manual PLL Setup The "PLL Settings" dialog contains the controls to set the type and bandwidth of the digital PLL used in the jitter, eye pattern, and bit error rate tests. The PLL bandwidth limits the response of the recovered clock to high rate variations in the data rate.

  • Page 316

    The second order PLL allows the selection of the natural frequency and damping factor. The damping factor determines the transient behavior of the phase locked loop and is variable from 2 to 0.5. A damping factor above 0.707 results in an under-damped response in which the PLL over-corrects to a sudden change in frequency, but reacts quicker to the change.

  • Page 317: Summary, Mask Test

    SDA Operator’s Manual The default value of 1667 is the industry standard for a "Golden PLL" and equals the ratio of the Bit Rate to the PLL Cutoff frequency. The PLL Cutoff frequency control reads the frequency corresponding to the Cutoff Divisor. Alternatively, the PLL Cutoff frequency may be entered and the nearest cutoff divisor will be computed from this entry.

  • Page 318: Eye Setup

    Eye Setup The PLL must be set up or an appropriate external clock must be supplied in order for the mask test function to operate. 1. Touch the Mask Test button. The "Eye Diagram" dialog opens. 2. Touch inside the Mode field and select either Sequential or Traditional from the pop-up menu:...

  • Page 319: Mask Margin

    SDA Operator’s Manual The measurements made for each parameter set are as follows: ehght(Eye) Size of the vertical opening of the eye diagram. This parameter is Amplitude defined as: (mean ones level - 3) - (mean zero level + 3) one(Eye) Logic one level of an eye diagram.

  • Page 320: Testing, Bit Error Rate - Asda-j Option Only

    Testing 1. Touch the Mask Violation Locator tab to display the mask testing dialog 2. Touch the On checkbox to begin testing the signal bits against the selected mask. 3. ASDA-J option only: Failed bits are displayed in a table and as a waveform in the lower grid. The scale of the lower grid in which the failed bit waveform is set by the Bits in Locator field.

  • Page 321

    SDA Operator’s Manual 5. Touch the Show Error Map checkbox to enable a display of the error map. The error map displays bit errors in a three-dimensional display, with errors shown in white and correct bits in dark gray. The display is a 2-color surface map with frame number in the Y direction and bit number in the X direction.

  • Page 322: Serial Trigger Setup

    Serial Trigger Setup The serial trigger dialog is accessible from two different menus. • By touching the Trigger descriptor label , then the Serial Trigger button , you can access the trigger phase locked loop and set the data pattern on which to trigger: •...

  • Page 323: Pll Locking, Setting The Data Pattern

    SDA Operator’s Manual PLL Locking The PLL in the serial trigger module must be locked for the trigger to operate. Locking is indicated by the closed padlock icon . The icon becomes an open padlock and flashes when the PLL is not locked.

  • Page 324

    A group of buttons is provided to quickly set the pattern to all 1s, all 0s, or all Xs. And a fourth button is provided to invert the entire data pattern: Example Bit Pattern and Resulting Waveform SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 325: Storing And Recalling Serial Data Patterns Into The Trigger, Using The Serial Pattern Trigger

    SDA Operator’s Manual Storing and Recalling Serial Data Patterns into the Trigger It is often convenient to save frequently used trigger patterns in a file so that you do not have to repeatedly reenter them. The serial trigger pattern is also stored in the setup file whenever you save the panel file through the File Save Setup dialog.

  • Page 326

    The SDA measures jitter by determining the timing error between the edge crossings of the data signal under test and a reference clock, which can be derived either from the data or an external clock. The measurement can also be performed directly relative to the edges of the external clock.

  • Page 327

    SDA Operator’s Manual SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 328

    SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 329: Sda Dbi Controls, Sda 13000/11000/9000 Dbi Controls

    The SDA 18000/13000/11000/9000 oscilloscopes achieve higher bandwidth and sample rate 00/11000/9000 oscilloscopes achieve higher bandwidth and sample rate using an innovative LeCroy technology called Digital Bandwidth Interleaving (DBI). This using an innovative LeCroy technology called Digital Bandwidth Interleaving (DBI). This...

  • Page 330: Vertical Noise Calibration, Running The Script

    Vertical Noise Calibration Your SDA contains a script (.irt) to calibrate vertical noise. The script runs in LeCroy's X-Replay environment, which is launched automatically when you open the script. By means of the script, the SDA accounts for vertical noise when calculating jitter. This feature applies only in Jitter mode.

  • Page 331: Using Noise Compensation

    SDA Operator’s Manual 3. In the X-Replay toolbar, touch the Start a New Session button 4. Enter any pertinent information in the "Session Info" dialog box if desired, and touch OK. 5. A "Required connections" dialog box opens, which prompts you to detach any probes connected to the scope.

  • Page 332: Jitter Measurements

    4. Touch the Compensate checkbox to enable noise compensation, then the Find Noise Level button. The value displayed under "Instrument Noise" is for the active channel at the current volts/div setting. If you change channels or volts/div, press the Find Noise Level button again: Jitter Measurements Tj Total jitter at a specific BER.

  • Page 333: Pj Breakdown, Alternate Jitter Breakdown Methods (option Asda-j Only), Effective Jitter

    SDA Operator’s Manual DCD Duty Cycle Distortion is the mean difference between the width of positive going pulses (low to high to low) and negative going pulses (high to low to high) measured over all pulses in the acquired waveform. The widths are measured at the same amplitude as specified for TIE (i.e., not necessarily at 50% of the signal amplitude).

  • Page 334

    EffeRj Effective Random Jitter is one of the two constants used to estimate the function Tj(BER) for very low BER. Rje is obtained through the analysis of the growth of the extrapolated histogram of TIE as a function of BER, fitting the form: Tj(BER) = Dje + Tj (BER)Rje (sigma=1)

  • Page 335: Mjsq Jitter

    SDA Operator’s Manual MJSQ Jitter The other method of determining the random and deterministic components is based on the procedure described in the Fibrechannel MJSQ (Methods for Jitter and Signal Quality) document. This method is similar to the effective jitter described above except that it operates directly on the jitter probability density function (pdf).

  • Page 336: Bathtub Curve

    Bathtub Curve The bathtub curve is the integral of the jitter probability density function (PDF – derived by normalizing the extrapolated TIE histogram - see the Theory section) for all possible sampling points within one unit interval (UI). The right side of the bathtub curve is the integral of the jitter pdf from approximately -1/2 of a UI to zero and the left side is the integral from +1/2 of a UI to zero, where the jitter PDF is centered about zero, and zero is defined as the ideal crossing time of a bit.

  • Page 337: Jitter Filter, Tie Histogram

    SDA Operator’s Manual Jitter Filter The jitter filter is a band-pass filter that is applied to the TIE-vs.-time data measured on the signal under test. The filtered waveform of the trend of TIE over time is displayed in the waveform grid when Filtered Jitter is selected.

  • Page 338: Ddj (synchronous N-cycle Plot)

    The TIE histogram shows the measured jitter distribution that is the source for the bathtub curve and total jitter parameter. 1. Touch the Jitter Histogram button. The histogram will be displayed in the center of the bathtub curve. 2. Touch the Bathtub button to toggle the histogram display off. DDJ (Synchronous N-Cycle Plot) The DDj (data dependent jitter) is measured on the data stream when the Conventional jitter breakdown method is selected.

  • Page 339: Ddj (isi Plot) – Asda-j Option Only

    SDA Operator’s Manual 3. Note the change in the DDj measured value. 4. Touch the ISI Edge-Edge tab. A. Touch the Detect Pattern button to find the pattern and length. Normally this is done automatically when the signal is set up in the SDA main menu. The Patt. Length control in the SDA main dialog indicates the repetition length of the pattern.

  • Page 340

    1. Select “ISI Plot” in the DDj Calc. Method control for a random pattern (available only for Edge-Ref jitter method). This control is only available with the ASDA-J option. 2. Touch the ISI button; the ISI plot will be displayed. 3.

  • Page 341: Edge-to-edge Basic Setup

    SDA Operator’s Manual Edge-to-Edge Basic Setup The ASDA-J option adds a second measurement mode defined as edge-to-edge. In this mode, all jitter measurements are made between adjacent edges of the data pattern and no reference clock is used. Only jitter measurements are available in this mode, so the mask test, bit error rate, and summary buttons are inactive when the Edge-Edge mode is selected.

  • Page 342: Edge-edge Jitter Measurements

    6. The Pattern Length control sets the repetition length of the data pattern in the signal under test. Serial data signals generally transmit a repeating data pattern of some sort. For example a PRBS7 pattern repeats every 127 bits while a K28.5 repeats every 20 bits. Enter the pattern length in the Pattern Length control.

  • Page 343

    SDA Operator’s Manual The SDA measures jitter by determining the timing between the edge crossings of the data signal under test and comparing these measurements with the nominal unit interval (UI). A flow diagram of the edge to edge jitter measurement is shown below. The total jitter is derived from the histogram of timing error measurements.

  • Page 344

    Tj Total jitter at a specific BER. The value is determined by the width of the curve expressing the confidence limits of the extrapolated TIE histogram. The value represents the expected range of values observed for a number of observed measurements equal to 1/BER.

  • Page 345: Edge-edge Jitter Measurement Controls, Adjust Rj, Async N Cycle Plot, Edge-edge Spacing Controls

    SDA Operator’s Manual Edge-Edge Jitter Measurement Controls Adjust Rj The TIE measurements in the edge-to-edge mode are measured by determining the timing between transitions of the data signal and comparing this to the nominal UI. The measurement is essentially the difference between two random values (the location of each transition in time). The random part of this TIE measurement (random jitter) is the sum of the random jitter values from each of the two edges and, as a result, is larger by a factor of the square root of 2 compared to the actual TIE (measured relative to a reference).

  • Page 346: Sda Function Reference

    SDA FUNCTION REFERENCE There are several specialized math functions that appear in the SDA math menu. These functions make up the building blocks of the SDA jitter and eye pattern measurements and are available from the Select Math Operator menu. The following table presents an overview. AltNcycle Alternate N-cycle jitter plot - this function displays a plot of the standard deviation of the jitter for all edges...

  • Page 347: Altncycle

    SDA Operator’s Manual AltNcycle Timing of the transitions in the data waveform is measured for each transition and plotted as a function of the number of unit intervals over which the timing is measured. The “N-Cycle” dialog is used to control how this measurement is performed, and the diagram and table below describe the function in detail.

  • Page 348: Altncycle Control Summary

    AltNcycle Control Summary Control Values Description Synch to pattern On/off Synchronizes the measurement to a repeating data pattern (if present) in the signal when this control is checked. The timing is measured between the first transition in the pattern and each subsequent transition.

  • Page 349

    SDA Operator’s Manual Control Values Description Find Pattern Pressing this button searches the signal for a repeating pattern and loads it into the function when it is found. The Length (UI) and Tx dens. controls are then updated. Invert Pattern On/off Checking this box inverts the found pattern bit by bit.

  • Page 350

    Htie to BER This function takes as an input a histogram and converts it to one of 6 output waveforms. Normally, the histogram contains a set of time interval error (TIE) measurements from which a total jitter measurement is desired. The histogram should have a population of at least 100k and a minimum of 500 bins.

  • Page 351

    SDA Operator’s Manual Control Values Description Total Jitter The total jitter curve which, shows the cumulative probability of an edge being greater (right-hand side) or less (left-hand side) than its nominal location in the center. The total jitter at a particular bit error rate is measured from the width of this curve at the desired bit error rate given by the vertical location over which the width is measured.

  • Page 352: Jitter Filter Function

    Jitter Filter Function The jitter filter function generates a time sequence of jitter measurements that are filtered by the selected band-pass filter. Low-pass and high-pass frequencies are set in the function’s menu. You must enter the bit frequency (data rate) to set the sampling rate for the digital filter. This function is only valid when operating on the TIETrend trace generated by the SDA.

  • Page 353: Slice2persist

    SDA Operator’s Manual Slice2Persist Note: This function can only be used in the Web Edit mode, available with the XWEB option. The Include virtual edges checkbox must be checked in the TIE@lvl parameter dialog to include both transition and non-transition edges in the eye pattern.

  • Page 354

    The Slice2Persist function takes as its input a data waveform and a clock signal. The clock must consist of a sequence of time values that increase at the nominal unit interval for each successive sample. For example, a 2.5 Gb/s bit stream should have a clock input consisting of the numbers 0, 4e-10, 8e-10, 12e-10, …, which increase at a 400 ps per UI rate.

  • Page 355: Multi-eye Measurements, Overview Of Multi-eye Measurement Tools

    SDA Operator’s Manual Frequency 100 kHz to 4.5 GHz The bit rate of the signal under test. This number can also be set to a sub-multiple of the bit rate to show more than one eye. For example, 2.5 GHz will show one eye of a 2.5 Gb/s signal while setting the control to 1.25 GHz will display two eyes.

  • Page 356: Setup And Installation, Multi-eye Setup And Installation

    Transition Mode Display Setup and Installation Multi-Eye Setup and Installation The Multi Eye Measurement Tool does not require any additional software installation, as it is fully integrated into the SDA software. However, depending on the specific mode of operation selected, each of the three new modes of operation requires distinct instrument and channel setups.

  • Page 357: Example Setups

    SDA Operator’s Manual Example Setups FSB Eye Mode Configuration  Channel Setup  • DataStrobep: Channel 1 (M1) • DataStroben: Channel 2 (M2) • Data1: Channel 3 (M3) • Data2: Channel 4 (M4) Serial Data Analysis Setup  1. Select Signal Type: FSB 533MHz, 667MHz or 800MHz 2. Uncheck Recover Clock - No clock recovery is required in FSB case 3.

  • Page 358

    Eye Diagram Setup and Measurements  1. Select Mask for each Eye Diagram - Depending on the Standard selected, there may be one or several types of serial data masks available. 2. Select a Mask Margin (as % of the nominal mask size) if desired. 3.

  • Page 359: Front Side Bus (fsb), Introduction To Fsb

    SDA Operator’s Manual Mask Test (Mask Violation Locator) Setup  1. Select the "Mask Violation Locator" tab. 2. Check the Testing On checkbox to detect mask violations. 3. Check the Show Location checkbox to select display of bits where mask violations occur. 4. Check the Stop on Error checkbox after N Failures. Mask Violation Setup Front Side Bus (FSB) Introduction to FSB...

  • Page 360: Fsb Theory Of Operation

    FSB Theory of Operation There are three sub-buses in the FSB: data bus, address bus, and common clock bus. All these buses are bidirectional; information can flow in either direction. The direction of the bit flow will be determined by the relative position of the high-to-low transition in the strobe pins (address, data or clock) when simultaneously probed at both ends of the applicable bus.

  • Page 361

    SDA Operator’s Manual Address Bus Characteristics (Refer to Figure): • During every period of BCLK, 2 bits are sent or there's an idle state (high voltage on both strobes and relevant data). • Bit transfers occur in double multiples of bits only (2, 4, 6…). •...

  • Page 362

    Common Clock Bus Characteristics (Refer to Figure) • During every period of BCLK, 1 bit is sent or there's an idle state meaning high voltage on the signal. • BCLK is a differential signal. Common Clock Bus Timing Diagram © Intel Corporation SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 363: Transition/non-transition Eye Diagram

    SDA Operator’s Manual Transition/Non-Transition Eye Diagram A dual display eye diagram is formed with bits that are of non-changing polarity (non-transition) and changing polarity (transition). This display mode is useful for those serial data standards that utilize mask testing for both types of bit sequences (PCI Express and FB-DIMM Point to Point). Transition Mode For example, Section 4.3.3.1 of PCI Express Specification defines the requirements for Transition and Non-transition eye diagrams:...

  • Page 364: Gated (qualified) Eye Diagram

    Gated (Qualified) Eye Diagram The Gated Eye Diagram mode utilizes a separate signal (the “Gate” or qualifier) to create dual eye diagrams based on the polarity of the Gate. Here’s an example of a gated eye diagram. Channel 1 (M1) contains the raw data and Channel 2 (M2) contains a Gate signal.

  • Page 365: Sda Theory, Clock Recovery

    SDA Operator’s Manual The following is the Eye diagram resulting from applying the Gate signal. When the Gate is high, the bit data goes to one eye diagram. When the Gate is low, data goes to the other eye. Gated Eye Diagram Example SDA THEORY The SDA operates by processing a long signal acquisition.

  • Page 366

    The first step in creating a clock signal is the creation of a digital phase detector. This is simply a software component that measures the location in time at which the signal crosses a given threshold value. Given the maximum sampling rate available, 20 GHz, interpolation is necessary in most cases.

  • Page 367

    SDA Operator’s Manual As shown in Figure 2, the initial output and the output of the digital phase detector are set to zero. The next time value output is equal to the nominal data rate. This value is fed back to the comparator on the far left which compares this time value to the measured time of the next data edge from the digital phase detector.

  • Page 368: Eye Pattern

    Eye Pattern Figure 3. Histogram of Zero Crossing in Eye Pattern Showing Jitter Distribution An eye diagram shows all values a digital signal takes on during a bit period. A bit period (or UI) is defined by the data clock, so some sort of data clock is needed to measure the eye pattern. The traditional method of generating an eye pattern involves acquiring data on an oscilloscope and using the data clock as a trigger.

  • Page 369: Eye Violation Locator (asda Option)

    SDA Operator’s Manual The SDA measures eye patterns without using a trigger by using aforementioned the software clock recovery to divide the data record into segments along the time values of the clock. For the purpose of dividing the timeline into segments, the time resolution in the waveform record is infinite.

  • Page 370: Eye Pattern Measurements, Eye Amplitude

    Eye Pattern Measurements There are several important measurements that are made on eye patterns. These are specified as required tests for many standards. Eye measurements mainly deal with amplitude and timing, which are outlined as follows: Eye Amplitude Eye amplitude is a measure of the amplitude of the data signal. The measurement is made using the distribution of amplitude values in a region near the center of the eye (normally 20% of the distance between the zero crossing times).

  • Page 371: Eye Height, Eye Width, Extinction Ratio, Eye Crossing, Average Power

    SDA Operator’s Manual Eye Height The eye height is a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio of a signal. The mean of the “0” level is subtracted from the mean of the “1” level as in the eye amplitude measurement. This number is modified by subtracting the standard deviation of both the “1”...

  • Page 372: Eyeber

    Q Factor or BER The Q factor is a measure of the overall signal-to-noise ratio of the data signal. It is computed by taking the eye amplitude (the difference between the mean values of the "1" and "0" levels) and dividing it by the sum of the noise values (standard deviations of the "1"...

  • Page 373: Jitter Measurement

    SDA Operator’s Manual Jitter Measurement Jitter is measured by the relative variation in the location in time of the transitions of the signal level across a specific level. For clock signals, the relative time between threshold crossings (rising-to-rising or falling-to-falling) is measured. Data signals, on the other hand, generally require the measurement of the relative positioning of the data signal to the sampling clock, which is related to setup and hold time.

  • Page 374

    Equation 1 is a heuristic that describes total jitter as a function of bit error rate (BER) and is related to a distribution consisting of a Gaussian convolved with a pair of impulses as shown in Figure 7. The constants Rj and Dj represent all of the components of random and deterministic jitter.

  • Page 375: Bit Error Rate And Jitter, Total Jitter

    SDA Operator’s Manual Bit Error Rate and Jitter Equation 1 shows that the total jitter is a function of bit error rate. This relationship is based on the effect that jitter has on the bit error rate of a system. The bit error rate is influenced by other parameters of the system, such as noise, so it is not correct to say that BER and jitter are equivalent.

  • Page 376

    Figure 9, gives the total probability of an edge being greater than t (or less than -t). The contribution to the system BER by jitter is given by the probability that an edge occurs at a time greater than t as we mentioned earlier. In order to guarantee a BER contribution from jitter below a certain value, the positive and negative values of t are chosen so that the probability of an edge at a time greater and less than these times is equal to the desired bit error rate.

  • Page 377: Extrapolating The Pdf

    SDA Operator’s Manual Figure 10. The bathtub curve is constructed by rescaling the total jitter curve in Figure 9 to one unit interval, and centering the right side of the total jitter curve at 0 UI and the left side at 1 UI (the left and right sides of the bathtub curve).

  • Page 378

    Figure 11: The measured histogram of TIE values is extrapolated by fitting curves to the bins below the 10th and above the 90th percentile. The log of the histogram is used to simplify this process to a quadratic fit. Figure 12: Logarithm of the measured TIE histogram superimposed on the extrapolated curve (in yellow).

  • Page 379: Separating Rj And Dj – Two Methods, Effective Random And Deterministic Jitter

    SDA Operator’s Manual A smaller data set is extrapolated in order to estimate the data for the larger sample size. The extrapolation of the measured histogram of TIE values uses the random nature of jitter at the extremes of the histogram to extrapolate the bins below the 10th percentile and above the 90th percentile.

  • Page 380: Direct Measurement Of Deterministic Jitter

    Figure 13. The change in total jitter with BER is represented by the values Tjn in the total jitter curve on the left. These values are plotted vs. bit error rate in the upper line in the chart on the right while the lower line shows the variation vs.

  • Page 381

    SDA Operator’s Manual When DDj Calc. Method is set to ISI Plot, the SDA uses a patent-pending method to measure both forms of data dependent jitter. The method uses the history of a number of bits in the waveform to determine their effect on the transition of a given bit. A user-selectable number of bits (from 3 to 10) is used in the measurement.

  • Page 382: Comparing Models

    Comparing Models The plot in Figure 15 shows the bathtub curves for the measured values, as well as both estimates. Viewed in this way, it is clear why both the effective and direct measurements for Rj and Dj are used. Both estimates arrive at the same total jitter at the specified BER (10-12 in this case) but they give different values of Tj at other BER values.

  • Page 383: Bit Error Rate, Bit Error Map

    SDA Operator’s Manual Bit Error Rate The SDA measures bit error rate directly on the captured bit stream by using the recovered clock to sample the waveform, and a user selectable threshold. The data are assumed to be NRZ so a high level is interpreted as a “1”...

  • Page 384

    Figure 16. Bit Error Map for 127-Bit Pattern Containing Random Errors (White Squares) Figure 17. Bit Error Map for 127-Bit Pattern Containing Pattern Dependent Errors SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 385: Vertical Noise Compensation, Introduction, Signal Slew Rate And How Vertical Noise Converts To Jitter

    SDA Operator’s Manual Vertical Noise Compensation Introduction Jitter is a measure of the timing error of data or clock signal transitions. The error is determined by measuring the time at which the signal crosses a given amplitude level and comparing it to the “expected”...

  • Page 386: The Relative Impact Of Noise On Jitter (quadratic Addition Of Noise)

    Rj figure can be reported. As such, the LeCroy SDA software has been equipped to perform this compensation, and applies it to the Rj figure and not the Dj figure; however, the corresponding effect on Tj is reported as well.

  • Page 387: Interpretation Of Tie Histogram – The Distribution Of Edge Transition Times Vs. Ideal Expected) Transition Times

    SDA Operator’s Manual Interpretation of TIE Histogram – the Distribution of Edge Transition Times vs. Ideal (Expected) Transition Times For the purposes of this discussion (in connection with jitter measurement ) the entire subject surrounds the matter of interpreting the observed distribution of timing errors. This observed distribution is the histogram of Time Interval Error (TIE) values, obtained through analysis of either clock or NRZ data waveforms acquired by a digital recording instrument (such as a digital oscilloscope).

  • Page 388: Integrating The Pdfs

    For this case (jitter) the observed distribution is the histogram of time interval error (TIE) values, obtained through analysis of either clock or NRZ data waveforms acquired by a digital recording instrument (like a digital oscilloscope). Integrating the PDFs The Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF or c.d.f.) expresses the probability that an observation will fall between and the value x.

  • Page 389: Extrapolation Of The Distribution Tails (extremes)

    Extrapolation of the Distribution Tails (Extremes) Historical Note: Before this approach was taken by LeCroy, the extrapolation was applied to the histogram tails, whereas now the extrapolation is applied to the EDF; in fact, to each half of the EDF, as previously described.

  • Page 390: The Relationship Between The Inverse Error Function And Total Jitter

    The following figure ca n help to put the general shapes of these functions in perspective. In particular, rememb er not to confu se the complementary error function (erfc) with the inverse error function (erf The Relationship between the Inverse Error Function and Total Jitter It is noteworthy that the inverse error function has no closed analytical form.

  • Page 391: Application Of Error Function To Measured Jitter Cdf (on Q-scale)

    This is the ratio of transitions between bit values to the total number of bits (so upper bounded by 1) but normally about 0.5 for standard test patterns and, in particular, for PRBS patterns. See white paper from LeCroy on this subject.

  • Page 392

    The reason this is such an interesting (and thus preferred) representation for the CDF and EDF is that on this scale the CDF of a Gaussian PDF is a straight line. When the CDF or EDF is o f the modified symmetric form, then their graphs appear as the upper lines of a triangle.

  • Page 393: Automatic Renormalization Of The Q-scale

    SDA Operator’s Manual Automatic Renormalization of the Q-scale This is the heart of the (patent pending) method for analysis of EDF, yielding best estimates of the underlying PDFs defining the measured system’s behavior. The procedure is straightforward: create the symmetric EDF for each side of the distribution. The method can be described in steps as: 1.

  • Page 394

    SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 395

    SDA Operator’s Manual SDA-OM-E Rev H...

  • Page 396: Obtaining Deterministic And Random (gaussian) Components From The Normalized Q-scale Diagram

    Obtaining Deterministic and Random (Gaussian) Components from the Normalized Q-scale Diagram While there are detailed differences between this and other approaches for obtaining Rj and Dj, the most important figure we need to establish is total Jitter. Referring roughly back to the heuristic jitter equation, we rewrite this as: Where Dj is the separation between the two means of the distributions.

  • Page 397

    SDA Operator’s Manual If the distribution is governed by only two Gaussians of equal weight, this equation degenerates into And if, in addition, the two Gaussians have the same sigma (or Rj), then This equation is disturbingly different from This is because in the traditional Dual-Dirac discussion, we typically “forget” that the two Gaussians are only half-strength.


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